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Full text of "History of the University of North Carolina"

The 

Howell Collection 

OF HISTORICAL 
MATERIALS 



Presented by Kay Kyser 

And his Mother 

Emily Royster Howell Kyser 

As a Memorial 

To her Brother 

Edward Vernon Howell 

Dean School of Pharmacy 

1897-1931 



THE UNIVERSITY 

OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

LIBRARY 

C378 v.l 

UE1 c.9 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
NORTH CAROLINA COLLE< 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/historyofuniversOObatt 



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HISTORY 



OF THE 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



FROM ITS BEGINNING TO THE DEATH OF 
PRESIDENT SWAIN, 1789-1868 



BY 

KEMP P. BATTLE, 

ALUMNI PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY 



VOLUME I. 

TO BE FOLLOWED BY VOLUME II, BRINGING THE HISTORY TO THE 

PRESENT TIME 



*fc 



PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR BY 

Edwards & Brocghton Printing Company. Raleigh, N. C. 
1907 



Copyright, 1907, 
By Kemp P. Battle. 



to the memory of 

my father and mother, who 

instilled into my brain and heart from 

earliest boyhood 

pride in and affection for my alma mater, 

this book is lovingly dedicated. 

Kemp Plummer Battle. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This history was written amid many interruptions. Some- 
times long intervals elapsed before the pen could be resumed. 
I certainly aimed at accuracy. If there is any failure in this 
regard it is accidental. Similar disturbances during the im- 
portant process of proof-reading caused errors, but they do not 
obscure the meaning. The book is larger than I expected, and 
hence some of the half-tones prepared for this volume will be 
reserved for its successor. Except where absolutely necessary 
for true portraiture, I have carefully refrained from wounding 
the feelings of any one. 

It may be said that I have dwelt too much on the pranks and 
frolics of students. My reason for detailing them is that they 
show, first, the social habits of the people generally, because the 
University is a microcosm of the State, and, second, they were 
largely caused by the defective system of discipline. 

I have endeavored to follow the careers in after-life of the 
honor men. It will be seen that a common belief that success 
at the University is no indication of success afterwards is alto- 
gether erroneous. I have endeavored also to note distinctions 
won by any who did not attain honors. In the Appendix, as 
far as our records show, the positions, however humble, held 
by our alumni in the Confederate Army, are given. 

It may be objected that the subjects of the speeches by gradu- 
ates unnecessarily encumber the volume. My reasons for re- 
cording them are, ist, that they show what the students were 
thinking about, and, 2d, that the students of the present and 
future may have a treasure-house of themes, which may aid 
them in solving the difficult question, "what must I write 
about?" 

I acknowledge with the deepest gratitude my obligations to 
Professor Collier Cobb, for aid in obtaining the faithful 
half-tones which grace the book, to Dr. J. G. deR. Hamil- 
ton, for the preparation of the very laborious and thorough 
index, and to Dr. C. L. Raper, for assistance in reading proofs 
of the first part of the volume. 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

One fact, not appearing on any record at Chapel Hill, has 
come to my knowledge since the volume was printed, that the 
Delta Psi Fraternity, with a large membership, was in the Uni- 
versity from 1854 until some time during the war. I will be 
glad if all who may notice such derelictions will notify me of 
the same. I promise to give the proper corrections in the 
second volume. 

I further express my thanks to the Honorable Board of 
Trustees for giving me free access to the University archives. 
I have explored them industriously, and used them with pains- 
taking endeavor to be accurate. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter I to p. 136. 

Constitution of 1776 and Charter of 
1789 — The Trustees, First meetings — Lo- 
cation of Site — donors — Laying Corner- 
tone — Sale of Chapel Hill lots — Mc- 
^orckle's Plan of Studies; Dr. Ker, 
Presiding Professor; Opening day — 
Hinton James, the first student; Charles 
W. Harris, Professor of Mathematics; 
First Public Examination; Grammar 
School: The Literary Societies; The 
Pettigrew Letters; Davie's Plan of 
Education; By-Laws; Coming of Joseph 
aldwell as Professor of Mathematics; 
His first impressions of the State and 
Jniversity. Resignation and career of 
Dr. Ker; Harris, his successor; His 
Resignation and career. Caldwell suc- 
ceeds, gives place to Gillaspie; Exami- 
nation of 1797. Early donations: Gov- 
rnor Benjamin Smith, General Thomas 
3 erson, Major Gerrard ; Subscriptions; 
iOtteries; Gifts by Ladies of Newbern 
nd Raleigh. 

Chapter II to p. 230. 

Gift of confiscated Property by the 
General Assembly; Extremely unpopu- 
ar; Repealed and Escheats also taken 
way; Xewspaper attacks on the Uni- 
■ersity and defence by Caldwell; His 
lefence of State institutions; Receipts 
rom restored Escheats; First Graduate.? 
798; Disorders under Gillaspie; Strict- 
ures on Professor Holmes; Retirement 
f Gillaspie; Caldwell again Presiding; 
Graduates of 1799: of 1800; Professor 
L D. Murphey; Graduates of 1801; 
'rofessor Win. Bingham; Graduates of 
802; 1803; 1804; Recollections of Dr. 
fan. Hooper: Caldwell elected President 
804; Graduates of 1805; Davie leaves 



the State; his Farewell Letter; Furthei 
Recollections of Dr. Hooper; Graduates 
of 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809: Abner W. 
Clopton; Graduates of 1810; Diploma 
of Dr. David Caldwell;. Graduates of 
1811, 1812: By-Laws; The early Stew- 
ards: Behavior of Old-time Students; A 
Duel, others threatened; Col. Polk's 
strong denunciation of them; Orgies of 
22d February; The Rebellion against the 
Monitor law: The great Secession; Cald- 
well's Allegory; Letters of Chambers 
and Conner: Davie's letter on the sub- 
ject; Faculty firm for subordination; 
students quail on another question. 
Sayings and incidents of a comical 
nature. 

Chapter III to p. 324. 

Dr. Chapman, President; Caldwell, 
Professor of Mathematics; Difficulties 
with students; The Shepard Rebellion; 
Chapman resigns, 1816, His Career; 
Caldwell again President; Graduates of 
1813, 1814, 1815; Commencement Exer- 
cises, 1816; Mitchell, Olmsted and 
Kolloch Professors; Sketches of Mitchell 
and Kolloch: Enlarged Curriculum; 
Letters of Students; Uniform; The Vil- 
lage, Moseley's description; Conduct of 
Students; Amendments to Charter; Old 
East enlarged, OL. West built; Gerrard 
Hall begun; End of Grammar School; 
Commencement of 1820; 1821; Ethan A. 
Andrews in place of Hooper; Commence- 
ment of 1822: Olmsted State Geologist, 
then Mitchell; Commencement of 1823; 
The "Fox-hall" (Vauxhall) spree; Cald- 
well's visit to Europe; Commencement 
of 1824; College Pranks; Olmsted re- 
signs; Sketch of him; Commencement of 
1825; Typhoid fever; New By-laws; 
Protests of Faculty; Social Life in 



V.ll 



CONTENTS. 



Chapel Hill in the twenties; Commence- 
ment of 1826, 1827; Judge Murphey's 
address; Commencement of 1828; An- 
drews resigns; Troublesome Escheats; 
Commencement of 1829. 

Chapter IV to p. 526. 
Commencement of 1830; University in 
debt; applies to Legislature; Relief of- 
fered refused; The Observatory; Mrs. 
Roy all; Commencement of 1831; Insti- 
tute of Education; Temperance Society; 
The Dromgoole Myth; Commencement 
of 1832; Gaston's Address, Plea for 
Balls; Effort to remove University to 
Raleigh; Commencement of 1833, 1834; 
Bandy; Recommendations of Professors; 
The Harbinger, some articles reviewed; 
Sale of Tennessee Land Warrants; His- 
tory of; Creation of Executive Com- 
mittee; Manly appointed to close out all 
University interests; Success; History of 
University Library; Death of Caldwell; 
Mitchell President pro .tempore; Ander- 
son's Eulogy; Caldwell's Faculty; 
Sketch of Hentz and others; Commence- 
ment of 1835; Election of Swain; His 
sketch; Commencement of 1836, 1837; 
Mitchell's recommendations; Dr. Hooper 
again resigns — His sketch; Commence- 
ment of 1838; Dr. Mitchell's Bursar Re- 
ports; Rock-walls; The abortive Del- 
phian Society; Separate chairs of Greek 
and Latin; Profs. Fetter over Greek, DeB. 
Hooper, Latin; Irregularities of conduct 
by students; Fruitless movement for 
Chaplain; Rev. W. M. Green acting 
Chaplain and Professor; Commencement 
of 1839; The Maultby difficulty; Report 
of Governor Dudley; Troubles of Dis- 
cipline; Salaries; Change of Raleigh 
road; Commencement of 1840, 1841, 
1842; Bibles to Graduates; Secret Fra- 
ternities forbidden; Episcopal Church 
organized. Commencement of 1843; 
Alumni Association organized; Com- 
mencement of 1844; The Historical So- 



ciety; University Magazine of 1844; 
Abortive University Cemetery planned; 
Commencement of 1845; Law Depart- 
ment added; Commencement of 1846; 
Donations to Historical Society; Death 
of Mrs. Caldwell; President Polk's Com- 
mencement, 1847 ; Address of John Y. 
Mason: Captain Maury; Commencement 
of 1848; New Society Halls; Dr. Deems 
and Prof. J. DeB. Hooper resign; 
Sketches of them; Dr. Hubbard takes the 
Latin Chair; Sketch of him; Compulsory 
Chapel Worship question; The Presby- 
terian Church; Commencement of 1849; 
Rev. A. M. Shipp Professor of English 
Literature and History; Campus im- 
provement. 

Chapter V (IV by mistake) to p. 615 

Recollections of U. N. G in the 40's;; 
Trustees; Swain described; Anecdotes 
and Peculiarities; Faculty meetings;: 
Conduct towards the N". C. Railroad ; I 
Professors described, Mitchell, Phillips, 
Fetter, Hooper, Green, Deems, Battle, 
Graves, Charles Phillips, Brown, S. F. 
Phillips — Their peculiarities ; "Bedevel- 
ing" the Faculty; Curriculum Exercises; 
Senior Speeches; Ante-sunrise Prayers; 
The Discipline; Examinations; The Two 
Societies ; Commencements — the Mar- 
shals, Band, Ball Manager, Supper. 
Facetiae — Funny and Absurd; Hazing, 
Practical Jokes; Parody on Byron; 
Bathos; The Literary Trumpet; Amuse- 
ments; Athletics; Strolls, Marbles, 
Bandy (or Shinny) ; Dancing, Hunting; 
Care of the sick; Social Amusements; 
Bad Roads; Mails; Music; College Car- 
penter, Davis, Boot -maker; Servants; 
Ben Boothe, Sam Morphis, George Hor- 
ton, the poet; Night suppers; Andrew 
Mason; Yatney; Jack and dies. Mer- 
ritt, the coon hunters; Couch; The Vil- 
lage; Drs. Jones, Moore, Yancey; Deaf 
and Dumb Yancey; Sale of lots; Mis? 
Nancy Hilliard; Mrs. Nunn; Campus 
and Cuddie. 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



Chapter VI to p. 785. 

Commencement of 1850; Smith Hall; 
Dangerous Riot ; Methodist Church built ; 
Fraternities begin; Office of Escheator- 
General created; the David Allison Es- 
cheat; Commencement of 1851, andlS52; 
Students against Faculty on appointment 
of a sub-Marshal. University Magazine 
of 1852-1801; Commencement of 1853, 
1854; Charles Phillips Professor of Civil 
Engineering; B. S. Hedrick, of Applica- 
tion of Chemistry to Agriculture and 
the- Arts; Increase of Numbers; Laws 
Revised ; Baptist Church built ; Com- 
mencement of 1855; New Salaries; 
Burning of Belfry; Case of Professor 
Hedrick; The Herrisse Controversy; 
New Buildings, Professors and Depart- 
ments; The Curriculum; Preparation for 
Admission; Commencement of 1850; In- 
vitation to Archbishop Hughes; Com- 
mencement of 1857; Death of Dr. 
Mitchell: His successor, Martin; Com- 
mencement of 1858; Lawlessness — the 
President's Circular; New Caldwell 
Monument; Changes in Faculty; The 
Buchanan Commencement. 1859 ; Disas- 
trous Investment; Commencement of 
1800; Attendance on Sunday services; 
Drs. Shipp and Wheat leave ; Commence- 



ment of 1801; Salaries lowered; Hard 
Times; Commencement of 1802 and 
1803; Eise of Prices and Depreciation of 
Currency; Exemption of Students; Col. 
Martin joins army; Commencement of 
1804; Gold Bond; Cutting University 
trees; Wheeler's Cavalry and Kil- 
patrick's in Chapel Hill; Mrs. Spencer's 
elegiac ode; Feeling of Chapel Hillians; 
Commencement of 1805; University stu- 
dents in the war; Commencement of 
1800; Securities lost; Transfer of Land 
Grant; Death of Dr. James Phillips; 
President Johnson's Commencement, 
1867; Seward and. Sickles; Dwindling of 
Faculty; Plan of Reorganization; Com- 
mencement of 1868; History of Ex- 
penses ; Reconstruction ; Treasurer 
Manly's Report; Swain not recognized; 
He Protests; His Death; Improvements 
during his administration; Scholarship; 
Successes of Alumni; The Displaced 
Professors; The two Societies. 

Appendix. 

List of Graduates and of successful 
Alumni; List of Trustees from 1789; 
List of Executive Committee from 1835; 
List of Subscriptions to Start the Uni- 
versity; Murphy's Statistics of Alumni. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



W. R. Davie, Frontispiece. page. 

Old East Building (drawn by John Pettigrew, a student in 1797). 

Old East Building (50 

Joseph Caldwell 172 

Dialectic Society Diploma of 1807 182 

Philanthropic Society Diploma of 1809 184 

U. N. C Diploma of 1809 184 

Old West Building, Gerard Hall, South side, before removal of 

porch 280 

U. N. C. Diploma of 1820 284 

Philanthropic Society Diploma of 1820 284 

Dialectic Society Diploma of 1820 284 

Wm. Hooper 416 

James Phillips 416 

Elisha Mitchell 416 

Shepherd K. Kolloch 416 

Charles W. Harris : 416 

D. L. Swain 422 

Judge Dick's Spring, walled up by him, 1840..... 480 

Will. H. Battle 494 

Manuel Fetter 542 

W. M. Green 542 

J. De Berniere Hooper.... 542 

Charles Force Deems 542 

Fordyce M. Hubbard 542 

Charles Phillips 550 

Ral ph H . Graves. Sr 550 

John Kimberly 550 

View from the Old Athletic Field 616 

Smith Hall 616 

View taken 1852, showing old Belfry, South Building 632 

New West Building 652 

New East Building 652 

Wm. J. Martin 684 

Albert M. Shipp 684 

John T. Wheat 684 

B. S. Hedrick 684 

Hildreth M. Smith 684 

Caldwell Monument 602 



History of University of North Carolina. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Charter and Organization. 

It might be claimed that the Centennial year of American 
Independence was likewise the Centennial year of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, although the charter was not granted 
until 1789. 

In December, 1776, a Convention, then called Congress, of 
enlightened men met at Halifax to form a Constitution for the 
new free State of North Carolina, under whose protection the 
people could maintain the independence they had declared a 
few months before. 

Without an army or navy, they had entered on a war for 
existence with a nation powerful, populous and wealthy, having 
the tradition of invincibility, which had, under Marlborough, 
within the century, broken the power of the Great Louis of 
France — had, with heavy hand, crushed the fortunes of the 
Pretender at Culloden — had sent Wolfe to storm the Heights 
of Quebec; had swept the seas with her fleets. The Revolu- 
tion, if it failed, was Rebellion. The penalty of defeat was the 
doom of traitors. The State had barely two hundred thousand 
inhabitants, widely scattered, and badly armed, and divided in 
sentiment. But, notwithstanding these odds, this Congress, 
with wisdom unparalleled and faith approaching sublimity, 
provided for the interest of unborn children. They knew that 
those children would not be capable of freedom without educa- 
tion. They knew that there could be no education without 
teachers. They knew that teachers could not be procured with- 
out colleges. They knew that their leaders in the pulpit and in 
civil offices had received their education in distant States and 
even in the mother country across the ocean. They resolved 
that their youth, seeking intellectual advancement, should not 
be temporarily expatriated in order to obtain it. They made 
the requirement of the University a part of the fundamental 
law. On the 18th of December, 1776, in the Constitution of 



2 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the new State, then first adopted, are found these golden words, 
written amid storms and thunderings, to be made good when 
the sun shone on a free and united people : "All useful learn- 
ing shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more 
universities." 

Tradition has it that this provision in the Constitution was 
due to the Scotch-Irish of Mecklenburg. Smarting under re- 
sentment caused by the disapproval by the Crown of the charter 
of Queen's College, its friends procured from the people of the 
county a positive instruction to their delegates to the Halifax 
Congress of 1776 to provide for a State college. Among these 
delegates was Waightstill Avery, a graduate of Princeton, like- 
wise a member of the committee which reported the Constitu- 
tion, and the tradition which credits him with being the drafts- 
man of the University and public school clause is certainly 
plausible. 

That our forefathers thought that the University and the 
public school system were necessarily part of one organism is 
proved by their connection in the Constitution. The section 
in which the General Assembly is commanded to provide the 
University is as follows: Section 41 — "A school, or schools, 
shall be established by the legislature for the convenient in- 
struction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, paid by 
the public, as may enable them to instruct at low prices : and all 
useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one 
or more universities." It was clear to the statesmen of a hun- 
dred years ago, and it ought not to require argument to prove 
it. that money spent for schools without providing teachers is 
mere waste and folly. And certainly our forefathers who, 
with their hearts sore from the attempted domination of the 
Church of England in colonial times, inserted in the Constitu- 
tion that, "no clergyman, or preacher of the gospel, of any 
denomination, shall be capable of being a member, either of the 
Senate. House of Commons, or Council of State, while he con- 
tinues in the exercise of the pastoral function," together with 
other provisions, completely severing the connection between the 
Church and the State, never designed that state schools should 
look to religious colleges exclusively for their teachers, nor did 
they wish to be dependent on other States. 



CHARTER A2\D ORGANIZATION. 3 

During the War of the Revolution the mandate of the Consti- 
tution lay dormant. Inter anna silent leges. When Caswell 
and Ljllington were beating McDonald at Moore's Creek 
Bridge, and Campbell, Shelby, Cleveland, Sevier, Williams and 
McDowell were capturing Ferguson's forces at King's Moun- 
tain, and Cornwallis and Greene were wrestling for the victory 
at Guilford, and Fanning was carrying as prisoner from Hills- 
boro the Governor of our State, and the momentous question 
whether our ancestors were patriots or traitors, was still unde- 
cided, there was no time for erecting universities. And after 
the war, industry must have time for restoring plenty to wasted 
lands and statesmanship to form a settled government in the 
place of a nerveless confederacy. In the month of November, 
1789, our State, after a hesitation of a year, entered the Ameri- 
can Union. In the month of December, as if forming part of 
a comprehensive plan, the charter of the University, under the 
powerful advocacy of Davie, was granted by the General As- 
sembly. The Trustees under the charter comprised great men 
of the State, good men of the State, trusted leaders of the 
people. 

The first named, and the chairman, was Governor Samuel 
Johnston, who, in legislative, executive and judicial stations, in 
war and peace, left the impress of his wise conservatism on the 
State. There were James Iredell, one of the earliest Judges 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Alfred Moore, 
his successor in this high office. There were the first Federal 
District Judge, Colonel John Stokes, and John Sitgreaves, his 
successor. 

There were the three signers of the Constitution of the 
United States: Hugh Williamson, the historian William 
Blount, afterwards Senator of the United States from Ten- 
nessee, and Richard Dobbs Spaight, who left Trinity College, 
Dublin, when scarcely of age, to fight for the independence of 
his native State. He served as delegate to the Congress of the 
Confederation, and of the United States, and as Governor of 
North Carolina. Of others destined to be Governors, there 
were Samuel Ashe, then Judge, Benjamin Williams, and the 
first benefactor of the University, Benjamin Smith, and Wil- 
liam Richardson Davie, its father. There were militarv men. 



4 HISTORY UNIVERSITY Otf NORTH CAROLINA. 

who had been conspicuous fighters in the Revolution: General 
Joseph Graham, scarred with wounds in the defence of Char- 
lotte under Davie, the father of the revered statesman, William 
A. Graham, whose last public appearance was in behalf of the 
University; General Thomas Person, whose hatred of injus- 
tice began with the disastrous struggles of the Regulation, 
William Lenoir, Joseph McDowell, the elder, and Joseph Dixon 
(or Dickson), who aided in thwarting the plans of Cornwallis 
by the capture of Ferguson at King's Mountain ; Henry William 
Harrington, an active militia general in service on our south- 
ern borders. 

Of the State judiciary we find three judges under the court 
law of 1777 — Samuel Spencer, John Williams, and Samuel 
Ashe, already mentioned, whose name is worthily represented 
by his descendants, Thomas Samuel Ashe, late of Anson, and 
Samuel A. Ashe, of Raleigh; and of others distinguished in 
the history of the State — Archibald McLaine and Willie Jones, 
bold and active patriots, Stephen Cabarrus, long Speaker of the 
House of Commons, and John Haywood, the popular State 
Treasurer. There were the first two Senators of the United 
States — Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins, and of those 
destined to be members of the lower House of Congress were 
Charles Johnson, then Speaker of the State Senate, who had 
fought for the Stuarts at Culloden, James Holland of Guilford, 
Alexander Mebane of Orange, Joseph Winston of Surry, and 
William Barry Grove of Cumberland. We find in the list 
John Hay, the eminent lawyer of Fayetteville, who gave his 
name to Haymount; James Hogg, an enlightened merchant 
of Fayetteville and of Hillsboro ; Adlai Osborne, the highly 
esteemed Clerk of Rowan Superior Court ; the eminent teacher 
and divine, Rev. Samuel E. McCorkle, D.D. ; and prominent 
and useful members of the State legislature, Frederick Har- 
gett, Senator of Jones, Robert W. Snead, Senator of Onslow, 
Joel Lane, Senator from Wake, owner of the land bought for 
the site of the city of Raleigh, John Macon, Senator of War- 
ren, brother of the more eminent Nathaniel Macon, John Ham- 
ilton, commoner of Guilford, William Porter, commoner of 
Rutherford, and Robert Dickson of Duplin. 

The moving spirit of this distinguished band was William 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. 5 

Richardson Davie. He was no common man. He had been a 
gallant cavalry officer in the Revolution. He had been a 
strong staff on which Greene had leaned. He had been con- 
spicuous in civil pursuits ; an able lawyer, an orator of wide 
influence. With Washington and Madison, and other great 
men, he had assisted in evolving the grandest government of 
all ages, the American Union, out of an ill-governed and disin- 
tegrated confederacy. He was beyond his times in the advo- 
cacy of a broad, generous education. His portrait has been 
drawn by a masterly hand, Judge Archibald Murphey, one of 
the most progressive and scholarly men our State has known. 
In his speech before the two Societies at Chapel Hill in 1827 
he says : "Davie was a tall, elegant man in his person, graceful 
and commanding in his manners. His voice was mellow, and 
adapted to the expression of every passion ; his mind compre- 
hensive yet slow in its operations, when compared with his 
great rival (Moore) ; his style was magnificent and flowing; he 
had a greatness of manner in public speaking which suited his 
style, and gave to his speeches an imposing effect. He was a 
laborious student, arranged his discourses with care, and where 
the subject merited his genius, poured forth a torrent of elo- 
quence that astonished and enraptured his audience," 

He had, in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, at a criti- 
cal moment, caused the vote of North Carolina, then one of 
the large States, to be cast for a compromise, the equality of 
States in the Senate, without which union would have been im- 
possible. In the State Conventions of 1788 and 1789 he had 
advocated the adoption of the new Constitution with equal 
ability. It was his foresight and wisdom which provided the 
University, by whose means North Carolina could keep pace in 
culture and influence with her sisters. He drew for the Uni- 
versity the Plan of Studies pursued for many years, and main- 
tained its interest by his purse, his eloquence, his counsels, and 
constant attention to its exercises. The Dialectic Society is 
the fortunate owner of an excellent portrait of this great rrtan — 
the picture of a man of military bearing, strikingly handsome, 
a gentleman, a scholar and a statesman. 

Such were the guardians into whose care the General Assem- 
bly committed the institution provided for trie youth of North 



6 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Carolina. Six of them — McLean, Person, Ashe, Jones, Lane 
and Mebane — were carrying into effect the mandate of the Con- 
stitution for which as members of the Halifax Congress of 
1776 they had voted. Twenty-three, viz: Hargett, Smith, Mc- 
Dowell, Hay, Grove, Cabarrus, Samuel Johnston, Charles John- 
son, Robert Dickson, Hamilton, Person, Sneed, Mebane, 
Stokes, Holland, Winston, Blount, Williamson, Hawkins, Lane, 
Lenoir, Davie, and Porter, were members of the Convention of 
1789, and of them only Dickson, Hamilton, Person, and Lenoir 
voted against the ratification of the Constitution of the United 
States. 

The charter, granted by the General Assembly, was ratified 
December 11, 1789. The preamble, in wise and weighty words, 
asserts that, "in all well regulated governments it is the indis- 
pensable duty of every legislature to consult the happiness of a 
rising generation, and endeavor to fit them for an honorable 
discharge of the social duties of life by paying the strictest 
attention to their education, and that, a University, supported 
by permanent funds and well endowed, would have the most 
direct tendency to answer the above purpose." 

Among the provisions of the charter, in addition to the usual 
powers of corporations, are. the following: 

The Trustees were a self-perpetuating body, having coopta- 
tive powers ; being authorized to fill vacancies occurring by 
death, refusing to act, resignation or removal from the State. 

The principle of having the Trustees distributed in the judi- 
cial districts was to be retained in all elections. 

The first meeting of the Trustees was directed to be on the 
third Monday of the next General Assembly at Fayetteville, at 
which time were to be elected a President of the Board, and a 
Secretary. At all subsequent, regular, or annual meetings, the 
members present, with the President and Treasurer, or a ma- 
jority without either of these officers, were to be a quorum. 

Special meetings could be called by the President and two 
Trustees, notice being given to every Trustee, and advertise- 
ment to be made in the State Gazette. These meetings were 
prohibited from appropriating money, and from electing the 
President and Professors of the University. They, however, 
could fill a vacancy until the next annual meeting. 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. 7 

The meeting, at which the site of the University should be 
fixed upon, was to be advertized in the Gazette for at least six 
months and special notice given to each Trustee. 

The Treasurer was to give bond, payable to the Governor, in 
the sum of £5,000 ($io,ooo), and to hold office for two years. 
If he should prove delinquent recovery was to be had as in the 
case of Sheriffs. 

The Treasurer was directed to publish annually in the State 
Gazette a list of moneys and other donations under penalty of 
£100 ($200) at the suit of the Attorney-General, the penal- 
ties to belong to the University. The Treasurer was ordered 
to pay annually to the Treasurer of the State all moneys re- 
ceived by him, on which the State was to pay six per cent inter- 
est, the principal to be a permanent fund. (This was repealed 
four years afterwards.) 

The site of the University was not to be within five miles of 
the seat of government, or any of the places of holding the 
courts of law or equity. 

The Trustees could appoint a President of the University, 
and the professors and tutors, whom "they may remove for 
misbehavior, inability, or neglect of duty." They could "make 
all such laws and regulations for the government of the Univer- 
sity and preservation of order and good morals therein as are 
usually made in such seminaries, and as to them may appear 
necessary : Provided, the same are not contrary to the inalien- 
able liberty of a citizen or to the laws of the State." 

The power of conferring degrees was given to the Faculty of 
the University, that is to say, the President and Professors, but 
the Trustees must concur. 

Any subscriber of £10 ($20), payable in five equal annual 
installments, was entitled to have one student educated free of 
tuition. 

The public hall, and the library and rooms of the college 
shall be called by the names of one or another of the six largest 
subscribers within four years. "And a book shall be kept in 
the library in which shall be entered the names and places of 
residence of every benefactor to this seminary, in order that 
posterity may be informed to whom they are indebted for the 



8 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OV NORTH CAROUNA. 

measure of learning and good morals that may prevail in the 
State." # 

The foregoing summary shows some provisions which ap- 
pear strange in our eyes. For example, that any number of 
Trustees, no matter how small, should be a quorum, if only the 
President of the Board and the Treasurer should be present, 
neither of whom was necessarily a member. Then, again, the 
prohibition of locating the University within five miles of the 
seat of government or of any court town is contrary to our 
experience. It was doubtless on account of the rowdyism and 
drunkenness during court week, then so prevalent, now happily 
passing away. The provision that only the State should be the 
custodian of the donations of money and pay interest on the 
same, the University being prohibited from using the principal, 
seems inconsistent with the imperative duty of erecting build- 
ings. Note also that only the President and Professors, ex- 
cluding tutors, constitute the faculty, and that the Trustees 
have no power of conferring degrees, but can only confirm or 
reject the nominations of the faculty. The provision that a 
student should have his tuition for four years on a payment of 
$20 by a subscriber seems reckless, unless there was a gen- 
eral idea prevalent that tuition should be nearly free. The 
appeal to the vanity of the wealthy is interesting, firstly, be- 
cause it shows that the projectors of the University, even in 
those dark days, had grand ideas as to the future, when without 
a dollar in sight they estimated no less than six buildings, to be 
essential, and, secondly, because the promise of honoring bene- 
factors was made irrespective of the amounts to be given. 

The fear that the Trustees might, in making their by-laws, 
be more severe on the students than would be consistent with 
the "Rights of Man," for which so much blood had been spilt, 
is shown in the protective clause that those laws should not be 
"contrary to the inalienable liberty of a citizen." It will be 
seen in the sequel that the young men interpreted this in the 
broadest latitude as negativing all restraint. The construction 
of this charter provision by the Trustees, that the professors 
and tutors were to be like police officers in carrying out the dis- 
cipline of the institution, led to serious evils for very many 
years. 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. 9 

The locating of the Trustees in the several judicial districts 
in those days of bad roads, although possibly propitiating favor, 
was fatal to wise management. The expedient of giving wide 
powers to an executive committee of seven, which works so 
wisely now, had not then been thought of. 

The power of the Trustees of filling vacancies in their body 
seemed harmless, if not wise. It was destined, however, to 
place the institution under the suspicion of being aristocratic, 
a suspicion fatal to its popularity in the days when there existed 
among the people a real fear of the introduction of English 
class distinctions and of a government monarchical in nature, 
though not in name. The provision was changed eventually, 
as will be seen. 

On the whole, it seems probable that some of these outre 
provisions were inserted on the motion of members hostile to 
the movement, or by its friends for the purpose of placating 
them. Like the Fundamental Constitutions of the Lords Pro- 
prietors, the charter of the University is another evidence that 
all good government is the product of experience and growth, 
and can not be planned beforehand by the wit of man. 

There was no appropriation of money made for erection of 
buildings or other expenditure for the new institution. An act 
was, however, passed which conferred on it certain claims, 
which the officers of the State had been unable to collect. 
These were arrearages due from sheriffs and other officers prior 
to January i, 1783, none of them less than six years old and 
some far more. The proceeds of sales of confiscated lands 
were excepted from the gift, probably because the legislature 
deemed them easily collectible. A further exception was made 
of all the arrearages due by Robert Lanier, treasurer of the 
judicial district of Salisbury, and also those from the sheriff's 
of that district, but if they should not settle their dues in two 
years, the University was authorized to have all the uncollected 
residue. 

The delinquents, sixty-eight in number, whose accounts were 
turned over by the act, were officers of the State or counties, 
some distinguished and of high character — such as General 
Horatio Gates, Governor Burke, Colonel Benjamin Cleveland. 



IO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROUNA. 

General Hogan, Marquis de Bretigny. Evidently many were 
for agencies during the war, in which vouchers were lost or 
captured by the enemy, or the settlements of the agencies de- 
stroyed. Colonel Waightstill Avery, for example, was included 
in the list, but he promptly proved that there was a mistake, and 
his name was at once struck off. The following list shows more 
clearly the employments of those indebted to the State accord- 
ing to the Comptroller's report, which debts were transferred 
to the University: namely, Clerks, Sheriffs, purchasers of con- 
fiscated property, Judges (fees for lawyer's licenses), entry- 
takers, agents, purchasers of lots in Raleigh, commissionaries 
(commissaries?), purchasers of western lands, buyer of eleven 
head of cattle, also of four head of cattle, buyer of one horse, 
hirer of McKnight's negroes (McKnight was a Tory), debtors 
for specie certificates, also for "old dollar money," also for offi- 
cer's certificates, entries of western lands, and certificates of the 
Auditors of the Upper Board of Salisbury. 

At the same session was granted a right, shadowy, uncertain, 
well nigh in nubibus, but which in the course of time by skillful 
management brought considerable money into the treasury. 
This grant was such property as had escheated, or should there- 
after escheat, to the State. This by the energy and good man- 
agement of the Trustees, after a long period, was the source of 
the endowment of the University, lost in the Civil War. Many 
denizens of foreign birth left no heirs, citizens of North Caro- 
lina, and under the law as it stood until 1831, their lands 
escheated to the State ; and in a like manner obscure soldiers of 
the Continental Line, to whom land warrants were granted for 
their services in the war, died leaving no heirs to inherit their 
claims. Of course the revenue from this source naturally di- 
minished as the years rolled away from the Revolution, and it 
was still further diminished by acts of the Legislature giving 
the lands to a remoter heir, being a citizen, when the next heir 
is an alien, and giving the widow all the estate if her husband 
should die without an heir. At this day the chances of an 
escheat are worth but little, as an alien stands on the same foot- 
ing with a citizen in regard to the possession of real estate. 

It was not from parsimony but hard necessity that the long 
services of our patriot soldiers, in hunger, and thirst, and cold, 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. II 

and nakedness, were paid for in a paper currency, like that of 
which the conquered Confederates have had such bitter expe- 
rience. To this meagre dole was added for faithful service 
warrants for land to be located in a country of great fertility, 
but the homes of bears, panthers, and Indians, the western 
region of Tennessee, then a part of the domain of North Caro- 
lina. To a private was given 640 acres, to a lieutenant 2,560, 
to a Captain 3,840, to a Major 4,800, to a Colonel, or Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Commanding, 7,200, to a Brigadier-General 12,000 
acres. To the great General Greene, who had by his genius 
retrieved the fortunes of the war after Gates' disastrous failure, 
they gave 25,000 acres. 

The gift of the unclaimed land warrants was for years to the 
University like the cool waters near the parched lips of Tanta- 
lus. North Carolina, in 1789, ceded all its territory of Ten- 
nessee to the United States. The new State, after its admis- 
sion into the Union in 1796, claimed all the rights of sover- 
eignty, and refused to give effect to the grants made by North 
Carolina. 

The State of North Carolina would never have secured an 
acre of these lands. No argument but that they were to be 
used for education, had any weight with the legislators of Ten- 
nessee. The Trustees sent to plead their cause one of their 
most enlightened members and most skilled in the arts of mana- 
ging men. Judge Archibald Murphey. Even he, with all his 
eloquence and address, was forced to a hard compromise. Two- 
thirds of the warrants were given to the College of East Ten- 
nessee and College of Cumberland, and one-third to the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. It was not until 1835, after suffer- 
ing untold privations, staggering under a debt of nearly $40,000 
to the banks, that funds were gathered from this source and 
from the donations of Smith, Gerrard and others, to lift its head 
above the waters. A detailed narrative of the negotiations will 
be given hereafter. 

It is pleasant to note that by the providence of our ancestors 
the enemies of our country's freedom contributed, albeit unwill- 
ingly, to the enlightment of our people. But it is of pathetic 
interest to know that the ignorant soldiers of America, who, 



12 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

after countless sufferings filled uncoffined graves, were not only 
gaining liberty for their country but, unintentional benefactors, 
were building a great institution of learning. They did glo- 
rious work, those "unnamed demigods of history," as Kossuth 
called them, blindly suffering martyrdom for a cause they dimly 
understood, but that cause triumphant and leading to never 
ending blessings of free institutions and liberal education. 

The first meeting of the Trustees was on the 18th of Decem- 
ber, 1789, seven days after the ratification of the charter. To 
copy from the record those present were : 

The Hon. Charles Johnson, of Bertie, Chairman. 

Hon. S. Cabarrus of Chowan. James Holland of Rutherford. 

Benjamin Smith of Brunswick. John Stokes of Surry. 

Hugh Williamson of Edenton. William Blount of Tennessee. 

Thomas Person of Granville. William Porter of Rutherford. 

William Lenoir of Wilkes. Joseph Dixon of Lincoln. 

Robert Dixon of Duplin. Alexander Mebane of Orange. 

John Hamilton of Guilford. William R. Davie of Halifax. 

Frederick Hargett of Jones. James Hogg of Orange. 

It will be noticed that the only persons dignified with the 
affix "Hon.," are Johnson and Cabarrus. That was because 
they were Speakers of the Senate and of the House respec- 
tively, and represented those august bodies. The title was 
then restricted as a rule to the actual incumbents of these and 
such high officers as President, Governor and Judge. It is 
now rapidly descending to the same dead level as that occupied 
by Mister, which itself has experienced the like degradation. 
Johnson, the grandfather of the late eminent Dr. Charles E. 
Johnson, of Raleigh, was a relation of Governor Gabriel and of 
Governor Samuel Johnston, but omitted "t" from his name be- 
cause, having, when barely of age, fought for Charles Edward, 
he wished to conceal his identity. 

It was thought for years, until the Supreme Court settled the 
question by deciding to the contrary, that the University is a 
private corporation. That the earliest Trustees thought differ- 
ently is proved by the fact that they did not formally accept the 
charter, but organized at once as public officers. 

Messrs. Davie and Hogg were requested to prepare blanks 
for subscriptions, one as specially directed by the Act of Assem- 
bly, the other on the principle of a mere donation. 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. 13 

Mr. Davie made the agreeable announcement that Colonel 
Benjamin Smith offered a gift to the University of 20,000 
acres of land warrants. The Trustees recorded their thanks 
for "the liberal and generous donation." 

Another early friend of the institution should be held in 
grateful remembrance. Governor Alexander Martin showed 
his interest by frequent attendance on the meetings of the 
Board, by occasional timely gifts and by advocating in his mes- 
sage to the General Assemblies its establishment and mainten- 
ance. In the fall of 1790 he wrote, "This institution already 
stamped with importance, having the great cause of humanity 
for its object, might do honor to this and the neighboring 
States, had it an adequate support, where our youth might be 
instructed in true religion, sound policy and science, and men 
of ability drawn forth to fill the different departments of gov- 
ernment with reputation, or be formed for useful and ornamen- 
tal members of society in private or professional life." He 
then recommends a loan for erecting buildings to "give it a 
more essential than a paper being." 

The second meeting of the Board of Trustees, the first pre- 
scribed by the charter, was held likewise in Fayetteville on the 
25th of November, 1790. General William Lenoir, of Wilkes 
County, President of the Senate, a hero of King's Mountain, 
on the nomination of the Speaker of the House, Stephen Cabar- 
rus, was made President of the Board. He, first of a long 
line of eminent men who held this office, was the last survivor 
of the original Trustees, dying at the age of 88, just fifty years 
after the enactment of the charter. In such high estimation 
was he held that an eastern county and a western town were 
named in his honor. 

Changes had occurred, in the Board of Trustees. The old 
heroes were dropping off. The venerable Robert Dixon gave 
way to James Kenan, grandfather of our worthy Trustee and 
President of our Alumni Association ; and battle-scarred Judge 
Winston to Alexander Martin, who, like our Vance, had been 
Governor in times of war, and, after a long interval, in times 
of peace occupied the executive chair. James Hogg proceeded 
to the welcome duty of presenting to the Board patents for the 
20,000 acres of land, donated at the preceding meeting by 



14 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

General Smith. On the resignation, by Colonel Lenoir, of 
the chairmanship, Governor Alexander Martin was chosen as 
his successor. On balloting for the office of Treasurer, John 
Craven, the State Comptroller, an old bachelor of Halifax 
County, was unanimously elected. His bondsmen were Colonel 
John Macon, of Warren, and General Thomas Person, of Gran- 
ville. James Taylor, a Commoner from Rockingham County, 
was with like unanimity chosen Secretary. It was agreed that 
the place of the next meeting should be selected by ballot. 
Hillsborough, Salem, Williamsburg (now Williamsboro), 
Goshen (in Granville), Rockingham and Wake Court House 
were placed in nomination. The vote of the majority was for 
Hillsboro. It is pleasant to note the care taken to satisfy all 
sections that the location of the University should be fairly 
made. It was resolved that at the next meeting on the third 
Monday of July, 1791, the special business should be the selec- 
tion of the site. Each Trustee was notified of this and a copy 
of the resolutions was ordered to be published in the State 
Gazette for six months. [In those days the General Assembly 
designated some newspaper as the official organ of the State. 
At this date it was the North Carolina Journal at Halifax, pub- 
lished by Hodge & Willis. Hodge was the uncle of the promi- 
nent Raleigh citizen, William Boylan, and brought him from 
New Jersey to assist him in his publications.] 

The Board of Trustees ordered that the efforts to obtain do- 
nations should be continued. As was hoped by its friends, the 
University was a more successful collector than the State. On 
December 6, 1790. the empty treasury was gladdened by the 
receipt of $2,706.41, paid by John Harvey, Clerk of Perquimans 
Court, recovered from a delinquent "Commissioner of Speci- 
fics." This was by the Trustees, as then required by the char- 
ter, invested in United States stock created by the financial 
ability of Alexander Hamilton. 

At the Juiy, 1791, meeting Robert Burton, of Granville, father 
of Judge Robert H. Burton, of Lincolnton, and great grand- 
father of the distinguished North Carolina General, Robert F. 
Hoke, and great-great-grandfather of the still more distin- 
guished (in athletic circles') Captain of our football team which 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. 15 

took the scalp of the University of Virginia team at Atlanta — 
Dr. Mike Hoke — was chosen Secretary in the place of James 
Taylor, resigned. Probably on account of the meagre amount 
of money on hand and in sight, no steps were taken to select 
the site, but vigorous action was had for the collection of the 
arrearages and escheats granted by the Assembly. Each Trus- 
tee was authorized to act as agent of the Board in the matter of 
escheats, and attorneys, vested with full powers of collection 
and compromise in regard to them and the arrearages, were ap- 
pointed in each judicial district. As evidently the lawyers who 
combined ability, integrity, activity, and friendship to the Uni- 
versity, were chosen, I give their names. They were Edmund 
Blount for the Edenton District, David Perkins for that of 
New Bern, William H. Hill for that of Wilmington, Thomas 
F. Davis for that of Fayetteville, Adlai Osborne for that of 
Salisbury, Waightstill Avery for that of Morgan, William Wat- 
ters for that of Hillsborough, and John Whitaker for that of 
Halifax. The sensibilities of the modern lawyer will be shocked 
by the statement that they were required to give bond with good 
security for performance of duty. 

The Trustees made a manly implied confession of ignorance 
on the subject of the great task resting on their shoulders and 
displayed a proper carefulness to perform their duties intelli- 
gently, when they appointed Rev. Dr. McCorckle, the teacher, 
Benjamin Hawkins, the Federal Senator, and Dr. Hugh Wil- 
liamson, an ex-professor of the University of Pennsylvania, 
then a member of Congress from the Edenton District, to pro- 
cure for the use of the Board information respecting the laws, 
regulations, and buildings of the universities and colleges in 
the United States, together with an account of their resources 
and expenditures, and an estimate of the cost of the necessary 
buildings for our University. The confidence of the Board in 
James Hogg, Alfred Moore, and John Haywood, was shown 
by taking away from a large committee, previously appointed, 
the power of selecting a device for a seal of the corporation, 
and conferring it on them. They chose the face of Apollo, 
the God of Eloquence, and his emblem, the rising sun, as ex- 
pressive of the dawn of higher education in our State. 



It) HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

At New Bern, in December, 1791, William Lenoir, in behalf 
of a committee, consisting of himself, Stephen Cabarrus, Ben- 
jamin Williams, John Haywood (the Treasurer), Joseph Mc- 
Dowell, of Pleasant Garden, and Samuel Johnston, made a 
woeful report on the finances, present and prospective, of the 
institution. The total cash was $301.24, received from arrear- 
ages. There was hope that more would be realized, which the 
committee estimated at $300. The University owned also a cer- 
tificate of United States loan for $2,706.41, of which under the 
charter only the interest, six per cent, could be used. The sub- 
scription papers sent out had not been returned and the amount 
to be expected from them was not ascertainable. 

The committee pathetically state that they are "pained when 
they reflect how extremely illy the resources of the Trustees are 
proportioned to their necessities." As to the claims due the 
State from Colonial days, no evidence is found in regard to them 
"other than a report or list of balances made out by a committee 
of the Assembly in 1773." 

As to the arrearages voted to the University, which arose 
under the State government, it is stated that for many years 
after the Revolution the revenue business was under a Treasurer 
in each district, some of whom knew not how to keep accounts ; 
that the Treasurer of New Bern had fled the State, carrying his 
books with him ; the Treasurer of Salisbury District had died, 
leaving his account in such bad shape that the executor, Wil- 
liam Lanier, had induced the General Assembly to close them 
by settlement. When Treasurers duly settled their accounts, 
their books and papers were sent to the agent of the State in 
Philadelphia to be used in supporting the claims of North Caro- 
lina against the United States for troops and supplies furnished 
during the Revolution, and the only evidences of debts acces- 
sible are the statements of the Comptroller as to balances ap- 
pearing on his books. 

Of these there had been delivered to the Trustees claims 
against seventy-three persons. The nominal amount was in 
round numbers $11,410, ranging all the way from $2,660 
against one person to $3 against another. One claim was for 
$4.10, the equivalent of $410 "old Dollar money." Among 
them was an account against Governor Burke for about $100, 



CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION. 1J 

another for "£1,056 Dollar Money,'' scaled down to $35.40; 
another against no less a man than Colonel Benjamin Cleve- 
land for $368.00. Doubtless many of these claims had been 
settled and the vouchers lost during the war. 

As has been stated there had been collected the sum of 
$2,706.41 from the arrearages due by delinquent collecting offi- 
cers. By activity and skill the attorneys of the University suc- 
ceeded eventually in wresting from this source the scarcely 
hoped for total of $7,362, of which the interest only could 
be used. 

Steps were again taken to raise money by subscription. On 
November 5, 1792, papers were circulated inviting donations 
payable one year after the selection of the site. Most of the 
promises by citizens of Orange County were made on condi- 
tion 'that the location should be therein. 

On December 23, 1791, a committee, whose names are not 
given in the journal, reported a memorial to the General Assem- 
bly asking for a loan of $10,000 in order to erect the buildings 
necessary for opening the institution. The measure was placed 
under the charge of Davie, who was a member of the House for 
the Borough of Halifax. His speech in support of it is thus 
described by Judge Murphey in his address of 1826: "I was 
present in the House of Commons when Davie addressed that 
body upon the bill granting a loan of money to the Trustees 
for erecting the buildings of the University, and although more 
than thirty years have since elapsed, T have the most vivid recol- 
lection of the greatness of his manner and the powers of his 
eloquence on that occasion." The appeal was successful. The 
loan was afterwards converted into a gift — the only appropria- 
tion ever made from the State Treasury until the annuity of 
$5,000, granted in 1881, with the exception of $7,000 for the 
suffering officers soon after the Civil War. 

This loan was not secured without a struggle. There were 
many members who believed that the people's money should not 
be expended for any purpose other than the prevention and 
punishment of crime, settling disputes among citizens and other 
similar governmental functions. The vote was 57 to 53 in the 
House of Commons and 28 to 21 in the Senate. Among those 
2 



l8 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

who supported the measure in the House were Messrs. Richard 
Blackledge and John Lanier of Beaufort, David Stone of Ber- 
tie, Joseph McDowell, Jr., of Burke, David Vance of Burke, 
Thomas Granberry of Gates, Wm. E. Lord and Benjamin 
Smith of Brunswick, Richard Benbury of Chowan, Willis Als- 
ton of Halifax, Ebenezer Slade of Martin, Timothy Bloodworth 
of New Hanover. The affirmative Senators were Joseph Mc- 
Dowell (Quaker Meadows) of Burke, Gautier of Bladen, F. 
Campbell of Cumberland, Carney of Craven, Charlton of Bertie, 
Dauge of Camden, Kennedy of Beaufort, Humphries of Curri- 
tuck, Reddick of Gates, Eborn of Hyde, Gray of Johnston, Har- 
gett of Jones, Dixon of Lincoln, Mayo of Martin, Person of 
Granville, Sneed of 'Onslow, Benford of Northampton, Skinner 
of Perquimans, Moye of Pitt, Williams of Richmond, Willis of 
Robeson, Singleton of Rutherford, Lane of Wake, Macon of 
Warren, Swann of Pasquotank, Dickens of Caswell, Johnson 
of (county doubtful). 

Opposed to the bill were Wade of Anson, Bell of Carteret, 
J. Stewart of Chatham, Tyson of Moore, Graham of Mecklen- 
burg, J. A. Campbell of New Hanover, Turner of Montgomery, 
Quails of Halifax, Wynns of Hertford, Hill of Franklin, 
Winston of Stokes, Clinton of Sampson, Berger of Rowan, 
Griffin of Nash, Galloway of Rockingham. Edwards of Surry, 
Hodge of Orange, Wood of Randolph, Gillespie of Guilford, 
Caldwell of Iredell, Phillips of Edgecombe. A very few did not 
vote, among them, Wm. Lenoir, it not being the custom for the 
Speaker to vote except in case of a tie. On inspecting the list 
it will be found that three of the affirmative Senators. Stone, 
Hargett and Lane, were on the Committee of Location, Reddick 
was for eleven years Speaker of the Senate, Dixon and Lane 
were Trustees. Of the opponents Hodge and Stewart would 
have probably voted differently if they had foreseen the location 
in Orange, near the Chatham line. It is surprising to see New 
Hanover, noted for its liberality, in this column. Doubtless 
Campbell misrepresented his constituents. It is equally sur- 
prising to see General Thomas Wynns and General Joseph Gra- 
ham opposing higher education. The mistake of Graham is 
amply atoned for by the constant and active friendship to the 
University of his broad-minded sons and grandsons. 



THE LOCATION. 19 

It was not until January, 1792, that further steps were taken 
to select the University site. On that day a resolution was 
passed appointing Judge John Williams, General Thomas Per- 
son, General Alexander Mebane, Colonel John Macon, Colonel 
Benjamin Williams, Colonel Joel Lane, and General Alfred 
Moore, or any three of them, to examine the "most proper and 
eligible situations whereon to fix the University, in the coun- 
ties of Wake, Franklin, Warren, Orange, Granville, Chatham 
and Johnston," and ascertain the terms on which such situation 
can be bought and report to the next meeting. Probably the 
committee failed to act, as no report was made by them. Ac- 
tion under the resolutions was not had, by common consent a 
different method being deemed advisable. 

The Location. 

A second resolution was passed that the Board meet at Hills- 
borough on the 1st of August, 1792, in order to determine the 
location, and that due notice be given to each Trustee. 

At the time and place appointed the attendance of members 
proved the interest taken in the question. There were present 
25 Trustees out of 40. The largest number in these days of 
easy railroading is 39 out of 80, in 1885, when six professors 
were elected. Such patriotic sacrifice of comfort in the heated 
dog-days deserves to be recorded. Those who answered to the 
roll-call were as follows : 

Alexander Martin, Governor, of Guilford; Hugh William- 
son, the historian, of Chowan; Benjamin Williams, afterwards 
Governor, of Moore ; John Sitgreaves, Judge United States 
District Court, of Craven ; Fred. Hargett, State Senator, of 
Jones ; Richard Dobbs Spaight, the elder, elected Governor that 
year, of Craven ; William H. Hill, member of the Legislature 
and of Congress, of New Hanover ; James Hogg, merchant, of • 
Cumberland ; Samuel Ashe, then Judge, afterwards Governor, 
of New Hanover /John Hay, lawyer, of Cumberland : William 
Barry Grove, member of Congress, of Cumberland : Col. Wm. 
Polk, member of the Legislature, then of Mecklenburg ; Judg 
John Williams, of Granville ; Alexander Mebane, afterwards 
member of Congress, of Orange ; Joel Lane, member of the 
Senate, of Wake ; Alfred Moore, then member of the Legisla- 



/ 



V 



20 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ture, afterwards Judge of the Supreme Court, of Brunswick; 
Willie Jones, of Halifax ; Benjamin Hawkins, Senator in Con- 
gress, of Warren; John Haywood, State Treasurer, then of 
Edgecombe; Rev. Dr. Samuel E. McCorkle, a distinguished 
preacher and teacher, of Rowan ; William Richardson Davie, 
afterwards Governor, of Halifax ; Joseph Dixon, State Senator, 
afterwards member of Congress, of Lincoln ; Joseph McDowell, 
Jr., member of the Legislature, of Burke; William Porter, mem- 
ber of the Legislature, of Rutherford ; Adlai Osborne, Clerk 
of the Superior Court of his county, a well-read and influential 
man, of Rowan. 

According to localities, counting New Hanover as an eastern 
county, and Cumberland, Warren and Guilford as middle coun- 
ties, there were ten eastern, nine middle and six western trus- 
tees. 

Willie Jones submitted a motion, which was adopted, that 
the Board would not select any particular spot, but would 
choose by ballot a place with liberty of locating within fifteen 
miles thereof. 

The places in nomination were as follows : Raleigh, in Wake 
County; Williamsboro, in Granville County; Hillsboro, in 
Orange County ; Pittsboro, in Chatham County ; Cyprett's 
Bridge, over New Hope, in Chatham ; Smithfield, in Johnston 
County ; Goshen, in Granville County. 

The Board proceeded to ballot and Cyprett's or Cipritz's 
Bridge, now Prince's Bridge, on the great road from New Bern 
by Raleigh to Pittsboro, was chosen. The fifteen miles radius 
allowed a range over wide areas of Chatham, Wake and 
Orange ; from the highlands of New Hope to the hills of Buck- 
horn; from the Hickory Mountain to the eminence overlooking 
our beautiful capital on the west. The same influences which 
secured that the capital s v iuld be located within ten miles of 
Isaac Hunter's plantation, in Wake County, that is, as near 
the centre of the State as possible, carried this vote. 

On the 4th of August, 1792, the Board adopted an ordinance 
to carry into effect the selection of the University site within 
the circle described. One commissioner from each judicial 
district was appointed by ballot. There were from the Mor- 



THE LOCATION. 21 

ganton District, Win, Porter, of Rutherford; the Salisbury 
District, John Hamilton, of Guilford; the Hillsboro District, 
Alex. Mebane, of Orange; the Halifax District, Willie Jones, 
of Halifax; the Edenton District, David Stone, of Bertie; the 
New Bern District, Frederick Hargett, of Jones; the Wilming- 
ton District, William H. Hill, of New Hanover; the Fayette- 
ville District, James Hogg, of Cumberland. They were to 
meet in Pittsboro on November i, 1792, prepared to visit in 
person all places deemed eligible. 

At the appointed time a majority convened in Pittsboro, viz.: 
Hargett, Mebane, Hogg, Hill, Stone, and Jones. It was an ex- 
cellent committee. Senator Hargett, a Revolutionary captain, 
had already assisted as commissioner in locating and laying 
out the city of Raleigh. Alexander Mebane had been a mem- 
ber of the Convention which framed the State Constitution and 
a useful officer of the Revolutionary army. He had long served 
the county of Orange in the State Legislature, and the year 
after this was elected to the Congress of the United States. 
James Hogg was an influential merchant, afterwards of Hills- 
borough, among whose descendants are the Binghams, Nor- 
woods, Webbs, Hoopers, and others. Wm. H. Hill, a descend- 
ant of Governor Yeamans, was an able lawyer of Wilmington, 
afterwards State Senator and member of Congress. David 
Stone, then a member of the House of Commons from Bertie, 
afterwards Governor and Senator of the United States, was a 
well educated and accomplished young man. Willie Jones was 
one of the most active and influential men of the Revolutionary 
and post-Revolutionary periods, as Chairman of the Committee 
of Safety, wielding executive authority in 1776, a member of the 
Continental Congress, likewise a commissioner to select the 
site for the seat of government. 

We have the journal of these Commissioners, sfivine a brief 
account of their labors among the wooded hills of Chatham 
and Oranee in the early davs of November, when the forests 
were clothed with their chansfins: hues of russet and o-reen, 
fold and crimson, when the squirrels chattered in the hickories 
and the deer peered curiouslv through the thick underwood, 
and the hosoitable farmers welcomed them with heartv freer- 



22 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ings, and the good ladies brought out their foamiest cider and 
sweetest courtesies, while on the sideboard, according to the 
bad customs of that day, stood decanters of dark-hued rum 
and ruddy apple brandy and the fiery juice of the Indian corn, 
which delights to flow in the shining of the moon. I give some 
extracts from the report submitted by the Chairman, Senator 
Hargett, as it is more satisfactory to have the narration in the 
language of the old soldier who saw bloody service under 
Washington. 

Pittsboro, Nov. 1st, 1792. 
Sundry commissioners appointed by the board of trustees of the 
University of North Carolina to view the country within fifteen miles 
of Cypret's bridge, and to fix on the seat of the University, met accord- 
ing to the order of the board, to-wit: Frederick Harget, Alexander 
Mebane, James Hogg, William Hill, David Stone, and Willie Jones. 

November 2nd. 

Appointed Frederick Harget Chairman: proceeded to view the Cum 
Spring belonging to Philip Meroney; also Matthew Jones's, John Men- 
toe's, and Matthew Ramsey's lands (near Pittsboro), and received their 
proposals. Sundry gentlemen of the county of Chatham offered further 
donations to the amount of four hundred and odd pounds, (exclusive of 
£1302 offered as a donation to the board at Hillsboro), provided the 
University was fixed at the fork of Haw and Deep rivers; and Ambrose 
Ramsey, Patrick St. Lawrence, George Lucas, John Mebane, Panthareup 
Harman and Thomas Stokes, guaranteed to the amount of £1,500; 
they having all the subscriptions to themselves, provided the University 
was established in the aforesaid fork. 

November 3rd. 

Proceeded to view Richard Kennan's place, and Lasseter's Hill, and 
received the proposals of the respective proprietors. 

November 4th. 

Mr. David Stone absent. The other commissioners proceeded to Cap- 
tain Edwards' and the widow Edwards' places, on the north side of Haw 
River, and received proposals. 

November 5th. 

Viewed Tignal Jones' place, commonly called "Parker's." No pro- 
posals were offered by the proprietor; but Tignal Jones, junior, and 
Robert Cobb offered a donation of 500 acres of land adjoining the place. 

Willie Jones handed to the commissioners an offer of Col. Joel Lane, 
of 640 acres near Nathaniel Jones', at the cross-roads, in Wake County, 
provided the University was fixed at said Nathaniel Jones'. Then pro- 
ceeded to view New Hope Chapel Hill, in Orange County. 



the; location. 23 

November 6th. 
Received offers of donations of land to the amount of 1,290 acres of 
land, eight hundred and forty of which lie on Chapel Hill or adjoining 
thereto, and the remainder within four or five miles or thereabouts. 

'November 7th, 8th, and 9th. 
Received also subscriptions for donations in money to the amount of 
£798, or thereabouts; but it must be observed these donations, both 
land and money are conditional; that is to say that the University shall 
be established on Chapel Hill for the seat of the University. Same day 
several persons executed deeds for their respective land-donations to the 
University, viz: 

Col. Jno. Hogan for 200 acres No. 1 

Mr. Benj. Yergan " 51 do " 2 

Mr. Matthew MeCauley " 150 do " 3 

Mr. Alex. Piper " 20 do " 4 

Mr. James Craig " 5 do " 5 

Mr. Christ'r Barbee " 221 do , . " 6 

Mr. Edmund Jones " 200 do " 7 

Mr. Mark Morgan ex't'd bond 

with surety to convey " 107 do " 8 

Mr. John Daniel executed bond 

with surety to convey " 107 do " 9 

Mr. Hardy Morgan, deed " 125 do " 10 



1,180 

Mr. Thomas Connelly, who subscribed 100 acres, or thereabouts, and 
Mr. William MeCauley, who subscribed 100 acres, could not immediately 
convey, but have promised to execute deeds and deliver them to Mr. 
James Hogg, who will transmit to the board. 

Mr. John Hogan entered into contract to make and deliver 150,000 
bricks at 40c. per hund. as per contract. 

Mr. Hogan also presented proposals for leasing some of the land on 
Chapel Hill, which are submitted to the board. 

Mr. Edmund Jones made proposals for supplying plank and lumber, 
which are presented to the board. 

Frederick Harget, 

Chairman. 
James Hogg, 
Alex. Mebane, 
Wm. H. Hill. 

The board taking the foregoing into consideration concurred 
therewith. 

This report shows that, not discouraged at having failed 
to secure the location of the seat of government at what is now 



24 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OI- NORTH CAROLINA. 

the village of Haywood, at the confluence of Haw and Deep 
Rivers, a determined effort was made to secure the University 
at the same point. If it had met with success our boys could 
add boat races to our athletic contests. The land speculators 
of one hundred years ago bought lots in this town of paper 
in the confident belief that it was destined to be a commercial 
and manufacturing city, but Haywood has taken its place by 
the side of Brunswick, Bath and other vanished or dwarfed 
"boom-towns" of the past. 

Notice also that Joel Lane, having secured the location of 
the capital on part of his broad acres, sought ineffectually to cap- 
ture the University. This shows the combination which carried 
the vote for Cypritt's Bridge as the centre of the circle inside of 
which its home should be. Lane had been a Halifax man and 
was a warm friend of Davie and of Willie Jones. The influ- 
ence of these three, together with that of the Cape Fear Trus- 
tees, was greater than any other locality could command. 

Let me describe the spot selected more particularly, as it 
appeared to the eyes of the Commissioners. 

The construction of railroads has made a wonderful change 
in the relative importance of our public highways. In the old 
days those who made tobacco rolled it away to Petersburg, 
little wheels being attached to the hogsheads. Those who 
made corn generally converted it into hogs and drove them on 
foot to Philadelphia or Charleston. Wheat was ground into 
flour and sent by wagon to distant markets — to Fayetteville, 
Wilmington, New Bern, and Petersburg, and the villages by 
the way. The corn and rye not fed to swine were changed to 
whiskey and the fruit into brandy, and that which escaped the 
capacious throats of the neighborhood drinkers was peddled 
along the road to the rural drinkers or sold in bulk to the 
village shops. In violation of all rules of political economy 
a man was at the same time an agriculturist, a manufacturer, 
a transporter, a wholesale merchant, a retailer and a voracious 
consumer. 

The returning wagons carried home supplies of molasses 
and sugar, iron and salt, shot and powder and flints, not forget- 
ting the ribbons and combs and such paraphernalia that ladies 



THE LOCATION. 25 

in all ages will obtain to gild the refined gold of their personal 
charms. They were the vehicles also of the news of the day, 
there being no post-office nearer than Tarboro. The wonder- 
ing neighbors heard from these drivers what was going on in 
the big world— that Washington had consented to accept a 
second term of the Presidency, that the heads of the King and 
Queen of France had rolled into the guillotine basket, that the 
allied armies had been driven back from the Rhine ; and then 
what has proved to be of more importance than all the vic- 
tories of the armies or the discrowning of kings that a Yankee 
schoolmaster, named Whitney, had invented a machine for 
picking seed out of cotton; and every old lady paused in the 
musical whir of her spinning-wheel to listen to the astounding 
intelligence, not more than three months old, that in the old 
country a man named Arkwright was spinning yarn by water 
power, and more incredible still a preacher, named Cartwright, 
was weaving cloth by wood and iron instead of human muscle. 

From these causes the roads of those days, though over them 
rolled no modern carriages or effeminate buggies, or bicycles, or 
horse-scaring automobiles, frequently resounded with the heavy 
wheels of the covered wagons ; and the cross-roads were places 
of importance where wagoners and the neighbors met for 
business and social enjoyments, listened to political speeches, 
and more rarely to homely but heart-stirring sermons. 

The great roads from Petersburg to Pittsboro and the coun- 
try beyond, and from New Bern towards Greensboro and 
Salisbury crossed on this eminence. At the northeast corner 
of the cross was a chapel of the Church of England, a sad 
relic of the futile efforts to establish a church in North Caro- 
lina. The locality was called New Hope Chapel Hill or the 
Hill of New Hope Chapel. The eminence is a promontory 
of granite, belonging to the Laurentian system, and extends 
into the sandstone formation to the east, which was once the 
bed of a long sheet of water stretching from near New York 
to the centre of Georgia. We have in our Museum pieces of 
rock formed from the mud and sand at the bottom of this old 
bay, on which are ripple marks of the waves and prints of the 
plants and animals that grew in its shallows. It was on 



20 HISTORY UNIVERSITY Ob NORTH CAROLINA. 

this plateau, elevated 250 feet above the country on the east, 
503 feet above the ocean, then as now celebrated for its magnifi- 
cent forests of oak and hickory, its springs of cool and purest 
water, its pleasant, mudless, dustless soil, its genial, healthful 
climate, on whose hillsides the mountain flora blossom, that 
the home of the University was fixed. 

We are fortunate in having a contemporary description of 
the site in Davie's own words, when he was full of enthusiasm 
after eating his dinner, according to tradition, under the old 
poplar which bears his name. 

"The seat of the University is on the summit of a very high 
ridge. There is a very gentle declivity of 300 yards to the 
village, which is situated in a handsome plain, considerably 
lower than the site of the public buildings, but so greatly ele- 
vated above the surrounding country as to furnish an extensive 
and beautiful landscape, composed of the heights in the vicinity 
of Eno, Flat and Little Rivers." 

"The ridge appears to commence about half a mile directly 
east of the building, where it rises abruptly several hundred 
feet. This peak is called Point Prospect. The flat country 
spreads out below like the ocean, giving an immense hemis- 
phere in which the eye seems lost in the extent of space." 

"There is nothing more remarkable in this extraordinary 
place than the abundance of springs of the purest and finest 
water, which burst from the side of the ridge, and which have 
been the subjects of admiration both to hunters and travelers 
ever since the discovery and settlement of this part of the 
country." 

It will be noticed that the name Point Prospect has been 
changed to "Piney" Prospect. In old times point was pro- 
nounced a pint, and the change was natural, especially as the 
hill has pines growing on it and masses of these trees are 
the chief features of the scenery. I add that the water flowing 
from these springs into the creeks north and south of us have 
created an endless variety of hill and dale, with surprising 
wealth of flora, even the rhododendron of the mountains, which 
Gray stated until Dr. Simonds showed him our plant, could 
not grow below 1.800 feet. 



the donors of the site. 27 

The Donors of the Site. 

Nearly all of these donors were part of that band of im- 
migrants, which leaving Pennsylvania sought on the waters 
of the Haw, the Deep, the Yadkin, and the Catawba a more 
peaceful home, one farther removed from warring Indians and 
scheming Frenchmen in the countries bordering on the Alle- 
ghany and the Monongahela. They were of plain, honest, un- 
ambitious stock, possibly more moved to their generosity by 
the hope of increasing the value of the broad acres retained 
by them than by love of letters and far-seeing patriotism. 

Most of what I know of their history I derived from my most 
intelligent friend, the late Captain John R. Hutchings, whose 
farm lies in full view from Piney Prospect on the extreme 
right. 

Col. John Hogan was an officer of the Revolution, in the 
militia service, which was arduous and perilous, especially when 
Cornwallis' headquarters were at Hillsboro and armed bands 
of British and Tories were harrying the central counties. His 
residence was in the county of Randolph, and his descendants 
are in that and Davidson counties. One of them was the esti- 
mable wife of Dr. Wm. R. Holt, a President of the North 
Carolina Agricultural Society and the introducer of Devon cat- 
tle and other blooded stock into the valley of the Yadkin. She 
was the nearest relation to the benefactress of the University, 
Mary Ruffin Smith. 

Matthew and William McCauley were of the few who came 
over directly from the north of Ireland. They were from the 
county of Antrim. According to tradition Matthew, when a 
youth, became involved in one of the numerous insurrections 
against British rule, and, concealed in a hogshead, was shipped 
as freight to the colonies in the new world. Settling on Mor- 
gan's Creek he, by industry and skill, succeeded in buying much 
land and establishing a mill on that creek of such wide celeb- 
rity that the roads in the neighborhood were marked off by the 
number of miles to it. He owned also a blacksmith shop, which 
met with a large patronage in the days when nails and horse- 
shoes were made by hand. His dwelling still stands, low- 
pitched, high-roofed, with small windows on the old Hillsboro 
and Pittsboro road. The mill has gone to decav. 



28 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Matthew McCauley was thrown on his own resources before 
having an opportunity to procure book education, but was a 
very intelligent man and good citizen. A story told on him 
seems to prove the truth of the statement that "there are no 
snakes in Ireland." Shortly after his arrival in Orange 
County he was struck by the beauty of a rattlesnake which 
crossed his path. He caught it, fortunately around the neck, 
and carried it to an old lady with the inquiry, "what is this 
pretty beast?" Following the terrified advice of the lady he 
succeeded in throwing it away so as to escape its poisonous 
fangs. Another story was considered very mirthful in the 
old days. A neighbor made him a gift of a pair of snuffers, 
most useful when home-made tallow candles were in vogue. He 
carried them home in triumph, and when the light became dim 
snuffed the candle with his fingers as usual and deposited the 
charred end of the wick in the snuffers with the triumphant 
remark that it was very "usiary," (useful). 

He was a faithful soldier in the Revolutionary army. The 
General Assembly raised the grades of officers of the line, so 
that he was after the war a captain, but on the roster of Conti- 
nental officers he is placed as first lieutenant of the ioth Regi- 
ment of Continental troops, his commission being dated April 
19, 1777, Abraham Shepard being his colonel. While engaged 
under orders in recruiting service he was captured by the 
Tories and imprisoned for three months. Such was his hatred 
of Tories that even in old age, though of only medium size, 
he was eager to pick a quarrel and fight with any of that party 
whom he chanced to meet. 

He left many children. One of his sons settled in Kentucky. 
Another, a lawyer, William by name, was a student and then 
steward of the University. William left two sons, one of them, 
Samuel, was once Mayor of Monroe; the other, Charles Mau- 
rice Talleyrand McCauley. was a gallant captain in the Con- 
federate army, a good lawyer and, as Senator from Union in 
the General Assembly, was always a supporter of the institu- 
tion, which his grandfather helped to provide. A grandson, 
bearing: the honored name of Matthew McCauley, resides on a 
part of the old plantation, though not in the old home. 



THE DONORS OF THE SITE. 20, 

William McCauley, a brother of the first Matthew, lived a 
few miles west of Chapel Hill in the district called the "Great 
Meadows," a leader in his county. He is the ancestor of the 
prosperous merchant of Chapel Hill, David McCauley, who is 
also a descendant of Matthew McCauley, by the "spindle," i. 
e., female line. William was a member of the lower house 
of the General Assembly during most of the Revolutionary 
War, and of the Senate from 1784 to 1788 inclusive. The con- 
fidence of the people of Orange was further shown to him by 
sending him as a delegate to the Convention of 1788 held at 
Hillsborough, which postponed the ratification of the Consti- 
tution of the United States. In common with the rest of the 
Orange delegates he voted for the postponement. 

Benjamin Yeargin was a son of the Rev. Andrew Yeargin, 
a Methodist preacher in Virginia and North Carolina, after 
whom the first Methodist church in Virginia, Yeargan's 
Chapel, was named. Benjamin was a worthy farmer, owning 
the land for a long distance along Bowlin's Creek. He was 
also the schoolmaster of the neighborhood. His mill, part of 
the mudsill still in situ, at a romantic defile called Glenburnie, 
was the first in the southern part of Orange County. His 
dwelling-house was near the creek. The northern part of his 
land is the farm owned by Air. Oregon Tenney, and in it 
boarded President Polk. Judge William H. Battle and other 
students who preferred to walk nearly two miles over the 
rough hills rather than take meals at Steward's Hall. One 
of his sons, Mark Morgan Yeargin, was a student of the Uni- 
versity in 1807, and settled at Henderson in Kentucky. His 
descendants are now over many States, principally North Car- 
olina, Tennessee and Kentucky. Two of them, Ueonidas 
Hillary Yeargan, of New York, and Hillary H. L. Yeargan, 
M.D., of Murfreesboro. Tennessee, have published a neat book- 
let — the origin and genealogy of the Yeargan family from 1730 
to 1890.* 

Christopher Barbee, familiarly known as "Old Kit," one of 
the largest landowners of this county, had his residence on 
a commandinsf eminence called The Mountain, three miles 



*The Dame was spelt differently by different members of the family. 
Yeargin, Yeargan, Yeargon. 



3,0 HISTORY UNIVERSITY Ol' NORTH CAROLINA. 

east of the village of Chapel Hill. He was a familiar 
figure for many years, said Dr. Charles Phillips, riding into 
the village on horseback with a little negro behind him, 
mis destination being his blacksmith shop on Main street. 
He had two son's, William and Willis. William increased an 
estate already considerable, and at one time represented the 
county in the Legislature. Willis was a physician in the same 
neighborhood, after being a student of the University in 1818. 
One of the granddaughters of William Barbee married Wm. 
R. Kenan, of Wilmington. Their son was a recent student and 
instructor in the University. A great-grandson, William 13. 
Stewart, was a graduate in 1881, and another, John Guthrie, was 
a student in 1896. A grandson, Belfield William Cave, was a 
graduate of 1848; and another, William F. Hargrave, was a 
student in 1866. The mill at the foot of the upper Laurel Hill, 
to which so many pilgrimages are made by young men and 
maidens, was known for many years as Barbee's Mill, and 
then Cave's Mill, after the name of one of his sons-in-law. 

The land on which the mill just mentioned was built was 
in 1792 the property of John Daniel, another of the donors. 
His residence was on the road between the mill and the village, 
and the grave of the owner is very near it. He was the sur- 
veyor for the Trustees, and his map of the University lands and 
vicinity is in our archives. After his death his family moved 
to the Mississippi Territory, now State. 

Mark Morgan, one of the earliest settlers, lived on his lands, 
bought of Earl Granville, three miles southeast of the village, 
the land reaching to the summit of New Hope Chapel Hill. 
Of his two sons John moved west in 1823, and Solomon lived 
and died on the homestead. Half of his land, about 800 acres, 
including the homestead, descended to his daughter, Mary 
Elizabeth, the wife of Rev. James Pleasant Mason. She be- 
queathed it to the University to found a fund in memory of 
her daughters, Martha and Varina, who died within a month 
of one another just after budding- into womanhood. 

In the latter part of his life. Solomon, who had been a man 
of neighborhood prominence, a Justice of the Peace, became 
feeble-minded and a guardian of his property was appointed 



THE DONORS OF THE SITE. 3 1 

He was allowed to have a horse of his own, and on one occa- 
sion swapped horses with a traveler, obtaining in exchange a 
noble black much superior to his own. Discovering that he 
had been overreached the trader endeavored to procure a re- 
scission of the trade, and on Solomon's refusal threatened to 
appeal to his guardian. "Oh," said Solomon, "my guardian 
was appointed to keep people from cheating me and not to 
keep me from cheating them." And he kept his horse. It 
was his son Samuel who, when under conviction of his sins 
in consequence of the eloquent preaching at a revival, was 
heard, when on his knees in a solitary hay-loft, to utter this 
unique prayer, "Oh, Lord ! they accuse Sam Morgan of doing 
this and that wicked thing, but, Oh Lord ! it's a d — d lie." 

Hardy Morgan was the brother of Mark. His lands lay on 
Bowlin's Creek, east of the village, now the property of Robert 
F. Strowd. The son, Samuel, who inherited the home place 
is described as "one of nature's noblemen," so free from guile 
as to lose nearly all his property by becoming surety for Sheriff 
Nat King who fled to Tennessee after bankrupting his friends. 
One of his slaves, Tom, having been bought by a trader who 
designed to carry him to the Southwest for sale, ran away and 
for several years had two hiding places, one a cave on Morgan's 
Creek and the other in a very thick copse of wood near his old 
master's residence, under the lee of overhanging rocks. Rough 
boards leaning against the rocks made a dismal shelter from 
the rain. Under them was a shoemaker's bench and a pile of 
leaves for his couch. He lived partly by robbery, partly by 
food brought by his mother, whose cabin was near, but on the 
opposite side of the hill. There seemed to be little desire to 
molest him until he began to break into the stores of the village 
in search for meat. Then a posse was summoned for his cap- 
ture. Marching through the forest at regular intervals — a pro- 
cess known as "beating the woods" — the men aroused him from 
his lair, and, on his refusal to stop when commanded, he was 
shot in the legs, captured and then sent south for sale. I have 
never seen the cave on Morgan's Creek but visited the den in 
the woods the day after his capture. I remember the shoe- 
maker's bench and the fragments of leather, the scattered bones. 



32 HISTORY UNIVERSITY oi-' NORTH CAROLINA. 

relics of his solitary meals, and my young mind was shocked 
inexpressibly at the resemblance of poor Tom's habitation to 
the lair of a wild beast. 

It is gratifying" to know that the old age of Samuel Morgan 
was relieved by the acquisition of a competent livelihood in 
right of his wife. Allen, the other son of Hardy Morgan, was 
dissipated and he and his descendants became impoverished. 

James Craig lived in the house still occupied by one of his 
descendants in the extreme western part of the village. He 
was a quiet, reserved, good man, so absent-minded that on one 
occasion he rode on horseback to New Hope church and then 
walked home about seven miles, forgetting that he had a 
horse, saddled and bridled, hitched near the church door. I 
heard President Andrew Johnson, in a speech delivered from 
President Swain's front steps, tell how, when on his way from 
Raleigh to seek his fortune in Tennessee, having walked from 
Raleigh, 28 miles, penniless and weary, he begged for a supper 
and a night's lodging at James Craig's. With softened voice 
he spoke of the cordial hospitality with which he was received, 
and how after abundant meals and a good night's rest he was 
cheered on his lonely journey by kind words and a full supply 
of food in his pockets. 

For many years "Craigs," or "Fur (far) Craigs," as the 
place was called, to distinguish it from a Craig residence nearer 
the village, was a favorite boarding house for those not ad- 
verse to long walks. Dr. Hooper tells in his "Fifty Years 
Since" how ambitious "spreads" of fried chicken and other 
dainties were served up to parties of students, seeking a change 
from the monotony of the ancient Commons. I remember 
that on one sad occasion a squad of unfortunates, among them 
one destined to be an eminent Confederate general, whose hands 
bore the signs of the presence of the dreaded sarcoptes scabei, 
were quarantined at this remote spot in sulphurous loneliness, 
under the sway of the terrible demon, "Old Scratch " 

Two of James Craig's children lived to the advanced»age of 
84 or 85 years on the homestead. His son James graduated at 
the University in 181 6 in the class of John Y. Mason, Wm. 
Julius Alexander, and others. James Francis Craig, his grand- 



LAYING THE CORNER STONE. 33 

son, a student of the "-University in 1852, recently died on the 
old homestead. Another grandson, Wm. Harrison Craig, a 
graduate of 1868, is a successful lawyer in Arkansas. 

Alexander Piper was a plain farmer who removed to Fayette 
County, Tennessee, many years ago. 

Edmund Jones, a most valuable citizen in his county, was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary War. Marrying Miss Rachel 
Alston he settled as a farmer near Chapel Hill, but soon after 
the location of the University removed to Chatham County and 
established himself on Ephraim's Creek, on the present line 
of the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad, midway between 
Siler City and Ore Hill. He is buried about twelve feet from 
the road. He died in 1834 at the age of 85 years. He left 
three sons, two of whom resided in North Carolina, and the 
third moved West. His descendants are scattered all over the 
South and Southwest. One of his sons, Atlas Jones, was an 
alumnus, then a tutor of the University, i8o4-'o6, then a Trus- 
tee. He was a lawyer of prominence and a member of the 
General Assembly from Moore County. A lawyer of much 
natural ability, but of irregular habits, often in the Legislature 
from Anson, noted for his power of discomforting opponents 
by humorous ridicule. Atlas Jones Dargan, was named after 
him. 

Thomas Connelly was once owner of the Matthew McCauley 
mill tract. Seized by the fever for emigrating he removed to 
Georgia. He sold his Orange County possessions and his 
name has disappeared from this neighborhood. He was a Vir- 
ginian and married Miss Mary Price, of Norfolk, in that State. 
He died at the age of 82, leaving eleven sons and five daugh- 
ters, most of them married. His descendants are scattered 
from Georgia to Texas. 

The Laying of the Cornerstone of the Old East 
Building. 

The report of the Commissioners was referred to a com- 
mittee consisting of Davie, McCorckle, Jones, Ashe, and Sit- 
greaves. Jones, as chairman, reported an ordinance ratifying 
their action, which was unanimously adopted. At a previous 
3 



34 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

meeting a committee of which Senator Hawkins was chairman, 
recommended the plan of a building 120 feet by 50, three 
stories high, with a dining-room on the first floor 40 feet by 30, 
and a public hall on the second and third floors of the same 
dimensions. This plan was for want of means not approved, 
and on motion of Davie the location and construction of a 
building sufficiently large to accommodate 50 students, and 
also the laying out the village of Chapel Hill and selling lots 
therein, were directed to be entrusted to seven commissioners, 
styled the Building Committee, to be elected by ballot. 

The following were chosen : Alfred Moore, W. R. Davie, 
Fred. Hargett, Thomas H. Blount, Alexander Mebane, John 
Williams and John Haywood, certainly worthy of full confi- 
dence. 

The committee reported, through John Haywood, at their 
meeting in Fayetteville in December, 1793. They had met in 
Hillsboro in April of that year and contracted with George 
Daniel, of Orange County, for making 350,000 bricks for 40 
shillings ($4) per thousand. On the 10th of August following 
they met at Chapel Hill, marked off sites for the buildings, 
"together with the necessary quantity of land for offices, ave- 
nues and ornamental grounds." They then laid off the village 
into lots. In addition to the beauty and natural advantages of 
the place, they reported that it is "happily accommodated to the 
introduction and direction of several important public roads, 
which it is highly probable will in the future lead through 
it." They found that a tract of eighty acres, belonging to 
Hardy Morgan ran inconveniently near the buildings, and 
therefore bought it for $200. On the 19th of July they con- 
tracted with James Patterson, of Chatham County, for erecting 
a two-storied brick building, 96 feet 7 inches long and 40 feet 
1 1-2 inches wide, for $5,000, the University to furnish the 
brick, sash weights, locks, hooks, fastenings and painting. The 
building was to contain 16 rooms with four passages, and to 
be finished by the 1st of November, 1794. The cornerstone 
was laid on the 12th of October, T793. and on the same day 
the lots in the village, reserving a four-acre lot for a residence 
for the President, were sold for £1.534 ($3,168), payable in 
one and two years, good security being given. It was thought 



LAYING THE CuRXIiR STONE. 35 

that "the amount of the sales furnishes a pleasing and unde- 
niable proof of the high estimation in which the beautiful spot 
is held." The report is signed by Davie, Moore, Mebane, 
Blount, and Haywood, from which it is inferrible that Hargett 
and Williams did not act. The 8o-acre tract included the land 
east of the buildings next to the Raleigh road, which is prop- 
ably the oldest cleared land of the University site. There are 
traces on it of a cottage, which was probably tenanted at the 
time of the purchase. 

The 1 2th of October was the date of many great events in 
the world's history — of the discovery of America by Columbus, 
of the birth of that grand evolution of Anglo-Norman-Ameri- 
can character, Robert E. Lee, and of our active, progressive, 
and able ex-President of the University, George Tayloe Win- 
ston. In the year 1877 it was made a holiday, University Day. 
General Davie, as Grand Master of the Free and Accepted 
Order of Masons, officiated, and Rev. Dr. Samuel E. Mc- 
Corckle delivered the address, on -the occasion of the laying of 
the corner-stone. 

We have fortunately an account of the proceedings of this 
day so memorable, written by Davie himself, the chief actor. 
I will endeavor to take the veil from this picture of long ago. 
and wipe off the dust which obscures it. 

The Chapel Hill of 113 years ago was vastly different from 
the Chapel Hill of to-day. It was covered with a primeval 
growth of iorest trees, with only one or two settlements and 
a few acres of clearing. Even the trees on the East and West 
Avenue, named Cameron by the Faculty in recognition of the 
wise and skillful superintendence by P. C. Cameron of the ex- 
tensive repairs of our buildings prior to the re-opening in 1875, 
were still erect. The sweetgums and dogwoods and maples 
were relieving with their russet and golden hues the general 
green of the forest. A long procession of people for the first 
time is marching along the narrow road, afterwards to be 
widened into a noble avenue. Many of them are clad in the 
striking, typical insignia of the Masonic Fraternity, their Grand 
Master arrayed in the full decorations of his rank. They march 
with military tread, because most of them have seen service, 
manv scarred with wounds of horrid war. Their faces are 



?6 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

serious, for they feel that they are engaged in a great work. 
They are proceeding to lay the foundations of an institution 
which for weal or woe is to shape the minds of thousands of 
unborn children; whose influence will be felt more and more, 
ever widening and deepening as the years roll on, as one of the 
great forces of civilization. 

Let us transport ourselves in imagination and look on this 
strange procession and see if we can recognize any of them 
as they step firmly in the pleasant sunshine of the autumnal 
sun. 

The tall, commanding figure most conspicuous in the Grand 
Master's regalia is that of William Richardson Davie, whom I 
have heretofore described. The distinguished looking man, 
"small in statue, neat in his dress, elegant in his manner," next 
to Davie, is Davie's great rival, Alfred Moore. Judge Murphey 
gives us a vivid picture of him also: "His voice was clear and 
sonorous, his perception quick and judgment almost intuitive. 
His style was chaste and manner of speaking animated. Hav- 
ing adopted Swift for his model, his language was always 
plain. The clearness and energy of his mind enabled him al- 
most without an effort to disentangle the most intricate subject 
and expose it in all its parts to the simplest understanding. He 
spoke with ease and with force, enlivened his discourse with 
flashes of wit, and where the subject required it with all the 
bitterness of sarcasm. His speeches were short and impressive. 
When he sat down every one thought he had said everything 
he ought to have said." His learning and acquirements secured 
for him a seat on the bench of one of the most august tribunals 
in the world — the Supreme Court of the United States. 

In that procession appeared one too who had highest reputa- 
tion among his contemporaries as an enlightened lawyer, Wil- 
liam H. Hill, heretofore described, father of the brilliant young 
man whose death filled the whole State with grief, Toseph A. 
Hill. 

We next see one who was for many years the most popular 
man in North Carolina, John Haywood. For forty years — - 
1787 to 1827 — he was Treasurer of the State. His hospitality 
was unbounded. He made it a rule to invite specially to an 
entertainment at his house at each session of the General As- 



LAVING THE CORNER STONE. 37 

sembly, which then met annually, every member. His kindness 
and charity were absolutely inexhaustible. In reading over the 
University records I find that for over thirty years he scarcely 
missed a meeting of the Board, whether held at Chapel Hill or 
Raleigh. His name is perpetuated not only by the memory of 
his distinguished sons, but by one of our loveliest mountain 
counties and by a neighboring town, which once aspired to be 
the capital of the State and site of the University. 

Marching with Haywood was Gen. Alexander Mebane, of 
the old Scotch-Irish stock, who settled the Haw Fields in Ala- 
mance, something of whose history has been given. 

In that procession was also John Williams, founder of Wil- 
liamsboro, in Granville County, whose strong, sturdy sense 
enabled him to step with short interval from the bench of the 
carpenter to the bench of the judge of the first court under 
the Constitution of 1776. He was likewise a member of the 
Congress of the Confederation. 

Thomas Blount, member from Edgecombe, soon to enter 
Congress and to become an attached colleague of Nathaniel 
Macon, was likewise present. 

Prominent in this procession was the venerable Hargett, 
Senator from Jones, plain, solid, but eminently trustworthy. 

After these came other Trustees. Who they were, with the 
exception of McCorkle, we have no record. 

After the Trustees march State officers, not Trustees ; among 
them Judge Spruce McKoy, of Salisbury, and doubtless John 
Taylor, the first Steward of the University, and the officers of 
the county; and then followed the gentlemen of the vicinity, 
the donors of the land and their neighbors, and among them 
Patterson, of Chatham, the contractor for the building. Since 
that day we have had processions, year by year, on our Com- 
mencement days, and in their columns men learned and dis- 
tinguished in all the pursuits of life, but never has there been a 
procession more imposing than that which laid the cornerstone 
of the Old East, on the 12th day of October, 1793. 

The orator of the day, Dr. Samuel E. McCorkle, was one 
of the most noted educators of that period. He was one of the 
sturdy Scotch-Irish, who- made the north of Ireland famous 
throughout all lands for triumphs of intelligent industry and 



38 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

thrift, whose glorious defence of Londonderry stands unexcelled 
in the annals of human valor and endurance ; who gave to 
North Carolina many of its leaders in war and peace — Grahams 
and Jacksons, Johnstons, Brevards, Alexanders, Mebanes and 
hosts of others, but above all most of its faithful and zealous 
instructors of youth, such as Dr. Caldwell, of Guilford, and 
Dr. Caldwell, of the University, Dr. Ker and Mr. Harris, its 
first professors, and that progenitor of a line of able and cul- 
tured teachers and founder of a school eminent for nearly a 
century for its widespread and multiform usefulness, William 
Bingham, the first. 

Dr. McCorkle was among the foremost of these. He was 
beyond his generation as a teacher. His school at Thyatira, 
six miles west of Salisbury, spread abroad not only classical 
learning but sound religious training. He attached to it a de- 
partment specially for teachers — the first normal school, I feel 
sure, in America. The first class which graduated at our Uni- 
versity consisted of seven members ; six of them had been 
pupils of Dr. McCorkle. And it is gratifying that one of the 
first graduates of the revived University was a relative of his, 
George McCorkle, of Catawba, the Chief Marshal of 1876. 

The name Zion-Parnassus, which he gave to his school at 
Thyatira, shows how he combined the culture of the Bible and 
the culture of the Muses. The first Board of Trustees of the 
University was composed of the greatest men of the State, and 
among them — Senators, Governors, Judges of the Supreme 
Court of the United States and of the State — was Dr. Mc- 
Corkle, the solitary preacher and solitary teacher. He was one 
of the best friends the University had ; worked for it, begged 
for it, preached for it. It was most fitting that he should 
deliver the first address at the University, to be followed by a 
long line of eloquent men. 

We have a report of the address made by Dr. McCorkle 
on this momentous occasion. It is replete with wisdom and 
noble thoughts, and pioves that the estimation placed on him 
by the men of his day was fully earned. 

"Observing on the natural and necessary connection between 
learning and religion, and the importance of religion to the 



LAYING THE CORNER STONE. 39 

promotion of national happiness and national undertakings, 
he said," "It is our duty to ackowledge that sacred scriptural 
truth, except the Lord build the house they labor in vain who 
build it. Except the Lord watcheth the city the watchman 
walketh but in vain." For my own part I feel myself prostrated 
with a sense of these truths, and this I feel not only as a min- 
ister of religion, but also as a citizen of the State — as a member 
of the civil as well as the religious society." 

After laying down the proposition that the happiness of 
mankind is increased by the advancement of learning and 
science, the doctor observed, "Happiness is the centre to which 
all the duties of man and people tend. ... To diffuse the 
greatest possible degree of happiness in a given territory is the 
aim of good government and religion. Now the happiness of 
a nation depends on national wealth and national glory and 
cannot be gained without them. They in like manner depend 
on liberty and good laws. Liberty and laws call for general 
knowledge in the people and extensive knowledge in matters 
of the State, and these in turn demand public places of educa- 
tion. . . . How can any nation be happy without national 
wealth? How can that nation or man be happy that is not 
procuring and securing the necessary conveniences and accom- 
modations of life; ease without indolence and plenty without 
luxury or waste? How can glory or wealth be procured with- 
out liberty and laws? They must check luxury, encourage in- 
dustry and protect wealth. They must secure me the glory 
of my actions and save me from a bow-string or a bastille. And 
how are these objects to be gained without general knowledge? 
Knowledge is wealth — it is glory — whether among philoso- 
phers, ministers of State or religion, or among the great mass 
of the people. Britons glory in the name of Newton and have 
honored him with a place among the sepulchres of their kings. 
Americans glory in the name of Franklin, and every nation 
boasts of her great men, who has them. Savages cannot have, 
rather cannot educate them, though many a Newton has been 
born and buried among them. Knowledge is liberty and law. 
When the clouds of ignorance have been dispelled by the radi- 
ance of knowledge power trembles, but the authority of the 



40 TUSTOKY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

laws remain inviolable; and how this knowledge productive of 
so many advantages to mankind can be acquired without pub- 
lic places of education I know not." 

The eyes of the orator kindled as he looked into the future. 
"The seat of the University was next sought for," he said, 
"and the public eye selected Chapel Hill — a lovely situation in 
the centre of the State, at a convenient distance from the capi- 
tal, in a healthy and fertile, neighborhood. May this hill be for 
religion as the ancient hill of Zion ; and for literature and the 
muses, may it surpass the ancient Parnassus ! We this day 
enjoy the pleasure of seeing the cornerstone of the University, 
its material and the architect for the building, and we hope 
ere long to see its stately walls and spire ascending to their 
summit. Ere long we hope to see it adorned with an elegant 
village, accommodated with all the necessaries and conveniences 
of civilized society." 

"The discourse was followed by a short but animated prayer, 
closed with the united amen of an immense concourse of peo- 
ple." 

We thank thee for thy golden words, thou venerable father 
of education in our State. On this foundation the University 
desires to rest, the enlightenment of the people, their instruc- 
tion not alone in secular learning but in religious truth, leading 
up to and sustaining liberty by demanding and shaping benefi- 
cent laws under which wealth may be accumulated and individ- 
ual happiness and national glory be secured, all sanctified by the 
blessings of God ; these are the objects, these are the methods, 
these are the good rewards of the University. 

But the beginnings of the University were in troublous times. 
Its struggles were not only with want and penury, but with 
ignorance and prejudice and a wild spirit of lawlessness. 

All the world was in a ferment. The passions of the era 
flamed across the ocean and enkindled sympathetic passions 
in our midst. Furious efforts were made to force the United 
States into alliance with the French Republic. The vision of 
the sister democracies of the Old World and the New, marching 
shoulder to shoulder to plant in every capital the standard of 
universal freedom, and conquering together a universal peace, 



LAYING THE CORNER STONE. 41 

aroused every sentiment of romantic philanthropy and quixotic 
gratitude. 

The rage of parties was strong in North Carolina, as else- 
where. It stood in the way of all measures for the advance- 
ment of the public good. It stimulated bad passions, prevented 
co-operation, divided the people into hostile camps. In the 
general excitement the cause of education was little regarded, 
and but for the wisdom of such men as Davie and Moore and 
Mebane and Haywood and Hill the new-born University would 
have been strangled in its infancy. 

The population of the State was only about 400,000, of whom 
about 100,000 were slaves. The permanent seat of government 
had just been chosen. The city of Raleigh was located in 1792, 
the State-house was not finished until 1794. The inhabitants 
of the State lived remote from one another, and mutual inter- 
course was prevented not only by long distances but by the 
execrable roads and the almost entire absence of spring vehicles. 
The two-wheeled sulky and stick-back gig were possessed by 
the better class, while only a few of the wealthiest could boast 
of the lumbering coach. Most traveling was on horseback, it 
being quite the fashion for the lady to sit behind the gentleman 
and steady herself by an arm around his waist. 

The diffusion of intelligence through most of the regions 
of the State was by the chance traveler or the wagoner. In 
1790 there were only 75 post-offices in all the Union, now there 
are over 70,000. There were only 1,875 niiles of post roads in 
all the Union, now there are over 400,000. Then there was only 
one letter to 17 people, now there are over 20 letters to each 
person. Then there were only 265,500 letters carried in a year; 
now there are largely over 1 ,000,000,000. Then the postage was 
from seven to 33 cents, according to distance ; now for two cents 
a letter will go with great certainty to the shores of the Pacific, 
even to distant Alaska among the frozen latitudes. In his mes- 
sage to the Legislature of 1790 Governor Alexander Martin 
complained that there is only one mail route in the State, and 
that runs only through the seaboard towns ; that only a few 
inhabitants derive advantage from that establishment in com- 
parison to the general bulk of the people of the interior coun- 



42 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

try. Five years afterwards Prof. Harris, when a weekly mail 
had been established, writes, "Our news at this place (Chapel 
Hill) has given us more trouble and disappointment than in- 
formation. 1 joined Mr. Ker, acting president, in getting 
Browne's daily paper, but it has not arrived by the two last 
posts, and if it does not come more regularly we must discon- 
tinue it." The old records show that it was a common practice 
to send a special messenger, called an "express," when impor- 
tant communication became necessary between the University 
authorities and the Trustees. 

The state of education was at a low ebb. There were no 
public schools and few private schools. I am fortunately able 
to give information on this subject from Judge Archibald 
Murphey, an early student of the University ; after his gradua- 
tion one of its professors. He says: "Before this University 
came into operation in 1795 there were not more than three 
schools in the State in which the rudiments of a classical edu- 
cation could be acquired. The most prominent and useful of 
these schools was kept by Mr. David Caldwell, of Guilford 
County. He initiated it shortly after the close of the war and 
continued it for more than thirty years. The usefulness of 
Dr. Caldwell to the literature of the State will never be suffi- 
ciently appreciated, but the opportunities of instruction in the 
school were very limited. There was no library attached to 
it. His students were supplied with a few of the Greek and 
Latin classics, Euclid's Elements of Mathematics and Martin's 
Natural Philosophy. Moral Philosophy was taught from a 
syllabus of lectures by Dr. Witherspoon in Princeton College. 
The students had no books on history or miscellaneous liter- 
ature. There were very few indeed in the State, except in the 
libraries of lawyers who lived in the commercial towns. I well 
remember that after completing my course of studies under 
Dr. Caldwell, I spent nearly two years without finding any 
books to read except old works on theological subjects. At 
length I accidentally met with Voltaire's History of Charles XII. 
of Sweden, and an odd volume of Smollett's Roderick Random 
and an abridgement of Don Quixote. These books gave me a 
taste for reading which I had no opportunity of gratifying 



LAYING THE CORNER STONE). 43 

until I became a student of the University in 1796 Few of 
Dr. Caldwell's students had better opportunities of getting 
books than myself, and with those slender opportunities of in- 
struction it is not at all surprising that so few have become 
eminent in the liberal professions. At this day (1827) when 
libraries are established in all our towns, when every profes- 
sional man and every respectable gentleman has a collection 
of books, it is difficult to conceive the inconvenience under 
which young men labored thirty or forty years ago." And yet 
there were men who, like Judge Murphey, conquered all these 
difficulties and rose, conspicuous for learning and science. 

I am satisfied that Judge Murphey was mistaken as to the 
number of classical schools. There were others, but very far 
from being sufficient to supply the needs of the State. 

The North American Review in 1821 said that, "In an ardent 
and increasing zeal for the establishment of schools and acade- 
mies for several years past, we do not believe North Carolina 
has been outdone by a single State. The academy at Raleigh 
was founded in 1804, previously to which there were only two 
institutions of the kind in the State. The number at present 
is nearly forty, and is rapidly increasing. Great pains are 
taken to procure the best instructors from different parts of the 
country, and we have the best authority for our opinion, that in 
no part of the Union are the interests of education better under- 
stood and under better regulation than in the middle counties 
of North Carolina. The schools for females are particularly 
celebrated and are much resorted to from Georgia, South Caro- 
lina and Virginia. Tn the year 1816 the number of students at 
academies within the compass of forty miles amounted to more 
than one thousand." 

Soon after the laying of the cornerstone of the Old East, the 
President's dwelling was begun. This was located opposite to 
the present Commons Hall, and is now occupied by Prof. Gore. 
It was the residence of Professor Ker, then of Professor Gil- 
laspie ; then for some years of President Caldwell. In the year 
1807 he married the widow of William Hooper, son of the 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, who had removed 
from Hillsboro to Chapel Hill in order to educate her sons ; he 



44 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

then removed to her residence at the southeast corner of Frank- 
lin and Hillsboro streets. This caused the "President's house" 
to become the residence of professors. 

Sale of Village Lots. 

After the ceremonies of laying the cornerstone, was had the 
sale of villages lots. A careful inspection of the map of the 
town preserved among the Harris papers and of the deeds given 
by the Commissioners of sale show clearly the plan. A broad 
avenue, called the Grand Avenue, 290 feet wide, being the dis- 
tance between the eastern side of the East Building and the 
western side of the West Building, was laid out on paper, ex- 
tending from the north front of the South Building north- 
wardly to the limits of the University land, considerably beyond 
the present village school-house. Person Hall (Old Chapel) 
was located to front on this avenue. 

Another avenue about 150 feet wide was designed to extend 
from the South Building eastwardly to Piney Prospect. The 
lots on both sides of Franklin or Main street, with the excep- 
tion of those included in the Grand Avenue, were squares of 
two acres each, as were also those along Columbia Avenue. 
These two-acre lots were numbered 1 to 24; those west of 
Columbia Avenue, beginning at the south, being numbers 1, 3, 
5,7; those on the east being 2, 4, 6, 8 ; the two latter as well 
as 5 and 7 being on Franklin street. To the east of 6 on Frank- 
lin street were the odd numbers 9 to 23, the spaces occupied 
by Grand Avenue and Raleigh street not being included; that 
at the southeast corner of Franklin and Raleigh streets being 
No. 19. Similarly on the north side of Franklin street from 
No. 8, usually known as the Hargrave lot, to the east are the 
even numbers 10 to 24; that known as the Thompson lot being 
No. 18. 

Besides these there were five lots of four acres each, Nos. 1 
and 2 being the lots from Commons Hall to the Pittsboro road. 
Nos. 3 and 4 being east and west of Grand Avenue and north of 
Rosemary street, No. 5 being east of Hillsboro street and north 
of Rosemary, and No. 6 being the Battle lot, touched by no 
street, evidently set apart for sale because a spring was within 
its limits. 



SALE OF TOWN LOTS. 45 

The campus, then called ornamental grounds, was planned 
to be far larger than at present. It was a square, extending 
eastwardly to the front line of No. 6 four-acre lot. and the 
same distance into the forest on the south, beyond the old 
brickyard. The general changes in the plan have been the re- 
stricting of the campus into its present stone-wall limits and the 
sale of that part of the Grand Avenue which lies north of 
Franklin street. The first encroachment was a Union church, 
called the village chapel, for holding religious services on Sun- 
day nights, on Franklin street about the middle of Grand 
Avenue, the professors contributing the major part of the 
building fund. In the course of time the lot on which it was 
situated was sold to the Presbyterians for their church, and the 
lots to the west of it were disposed of for various purposes. 
The old village chapel was moved northward and was recently 
the town school-house. Another portion of Grand Avenue was 
bought by the Methodists as a site for their church, and, when 
they concluded to build another, some northern Congregation- 
alists bought it for a school and church for the colored. It 
has since been sold into private hands. 

Long afterwards, about 1830, when Gerrard Hall was built, 
the authorities of that day had a quixotic notion to force the 
University to turn its back to the village and its face towards 
the south, a stately east and west avenue to run from the Ra- 
leigh to the Pittsboro road. The southern porch of Gerrard 
Hall, recently taken down, is a memento of this abortive pro- 
ject. 

It is interesting to read the list of purchasers at the sale 
of 1793. I regret that I have been unable to find the number 
of the lots each purchased, but by the researches of Mr. S. M. 
Gattis I can give fair specimens. The last descendant of an 
original purchaser who continued to hold the land bought was 
Mrs. Mary Kenan, of Wilmington, wife of Wm. R. Kenan, 
whose mother, Mrs. Jesse Hargrave, was a granddaughter of 
Christopher Barbee. She has recently sold it. The following 
is the list of purchasers, the terms of sale being twelve months' 
credit : 



46 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Christopher Barbee £ 105 . 10 $211. 

Wm. Hayes £ 50.5 100.50 

John Daniel 28 . 56 . 

Samuel Hopkins, No. 14 33 . 66 . 

Hardy Morgan, No. 12 75 . 150 . 

Edmund Jones, No. 13 100. 200. 

George Johnston, No. 11 71 . 142 . 

Nathaniel Christmas 40 . 80 . 

Alfred Moore, No. 17 32 . 64 . 

Charles Collier 67 . 134 . 

Stephen Gapins 40. 10 81 . 

James Patterson, Nos. 4 and 5 108.10 217. 

John Caldwell 29 . 58 . 

Jesse Neville 76.10 153 . 

John Grant Rencher, Nos. 20 and 19 

and 4 acre No. 5 114.5 228.50 

Daniel Booth '. 52 . 104 . 

Cheslcy Page Paterson 82. 164. 

Lewis Kirk 58. 116. 

Ephraim Frazier 55 . 110. 

Archibald Campbell 54. 10 109. 

John Carrington 107. 214. 

Andrew Burke, four acre No. 6 and 

four acre No. 3 125 . 250 . 

Total £1504. $3008. 

The Commissioners reported £30 more than this. The auc- 
tioneer was John G. Rencher, and he was paid $20. John 
Daniel was the surveyor and received $16. 

The lot bid off by Alfred Moore, one of the Commissioners, 
for £32 ($64) was transferred to William H. Hill, and by him 
to Thomas Taylor, a merchant. After building a house on it 
and living therein for many years Taylor removed to Tennessee, 
selling it to the University. It is the land east of the Episcopal 
church extending to the Raleigh road, now occupied by Dr. 
Alexander. 

The Charles Collier lot ($134) is that at the cor-wer of Hills- 
boro and Franklin street, now owned by the heirs of Henry 
Thompson. 

John Grant Rencher was the father of the late Abram 
Rencher, member of Congress and Charge d' Affairs to Portu- 
gal. He bought No. 5 lot of four acres for $74.50, No. 19, that 



6 ALU, OF TOWN LOTS. 47 

at the southeast corner of Franklin and Raleigh streets, and 
that opposite for §77 each. 

The four-acre Battle lot, No. 6, was purchased by Andrew 
Burke, a merchant of Hillsboro, for $150. The highest priced 
were the two-acre lots No. 11, where is now Roberson's Hotel, 
$142, or $71 per acre, the purchaser being George Johnston; 
No. 12 opposite, on part of which is the residence of the late 
Dr. W. P. Mallett, sold to Hardy Morgan for $150, or $75 per 
acre; and No. 13 (the Chapel Hill Hotel lot) to Edmund Jones 
for $200, or $100 per acre. The two-acre lot adjoining the 
campus on the west, brought only $95, and that at the southwest 
corner of Franklin street and Columbia Avenue, was sold 
to James Paterson, the contractor for the East Building, for 
$122. 

Nearly all of these purchases were for speculative purposes 
and it is doubtful whether any money was made on the re-sales. 
Investors should take warning by these figures of the danger 
of holding unimproved land in towns of slow growth. Number 
19 ($77), one of the most beautiful building sites in the village, 
the house on which, burnt in 1886, was the residence of Presi- 
dents Caldwell and Swain and which sheltered three Presidents 
of the United States, Polk, Buchanan, and Johnson, is now 
worth exclusive of buildings about $1,000. The $77 paid in 
1793 at six per cent compound interest would be over $12,000, 
and until 1848 moneys lent were not taxed. 

It is noticeable, as showing the progress of prices in real 
estate, that the acre which is now the Presbyterian Manse, then 
without a building on it, was in 1847 bought by Prof. W. M. 
Green, since Bishop of Mississippi, for $37.50. In 1892 Prof. 
Collier Cobb gave for three-fourths of an acre adjoining $300. 

The first effort to start the University on its educational 
career was peculiar and proved abortive. On the 12th of De- 
cember. 1792, the Curriculum Committee inserted an advertise- 
ment in the newspapers as follows : "Proposals from such 
gentlemen as may intend to undertake the instruction of youth'' 
are invited, the instruction to embrace "Languages, particu- 
larly the English : the Belles Lettres ; Logic and Moral Philoso- 
phy ; Agriculture and Botany, with the principles of Architec- 



48 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ture." No gentlemen offered themselves for this stupendous 
task. 

First Plan of Studies and By-Laws. 

On Decemher 4, 1792, at a meeting of the Trustees at New 
Bern, Messrs. McCorckle, Stone, Moore, Ashe, and Hay were 
appointed a committee to report a plan of education, and Hugh 
Williamson was afterwards added. Of these McCorkle, Stone, 
Moore, and Ashe have already been described. Hay was an 
able lawyer from Fayetteville, from whom Haymount is called, 
occasionally a member of the General Assembly, a strong Fed- 
eralist with a sharp tongue, which often embroiled him with 
the Republican judges, Ashe, Spencer and Williams. His beau- 
tiful daughter was the first wife of Judge Gaston. Dr. Hugh 
Williamson had the reputation of having much varied learning, 
especially in the sciences. He was a graduate of the Literary 
Department of the University of Pennsylavnia, was educated 
to be a Presbyterian preacher, but after serving two years left 
the ministry on account of ill health. After being Professor of 
Mathematics in his alma mater for a short while he obtained 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the University of Edin- 
burgh, and practiced his profession in Philadelphia. Engaging 
in a coasting commercial venture at the opening of the Revo- 
lutionary War, he was forced, in order to avoid capture, to run 
into Edenton, in North Carolina, and there concluded to settle. 
When the militia was called out for the unfortunate Camden 
campaign he volunteered his service as surgeon, and remained 
in the hands of the British in order to care for the American 
wounded. He was afterwards member of the North Caro- 
lina Legislature, member of the Congress of Confederation 
and of the Convention of 1787. and a signer of the United States 
Constitution. Marrying a lady of wealth living in New York, 
he removed his residence to that city and there wrote his His- 
tory of North Carolina. He also published a volume on the 
climate of America as compared with that of Europe, and was 
an active co-operator in advancing the interests of the LJniver- 
sity of North Carolina until his death in 1819. Jefferson said 
of him that he was a "very useful member of the Congress 
of the Confederation," of "acute mind and of a high degree of 



PLAN OF STUDIES. 49 

erudition." Of the committee the only college-bred men were 
McCorkle, Stone and Williamson. 

Dr. McCorkle, as Chairman, reported in December, 1792, in 
general terms that, considering the poverty of the University, 
the instruction in literature and science be confined to the study 
of the languages, particularly the English, the acquirement of 
historical knowledge, ancient and modern ; Belles Lettres, Math- 
ematics and Natural Philosophy; Botany and the theory and 
practice of Agriculture, best suited to the climate and soil of the 
State; the principles of Architecture. The committee recom- 
mended the procurement of apparatus for Experimental Phil- 
osophy and Astronomy. In this they included a set of Globes, 
a Barometer, Thermometer, Microscope, Telescope, Quadrant, 
Prismatic Glass, Air-pump, and an Electrical Machine. They 
were of the opinion that a library be procured, but the choice 
should be deferred until additional funds should be provided. 

The report is remarkable as being far ahead of the times. 
Notwithstanding that the chairman and the second on the list, 
Stone, were graduates of Princeton, a seat of the old curricu- 
lum, viz. : the Classics, Mathematics and Metaphysics, promi- 
nence is given to scientific studies and those of a practical 
nature. It is strikingly like the plan adopted by Congress for 
the establishment of the agricultural and mechanical colleges, 
in which, to use the words of the act, "Without excluding the 
classics, and including military tactics, shall be taught the 
branches of learning relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic 
Arts." And I find that the course of studies, from which the 
classics were excluded, was called by the name adopted in 1870, 
the Scientific Course, although the Faculty adopting the latter 
had no knowledge of the scheme of 1792. 

It is certainly to the honor of Dr. McCorckle that, while he 
established over a hundred years ago in the wilds of North 
Carolina a Normal School, the first probably in America, he like- 
wise drew up a scheme for the more practical instruction which 
all institutions of higher learning at the present day have to a 
greater or less extent adopted. It is probable, however, that as 
the University of Pennsylvania, the alma mater of Dr. Hugh 
Williamson, was conspicuous in exalting scientific studies, his 

4 



50 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

influence had weight in the report of the committee. I find that 
Dr. John Andrews, Provost of that institution, as late as 1810, 
writes that the principal teachers of Latin and English are not 
styled professors, but masters — that these schools were con- 
sidered distinct from the college, subordinate to it and only 
kept up as nurseries of the philosophical classes. He thought 
that on the death or resignation of the Rev. Dr. Rogers, the 
head of the English school, it would be abolished altogether. 

On January 10, 1794, the Board ordered the scheme of the 
Committee to be carried into effect, and that the exercises 
should begin on the 15th of January, 1795. The annual Com- 
mencement was to be on the Monday after the 10th of July 
each year, after which "there should be a time of recreation or 
holiday of one month only." The next vacation was to begin 
on the 15th of December and end on the 15th of January of 
each year. 

The prices for tuition were as follows : 

For Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and Bookkeeping, $8 per annum. 

For Latin, Greek, French, English Grammar, Geography, History 
and Belles Lettres, $12.50 per annum. 

Geometry with practical branches, Astronomy, Natural Philoso- 
phy, Moral Philosophy, Chemistry and the principles of Agri- 
culture, $15.00 per annum. 

No President was to be chosen, but a Presiding Professor 
only, to occupy the President's house and to be responsible for 
all the teaching. His style was "Professor of Humanity," his 
salary $300 a year and two-thirds of the tuition money. 

The Professor of Humanity and three Trustees, or the Presi- 
dent of the Board, were authorized to employ assistance when 
needed. The salary of a tutor was to be $200, one-third of the 
tuition money, free board at Commons, and the use of a room 
in the "Old East." The word "Humanity," more often in the 
plural form, "the Humanities," was held to include grammar, 
logic, rhetoric, poetry and the ancient classics, opposed to 
mathematics and the natural sciences. 

Charles Wilson Harris, a recent graduate of Princeton, was 
chosen, in the spring of 1795. Tutor of Mathematics. 

It was likewise resolved to build a Steward's House, to be 



PLAN OF STUDIES. 5 1 

ready at the opening of the institution, the size of the edifice to 
be at the discretion of the Building Committee. 

The students were to be allowed, but not compelled, to live 
in the University building and board at Commons. 

Absalom Tatom, of Hillsborough, who was afterwards a 
Commoner from that borough and, by his criticism of the Uni- 
versity as being aristocratical, provoked violent denunciation by 
President Caldwell, and Walter Alves, of the same town, the 
new Treasurer, were added to the Building Committee. 

A committee, composed of John Haywood, Davie, James 
Taylor, Adlai Osborne and Rev. Dr. McCorkle, reported that, 
as instructed, they had examined into the financial condition of 
the institution. That, "on the ist of November, 1794, the in- 
stitution would have in ready cash £6,297, 9s, 6d, ($12,594.95), 
exclusive of the hard money, which by that time for interest 
will be three hundred dollars, or thereabout. This interest was 
payable by the United States on bonds invested in the new debt 
created for discharging the Revolutionary obligations of the 
General and State governments. 

The Committee, to report "the quantity and quality of the 
meats and drinks to be furnished to students," was composed of 
Col. Wm. Lenoir, David Stone, Joel Lane, Robert Porter and 
John Haywood. The diet recommended seems sufficiently 
generous. 

For Breakfast. — Coffee and tea, or chocolate and tea, one warm roll, 
one loaf of wheat or corn flour (the secretary spells it flower), at the 
option of the student, with a sufficiency of butter. 

For Dinner. — A dish or cover of bacon and greens, or beef and turnips, 
together with a sufficient quantity of fresh meats, or fowls, or pudding 
and tarts, with a sufficiency of wheat and corn bread. 

For Supper. — Coffee, tea, or milk at the option of the Steward, with 
the necessary quantity of bread or biscuit. 

The Committee adds that "it is expected Potatoes and all 
other kinds of vegetable food will be furnished, and plentifully, 
by the Steward," with a clean table cloth every other day. 
"They are of opinion that no drink other than water be pro- 
vided, the word "drink" here meaning spirituous, vinous or 
malt fluids." The report was adopted. 



52 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

It is manifest that there is abundant room for differences be- 
tween the Steward and his hungry patrons. Neither the size, 
nor the weight of the rolls, loaves, bacon, beef, is specified. As 
no fresh meats and fowls were required when puddings and 
tarts were on hand, the first course, bacon with beans, or in lieu 
thereof, beef and turnips, must have been a trifle lonesome. 
And if the Steward, as he had the right to do, concluded to 
serve corn-bread, hot or cold, without butter, even the advocate 
of Spartan simplicity might find it unsavory. It must be noted 
too that the age and strength of the butter, which was not im- 
perative except at breakfast, might be a matter of serious 
wrangling. It seems to have depended on the sympathetic tem- 
perament of the Steward whether the expectation of the un- 
limited supply of vegetables was realized in all seasons. Our 
history will show abundant heart-burnings resulting from the 
want of more stringent provisions in the summary of that offi- 
cer's duties. 

In addition to furnishing food, the Board required the Stew- 
ard to give the floors, passages and staircases a fortnightly 
washing, to have the students' rooms swept and beds made once 
a day, and to have brought from "the spring" at least four times 
a day a sufficient quantity of water in the judgment of the 
Faculty. The spring mentioned was near the Episcopal Church 
rear wall, the head of the streamlet going through Battle Park. 
It was then bold and pure. General Clingman informed me 
that it was used as late as 1831. 

The first Steward was John Taylor, usually called Buck Tay- 
lor. For his services he was to receive $30 a year for each 
student. He was required to enter into bond with good security 
in the sum of $400 for the performance of his duty. An inspec- 
tion of a copy of the bond shows that the uncertainty in regard 
to the vegetables was partly removed by adding other words, 
so as to read "potatoes and all kinds of vegetable food usually 
served up in Carolina in sufficient quantities." The hours of 
meals were for breakfast and dinner eight and one, and for 
supper "before or after candle light, at the discretion of the 
faculty." The provision was added that if milk should be 
served at supper, neither coffee, tea, nor chocolate should be 



PLAN OF STUDIES. 53 

required, "unless by boys who eat no milk." Eating milk has 
an odd sound to our ear, but it must not be understood that the 
lacteal fluid hardened into the likeness of cheese. In 1796, for 
some reason not explained, the requirement of milk was dis- 
pensed with until after July 1st, while wheat bread and biscuit 
might be lacking until the same date. The house of the Stew- 
ard stood for fifty years at the crown of the hill east of Smith 
Hall, in the middle of Cameron Avenue — a two-storied wooden 
building painted white. Taylor held the contract until he gave 
place to Major Pleasant Henderson, a Revolutionary soldier, 
uncle of Chief Justice Leonard Henderson. 

John Taylor was a fine specimen of the bold, frank, rough, 
honest, Revolutionary veteran, a good citizen, but perhaps too 
ready to assert his rights and resent injuries by fist law. He 
owned a plantation three miles west of Chapel Hill, now called 
the Snipes place. When he came to his death-bed he requested 
to be buried on the summit of a woody hill overlooking the 
cultivated fields, so that he could watch the negroes and keep 
them at their work. The monument is a sandstone slab, and 
on it, "To the Memory of John Taylor. Born June 22, 1747; 
died May 28, 1828. A Patriot of 1776." 

At this meeting General Davie was requested to prepare a 
book-plate for the University books. It will be noticed that his 
Revolutionary title of Colonel is dropped for that of a higher 
rank, which of course was in the militia. There is a tradition 
that when he was afterwards a special Commissioner to France, 
Napoleon, although generally treating him with marked con- 
sideration, showed disgust when he learned that the title was 
not gained on the gory battlefield. 

The names of the earliest donors of books to the Library 
should be known. They were: Honorable Judge Williams, 3 
volumes; James Reid, Esq., of Wilmington, 21 volumes; Wm. 
R. Davie, 6 volumes ; Rev. David Ker, 3 volumes ; Richard 
Bennehan, 32 volumes ; Araham Hodge, 10 volumes ; Centre 
Benevolent Society of Iredell, 11 volumes; Francis W. N. Bur- 
ton, 2 volumes. In 1797 Joseph P. Gautier, Senator from 
Bladen, a lawyer, made the handsome gift of 174 volumes of 
French books. 



54 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Trustees placed in the hands of Hugh Williamson $200, 
to be used in the purchase of "such Grammar, Classical and 
other books as in his opinion will be first needed," and the Pro- 
fessor of Humanity was directed to sell them to the students at 
cost. It is interesting to note the titles of some of these books 
and their prices : 

48 Ruddiman's Rudiments each $0 . 28 

24 Whittenhall's Greek Grammar " .37% 

48 Webster's Grammar " . 33 1-3 

6 Scot's Dictionary " 1 . 00 

36 Corderii " .28 

24 Erasmus " .47 

2 Clark's Nepos " 1 . 33 

10 Sallust " . 87y 2 

6 Cicero Delphini " 2 . 00 

6 Virgil Delphini " 2.25 

6 Horace Delphini " 2 . 25 

6 Young's Dictionary " 2 . 25 

6 Schrevelius' Lexicon " .25 

6 Greek Testaments " 1 . 67 

4 Lucian " .90 

3 Xenophon " 2 . 50 

6 Nicholson's Philosophy (Natural) " 2.67 

4 Homer " 3.75 

6 Epictetus " .31 

It will be observed that Dr. Williamson rightly estimated the 
paucity of numbers likely to be in the higher Greek classes. 
The prices also point to the general slender demand for both 
Latin and Greek : $2.50 for Xenophon, $3.75 for Homer, $2.25 
for Cicero, Virgil, and Horace would distress the average stu- 
dent even in our day. Money was much more difficult of at- 
tainment then than now. 

The by-laws of the University were written at first by Dr. 
McCorkle, then referred to a committee, amended and adopted 
finally on the 6th of February, 1795. The following is a faith- 
ful summary. 

The duties of the President, or Presiding Professor, were to 
superintend all studies, particularly those of the Senior class, 
provide for the performance of the morning and evening prayer, 
to examine each student on every Sunday evening on questions 
previously given them on the general principles of morality and 



PIvAN OF STUDIES. 55 

religion ; to deliver weekly lectures on the Principles of Agri- 
culture, Botany, Zoology, Mineralogy, Architecture and Com- 
merce; report annually at least to the Trustees on the state of 
the University, with such recommendations as he saw fit to 
suggest. 

The officers of the University collectively were called the 
Faculty, with power to inflict the punishments prescribed by the 
Trustees, and to make temporary regulations when the Board 
was not in session. 

No officer to be removed without a fair hearing. 

Four literary classes were prescribed, called First, Second, 
Third, and Fourth. 

The studies of the First Class were English Grammar, 
Roman Antiquities, and such parts of the Roman historians, 
orators and poets as the professors might designate, and also the 
Greek Testament. 

The Second Class to study Arithmetic, Bookkeeping, Geog- 
raphy, including the use of globes, Grecian antiquity and Greek 
classics. 

The exercises of the Third Class to be the Mathematics, in- 
cluding Geometry, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. 

The Fourth Class to study Logic, Moral Philosophy, Princi- 
ples of Civil Government, Chronology, History, Ancient and 
Modern, the Belles Lettres, "and the revisal of whatsoever may 
appear necessary to the officers of the University." 

It was provided that if any studies should not be finished in 
one year, they should be completed in the next. B converso, 
if those assigned to one year should be finished before the end 
of the session, those of the next should be anticipated. 

For admission into the First, i. e., the lowest class, successful 
examinations should be had on Caesar's Commentaries, Sallust, 
Ovid or Virgil and the Greek Grammar. Equivalent Latin 
works were accepted. 

Those electing to study the Sciences and the English lan- 
guage to be formed into a Scientific class, or pursue the chosen 
subjects with the Literary classes. 

Those entering the Third class at. or after, the middle stage 
of its progress, should pay eight dollars ; those entering the 
Fourth in its first half, $12.50; in the second half, $15.00. 



56 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Three quarterly and a final examination were required of 
each class. 

Attendance on prayers twice a day was required, and morn- 
ing prayer was at sunrise. 

From morning prayer to breakfast was to be study hour. 
One hour was allowed for breakfast and amusement, after 
which three hours were devoted to study and recitation, i. e., 
until 12 o'clock. 

Study hours began again at 2 o'clock p. m. and continued 
until prayers at 5 o'clock, after which was a "vacation" until 8 
p. m., "when the students shall return to their lodgings and not 
leave them until prayers the next morning." 

Each class to have one of its members a monitor to report 
those absent without leave, and also the disorderly and vicious. 

Students all to speak, read and exhibit compositions on Satur- 
day mornings. Saturday afternoons were allowed for amuse- 
ments. 

All were required to attend divine service on the Sabbath. 
In the afternoon they were examined on the general principles 
of religion and morality. They were enjoined to reverence the 
Sabbath, to use no profane language, not to speak disrespect- 
fully of religion or of any religious denomination. Keeping 
ardent spirits in their rooms, association with evil company, 
playing at any game of hazard, or other kind of gaming, and 
betting, were prohibited. They must treat their teachers with 
respect. And an aristocratic principle was introduced when it 
was further ordered that they treat "each other according to 
the honor due each class." A general injunction to observe the 
rules of decency and cleanliness was prescribed. 

A fee of $5.00 per term, payable half yearly in advance, was 
exacted for room rent and repairs of accidental damages. One 
causing wilful damage must pay four-fold. If the mischief- 
maker was unknown, the real damage was assessed on all the 
students. Payment of dues was necessary to obtaining degrees. 

The students were required to cleanse their beds and rooms 
of bugs every two weeks. 

To ensure understanding of the rules it was ordered that the 
students copy them in note books. 



BY-LAWS. 57 

With regard to punishment the by-laws were framed with 
conscious recognition of the fact that University life is separate 
and apart from that of the State. A "Declaration of Rights" 
was prefixed. "The students charged shall have timely notice 
and testimony taken on the most solemn assurance shall be 
deemed talid without calling on a magistrate to administer an 
oath in legal form." 

The grades of punishment were : 

i. Admonition by any University officer, or by the Faculty. 

2. Admonition before the whole University. 

3. Admonition before the Trustees. 

4. Suspension. 

5. Total and final expulsion. 

It was gravely provided that no pecuniary mulcts should be 
inflicted for non-attendance on prayers or recitations, but in 
addition to admonition, an abstract of the report of the monitors 
of such absence must be sent to the offender's parent or guar- 
dian. 

The "monitors' bills," or reports, were to be read publicly 
every Monday evening, and offenders "brought to account." 

The laws were to be publicly read once a year, and an address 
delivered on the advantage and necessity of observing the laws. 
This address was to be either by a member of the Faculty, or 
by a student appointed for the purpose. 

A hundred years' experience discloses a marked change not 
only in words, but in the spirit of the University laws. 

In the administration of the criminal law a regular trial of 
offenders was originally contemplated. Witnesses were called 
for and against the accused, their solemn affirmation being 
taken as an oath. In practice it was found of course that stu- 
dents could not be compelled to inform on one another. Now 
the practice is to have no witnesses at all. The executive offi- 
cer satisfies himself that there is strong presumption of guilt, 
so strong, that if the accused refuses to answer, this refusal is 
to be considered as confession. If the accused positively affirms 
certain facts, they are, as a rule, accepted without calling any 
witnesses. His denial, unless inconsistent with known facts, 
is admitted to be true. It is not a criminal trial at all, but the 



58 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROUNA. 

accused is allowed to exculpate himself from suspicion, so 
grave, that without such exculpation, guilt is conclusively pre- 
sumed. The executive officer never arraigns a supposed of- 
fender on a mere suspicion or guess, with the intention of call- 
ing up one after another until the offender is discovered. This 
would ruin his authority and would justify students in refusing 
to answer, because obviously the plan would be equivalent to 
making students indirectly inform on one another. After much 
disturbance and many clashes this is the final outcome — the evo- 
lution of University trials. It is more satisfactory than any 
preceding method. A practice of many years has shown not 
one serious mistake on the part of the executive officer, and 
extremely rare cases of deception on the part of the accused. 
In these the scorn of their fellows was sufficient punishment. 

It is occasionally urged that the Faculty should invoke the 
power of the courts for punishment of student offenders. It 
has been done once at least, and threatened oftener in old 
times, but it seems to be against principle. The Faculty stand 
in loco parentis, and ought except in extreme cases rather to 
employ counsel to defend their children "in law" than prose- 
cute them. 

The evolution of punishments is interesting. 

Up to a recent period admonition before the Faculty was 
practiced freely. Experience has shown that this created irri- 
tation without effecting reformation, and it has been discon- 
tinued. The President takes the duty. 

Admonition before the whole University has been long ago 
abandoned as mischievous and useless. The same may be said 
of admonition before the Trustees. Suspension for from two 
weeks to six months was practiced until 1868. Obviously this 
punishment was very injurious to the scholarship of the stu- 
dent. It was not dreaded to a great extent by those who were 
not in awe of parents. Often the offenders engaged board a 
few miles from Chapel Hill and had a jolly time "rusticating," 
reading novels, hunting or fishing. Sometimes they plunged 
into the dissipations of neighboring towns. So the "total and 
final expulsion" was divided into "dismission." and "expulsion," 
the latter being only inflicted in cases of flagrant enormity. 



BY-LAWS. — PRESIDING PROFESSOR. 59 

For offenses for which formerly suspension for a definite term 
was inflicted, the punishment is now dismission from the 
University without report to the Trustees. It then rests en- 
tirely with the Faculty whether the offender shall be allowed to 
return, and if so, when and on what conditions. If the offence 
is an atrocious one the case is reported to the Trustees and, in 
addition to dismission, expulsion is recommended. If the 
Trustees concur, on no terms can there be re-admission. A 
milder form of dismission is a notification to the offender that 
he must withdraw, or a request to the parents to order him 
home. This allows easier admission to other institutions. 
Sometimes offences are overlooked in consideration of pledges 
to refrain from the particular misconduct. General pledges of 
good conduct, once a favorite with the Faculty, are now not 
required, as being a snare for the thoughtless. 

If it should become absolutely necessary, the Presiding Pro- 
fessor, with the advice of three Trustees, could employ a teacher 
of reading, writing, arithmetic, and bookkeeping. 

The Trustees had a high conception of the office of President. 
Before going into the election of the Professor of Humanity, 
it was ordered that neither he nor any assistant shall have "any 
manner of claim, right or preference whatever to the Presidency 
of the University, nor to such employments as it may hereafter 
be thought advisable to fill, but they shall be considered as 
standing in the same situation as though they had received no 
appointment from the Board." 

Election of Presiding Professor. 

The election was by ballot on the ioth of January, 1794. It 
does not appear that there were any applicants, but the follow- 
ing were placed in nomination : Rev. John Brown, who had 
been a pupil of Dr. McCorkle, pastor of Waxhaw Church, 
afterwards a Professor in the University of South Carolina, 
and President of that of Georgia ; Rev. Robert Archibald, a 
graduate of Princeton, pastor of Rocky River Church, after- 
wards embracing the doctrine of universal salvation, but it did 
not save him from being dropped from the Presbyterian roll; 
Rev. James Tate, an excellent Presbyterian divine from New 
Hanover ; Rev. George Micklejohn, generally called Parson 



60 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Micklejohn, who had been a minister of the Church of Eng- 
land in Colonial times, having under his jurisdiction, besides 
many others, the New Hope Chapel. He was a Tory and was 
forced to change his residence to the Albemarle country for 
fear of his influence over the Regulators. He was a rough, 
honest gentleman of the old Scotch school, according to tradi- 
tion, who would hire a man to attend his services by the bribe 
of a generous drink out of his bottle of brandy. Many sur- 
mised that the choice would fall on Dr. McCorkle, a Trustee, 
who delivered the address at the laying of the corner-stone of 
the Old East ; but, while his learning was conceded, Davie dis- 
trusted his executive ability. A story of McCorkle as a farmer 
shows that this distrust was well founded. He was used to 
carry into the field volumes on theological subjects for his di- 
version in intervals of manual labor. A neighbor seeking him 
on business found him stretched sub tegmine querci, deep in 
his studies, while his negro plowman was fast asleep under 
another tree, and the mule was cropping the grateful corn-tops. 

In a letter of Davie's, written at a later period, is the sugges- 
tion of another objection to Dr. McCorkle, by reason of a dis- 
trust of the wisdom of all preachers. Speaking of some criti- 
cisms of the University, he wrote, "Bishop Pettigrew has said 
it is a very dissipated and debauched place. Some priests have 
also been doing us the same good office to the westward. Noth- 
ing, it seems, goes well that these men of God (the italics are 
his) have not some hand in." Dr. McCorkle must have been 
included in this sneer. Davie, in truth, had imbibed some of 
the skepticism then so prevalent among the educated classes. 

Although he was not chosen, the good Doctor had no resent- 
ment against the University. This is proved by his collection 
of a subscription from his congregation at Thyatira for the use 
of the University, the only instance of congregational help 
given in the early days. Whether a business man or not he 
was possessed in a large measure of piety and force. Born 
August 23, 1746, in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, he was 
brought to North Carolina when nine years of age to a farm 
fifteen miles west of Salisbury. He was a bright student at 
the school of Dr. David Caldwell, graduated at Princeton in 
1772 in the class of Aaron Burr, whose father of the same name 




§&M }/}?/?<:,///?/ o/ . \?fl 



Old East Building. 
(Drawn bv John Pettierew, a student 1797/ 




Old East Building. 



PRESIDING PROFESSOR. 6l 

was President of the College. After his ordination as a minis- 
ter of the Presbyterian Church he was for awhile a missionary 
in the counties of Hanover and Orange in Virginia. He then 
settled at Thyatira, near his father's homestead in Rowan 
County, in North Carolina, and connected himself with the 
Presbytery of Orange. In 1785 he established his school. His 
person is described as tall and manly, his delivery in the pulpit 
grave and solemn, his language impressive and thrilling. He 
lived until January 21, 181 1, on his death-bed dictating minute 
directions as to his funeral. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Steele, a sister of General John Steele, a prominent 
Congressman of his day. 

Of Andrew Martin, also nominated, I have been able to learn 
nothing. Possibly he was a relative of the Governor. 

Over these nominees Rev. David Ker, thirty-six years old, 
born in North Ireland and educated at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, a recent immigrant, Presbyterian pastor in Fayetteville, 
adding to his small salary by conducting the high school in the 
town, was chosen to inaugurate the new institution. 

In order to be ready for the opening on the 15th of January, 
1795, the work on the East Building and the President's house 
was ordered to be pushed. The contractor was Samuel Hop- 
kins, as Martin Hall was the builder of Steward Hall, and 
Phileman Hodges of the Old Chapel, or Person Hall. It may 
be of interest to some that George Daniel made 150,000 bricks 
for $266.67 at one time and at another for $333.30. In the 
same year John Hogan received $400 for the same work. 
The clay and the fuel for burning were from the University 
lands. It certainly shows a striking difference between old 
ways and new that the lime for mortar was obtained from shells 
brought up the Cape Fear to Fayetteville and thence hauled by 
wagons to be burned in Chapel Hill. Now, instead of from 
the ocean which breaks upon our coast, we get our lime from 
the far-distant State of Maine. 

The Opening of the University, January 15, 1795. 
The opening of the University on the memorable January 15, 
I 795> g ave no prophecy of the swarms of students annually ap- 
pearing at the openings of our day. The winter was severe and 



62 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the roads almost impassable. Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, 
whose energy and devotion to duty had been shown when, as a 
student of twenty, he hastened to sail for America, ran the 
hazard of being captured by British vessels in order to throw in 
his fortunes with his native State, had braved the discomforts 
of twenty-eight miles of red mud and pipe clay and jagged 
rocks stretching from Chapel Hill to Raleigh. It is recorded 
that he had attendants, and we can assuredly guess that among 
them were State Treasurer John Haywood, and John Craven, 
the Comptroller, the first University Treasurer. The gazette 
of the period, the North Carolina Journal, merely states that 
there were present "several members of the corporation and 
many other gentlemen, members of the General Assembly," then 
in session. We may almost certainly see in attendance the 
members from Hillsborough and Orange, Samuel Benton, 
father of the great Senator, "Old Bullion," Thomas Hart 
Benton ; Walter Alves, son of James Hogg ; and William Lytle, 
son of Colonel Archibald Lytle who fought so bravely under 
Sumner at Eutaw ; also William Cain, the Senator from 
Orange, whose liberality to the institution has been mentioned ; 
William Person Little, Senator from* Granville, and Thomas 
Person, Commoner, both nephews of the University's benefac- 
tor, detained at home by the infirmities of age ; John Baptist 
Ashe, Commoner from Halifax, afterwards elected Governor 
but dying before taking his seat, in place of General Davie then 
employed on official duty elsewhere. O'f course the ever-active 
Joel Lane, Senator from Wake, who offered broad acres to 
secure the University at Cary, was on hand. And it is reason- 
ably certain, judging from the interest they took in the new 
institution, that John Macon, Senator from Warren, Daniel 
Gillespie, Senator from Guilford, whose son was afterwards 
Presiding Professor ; and the brilliant young Commoner from 
Fayetteville, afterwards the first Chief Justice of our Supreme 
Court, John Louis Taylor, were willing to add eclat to the occa- 
sion by their presence. Of course in attendance were Alex- 
ander Mebane, the Congressman, and James Hogg, the rich 
merchant, Trustees, Commissioners to select the site, and mem- 
bers of the Building Committee. 



OPENING DAY. 63 

The morning of the 15th of January opened with a cold, 
drizzling rain. As the sighing of the watery wind whistled 
through the leafless branches of tall oaks and hickories and the 
Davie poplar then in vigorous youth, all that met the eyes of the 
distinguished visitors were a two-storied brick building, the 
unpainted wooden house of the Presiding Professor, the avenue 
between them filled with stumps of recently felled trees, a pile 
of yellowish red clay, dug out for the foundation of the Chapel, 
or Person Hall, a pile of lumber collected for building Steward's 
Hall, a Scotch-Irish preacher-professor, in whose mind were 
fermenting ideas of infidelity, destined soon to cost him his 
place, and not one student. 

The proverbial optimism of the press as to matters hoped for 
did not fail the ancestor of our modern newspapers. The edi- 
tor of the Journal kindly comments : "The Governor, with the 
Trustees who accompanied him, viewed the buildings and made 
report to the Board, by which they are enabled to inform the 
public that the buildings prepared for the reception and accom- 
modation of students are in part finished, and that youth dis- 
posed to enter the University may come forward with the 
assurance of being received." The editor goes on to state the 
terms of tuition and board in apparently naive unconsciousness 
that he was giving the University a first-class advertisement. 
When I state that this important item appears in the issue of 
February 23d, forty-nine days after the event, we must give the 
palm for furnishing news more promptly, if not more reliably, 
to the modern reporter. 

The learned Presiding Professor, Dr. David Ker, reigned in 
his solitary greatness for the greater part of the period of revo- 
lution of the wintry moon. It was not until the 12th of Feb- 
ruary that the first student arrived, with no companion, all the 
way from the banks of the lower Cape Fear, the precursor of a 
long line of seekers after knowledge. His residence was Wil- 
mington, his name Hinton James. 

For two weeks, in his loneliness, he constituted the entire 
student body of the University, with no Sophomores saluting 
his ears with diabolical yells, nor teaching him to keep step to 
the rhythm of whistling music. For two weeks he was the 
first-honor man of his class. 



64 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

It was of good omen that this first-fruit of the University was 
worthy to head the list of her students. The Faculty records 
show that he performed his duties faithfully and with ability. 
For several years the students were required to read original 
compositions on Saturdays, and those deemed especially meri- 
torious were posted in a record book. The name of Hinton 
James occurs often on this Roll of Honor. His taste took a 
scientific and practical direction. One of his subjects was 
"The Uses of the Sun," another "The Motions of the Earth," 
a third "The Commerce of Britain," a fourth "The Slave 
Trade," a fifth "The Pleasures of College Life," and a sixth the 
"Effects of Climate on the Minds and Bodies of Men." 

After leaving the University, James became a civil engineer 
of usefulness in his section of the State, as an assistant to Chief 
Engineer Fulton, who was brought from Scotland at a salary 
of $6,000 a year payable in gold, to improve the navigation 
of our rivers. In passing from Wilmington down the beautiful 
Cape Fear, I was shown by my intelligent friend, the late Henry 
Nutt, some of James' works for deepening the channel, which 
had withstood the floods and tides of sixty years. He was 
likewise called into the service of his country as a legislator for 
three terms, beginning with 1807, for two of them being the 
colleague of a lawyer of great reputation in the old days, Wil- 
liam Watts Jones. 

The next arrivals were, a fortnight later, Maurice and Alfred 
Moore of Brunswick, and their cousin, Richard Eagles, of 
New Hanover ; John Taylor of Orange, and from Granville 
William M. Sneed, and three sons of Robert H. Burton, the 
Treasurer of the University, namely, Hutchins G., Francis and 
Robert H. Burton, Junior. It is pleasant to record that all of 
these turned out to be good men. The two Moores were sons 
of Judge Alfred Moore. Maurice served Brunswick County 
in the General Assembly and then became a planter in Lousiana. 
He it was who had the misfortune to shoot Governor Benjamin 
Smith in a duel. Alfred Moore, whose bust may be seen in 
Gerrard Hall, was a cultivated and popular man, reaching the 
dignity, once considered as nearly equal to that of Governor, of 
the Speakership of the House of Commons. He would have 
gone higher, if he had not lacked ambition. His name and 



tflRST STUDENT. O5 

talents have descended to his scholarly grandson, Alfred Moore 
Waddell. The father of Richard Eagles gave the name to 
Eagles Island, opposite Wilmington. The son, like the father, 
was a man of wealth and high standing in a cultivated com- 
munity. John Taylor, son of the first steward of the Univer- 
sity, was for many years Clerk of the Superior Court of Orange 
and was the grandfather of our big-brained mathematician — the 
late Ralph H. Graves. Of the Granville men, William Mor- 
gan Sneed was seven times State Senator and twice Commoner. 
Of the three Burtons, Hutchins G. was thrice elected Governor 
of the State, after being a Congressman. Francis Nash Wil- 
liams Burton was a lawyer of large practice in Lincoln and the 
adjoining counties, while Robert, his partner, was at one time 
Judge of the Superior Court. A daughter of Judge Burton 
married the eminent lawyer, Michael Hoke, and was the mother 
of one of General Lee's best Major-Generals, Robert F. Hoke, 
and grandmother of Secretary Hoke Smith. I give these par- 
ticulars in order to show that the University made a good start 
on its grand career. Its earliest sons were leaders in good 
works. 

The numbers reached forty-one by the end of the term. Dur- 
ing the second term they rose to nearly one hundred, but such 
was the dearth of good schools in the State that at least one- 
half of them were unprepared to enter the University classes. 

It became necessary to inaugurate a Preparatory Department, 
or "Grammar School," for the benefit of these juveniles, many 
of them belonging to the "small-boy" genus. The profession 
of teachers was then, and years afterward, at such a low ebb 
that obtaining competent professors was a most troublesome 
problem. 

Among the earliest students besides those I have named we 
find men afterwards notable for good works : such, for example, 
as Ebenezer Pettigrew, a member of Congress, father of Gen- 
eral J. Johnston Pettigrew, a still more eminent son of the Uni- 
versity ; Thomas D. Bennehan, famed for bounteous hospitality, 
long a Trustee of the institution, which his father, Richard 
Bennehan, assisted in its young days; James Mebane, Speaker 
of the House of Commons, father of another University grad- 



66 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROUNA. 

ute and Speaker of the Senate, Giles Mebane. I could name 
many others. 

Harris EJECTED. 

The increase in numbers led to the election of a Tutor of 
Mathematics, in the sphing of 1795. The choice fell on Charles 
Wilson Harris, a recent hrst-honor graduate of Princeton, 
nephew of Dr. Charles Harris, a noted physician of his day, 
who taught at his home probably the first medical school in the 
State.- Young Harris had a strong mind, elegant literary 
tastes, courtly manners, and weight of character. These two, 
Ker and Harris, sustained the burdens of instruction and discip- 
line during the first year of University life, and sustained it 
with conspicuous fathfulness and ability. It was a great mis- 
fortune that Ker the next year went off into infidelity and wild 
democracy, thus raising up two sets of enemies in the Board of 
Trustees, Christians and Federalists, so that he deemed it pru- 
dent after eighteen months to resign his charge. 

For the first year and a half, however, these two, Ker and 
Harris, had the difficult and unpleasant task -of classifying and 
instructing the unorganized mass of all ages from mature young 
men to mere boys, some with a smattering of algebra and the 
classics, others innocent even of arithmetic and grammar. 

We have no letters of Dr. Ker written from Chapel Hill, but' 
by the kindness of William Shakespeare Harris and other rela- 
tives this want is abundantly supplied by those of his associate. 
Charles W. Harris was an elegant writer. His style is free from 
ostentation, his ideas are clearly and strongly expressed, his 
penmanship is good, and his spelling in advance of his age as a 
rule. It is strange, however, that he gives to Chapel in Chapel 
Hill two p's instead of one. 

On the 10th of April Harris writes to his uncle. Dr. Charles 
Harris : "We have begun to introduce by degrees the regula- 
tions of the University and as yet have not been disappointed. 
There is one class in Natural Philosophy and four in the lan- 
guages." He continues, "The constitution of this college is on 
a more liberal plan than that of any other in America, and by 
the amendment, which I think it will receive at the next meet- 
ing of the Trustees, its usefulness will probably be much pro- 



LETTERS OF HARRIS MUSEUM. 6j 

moted. The notion that true learning consists rather in exer- 
cising the reasoning faculties and laying up a store of useful 
knowledge, than in overloading the memory with words of 
dead languages, is daily becoming more prevalent." He then 
enters upon praises of Miss Wollstonecraft's book on the 
"Rights of Women," as containing the true principles of edu- 
cation, and states that though the laws at present require that 
Latin and Greek be understood by a graduate, they will in all 
probability be mitigated in their effect. 

He was of a social nature, and deplored the lack of congenial 
society. "My only resort," he wrote, "is to Mr. Ker, who 
makes ample amends to me for the want of any other. He is 
a violent republican and is continually deprecating the aristoci- 
cal principles which have lately prevailed much in our execu- 
tive." We can see that Harris' political faith was swerved by 
this well-educated, able and experienced middle-aged clerical 
politician, for he sneers at some strong words of praise of Wash- 
ington by one Rev. Stanhope Smith, saying that "tho' he be 
the greatest man in America the encomium smells strong of 
British seasoning." 

He rejoiced that the Trustees resolved to inaugurate a mu- 
seum and took active steps to procure for it specimens. 

Although the articles given have been lost, the names of the 
donors should be remembered and the objects given recorded. 
The context shows that some of the specimens were given three 
years later. 

"Honorable Judge Williams," An Ostrich egg. 

Mrs. Allen Jones, Halifax, Pieces of Cloth made of bark brought from 

Otaheite by Capt. Cooke. The tooth of a young mammoth from 

the banks of the Ohio. 
Frank Burton, Granville, A sea leaf. A viol containing a reel. 
Col. Adlai Osborne, Centre, A piece of Asbestos. A pine limb and a 

piece of resin petrified. 
Hutchins Burton, Senior, The incisors of a Beaver. 
Messrs. Caldwell and Gillaspie, A Pocupine skin. 

A Beech nut petrified. 
His Excel. Gov. Davie, A testaceous bracelet from an Indian grave 

near Nashville. Curious stones, bones of nondescript animals. 

specimens of Indian clothing, and their arts and manufactures. 



68 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

As Harris' had read some medical books while living with 
Dr. Harris, and, as there was no physician nearer to Chapel 
Hill than Hillsboro, he charitably kept a small stock of medi- 
cine for the students and the neighborhood, to be sold at cost. 
He sent a plot of the University lands, well drawn, with a broad 
avenue leading N. 69 E. from the contemplated Main (now 
South) Building to "point-prospect" (now Piney Prospect). 
The campus then contained 98§ acres ; about twice as large as 
the present campus. His opinion of the suitableness of the local- 
ity for its purpose, accords with Davie's — "Most happily situ- 
ated ; a delightful prospect, charming groves, medicinal springs, 
light and wholesome air, and inaccessible to vice." "This last 
enconium by Mr. Charles Pettigrew, the Bishop-elect from 
Edenton, added when he visited us." The inaccessibility to vice 
was a pleasing delusion, as the good Dr. Pettigrew found on a 
subsequent visit. Two years afterwards he writes to Caldwell 
of his dread lest his sons, John and Ebenezer, may have "all 
fear of the Almighty eradicated from their minds by the habit- 
ual use of oaths and imprecations, which report says, and which 
my own ears have informed me, are too common impletives* in 
the conversation of the students." Those conversant with the 
social history of the times know well that the students used no 
worse language than was common in all social gatherings of 
men. 

Harriss expressed much concern about the education of his 
younger brother, Robert. "He is growing fast and receiving 
none of those improvements which he ought. I could not pre- 
vail with my father to let him come to this place. — It can 
scarcely be pecuniary want that hinders his complying with my 
request. Nor can it be I hope any distrust of my principles, 
as I have heard suggested. He and I have been very free in 
speaking on tenets, and I never observed any great degree of 
disapprobation. If the latter be the cause I have no more to 
say." 

There is only one other allusion in all his letters to the devia- 
tion of his faith from that of his Presbyterian forefathers. 
That looked only to the denial of the doctrine of the Trinity 



* This word is not in Webster. 



FIRST EXAMINATION. 69 

as usually understood, not by any means atheism, or denials of 
other truths of Christianity. If his apostasy had been rank, 
his Ruling Elder father would have regarded it not only with 
disapprobation, but horror. Nor would that father have placed 
his peculiarly beloved son, as within a few weeks he did, under 
the charge of an infidel elder brother, all the more dangerous 
because of his winning manners, strong mind and wide and 
varied reading. I think it is clear that Charles Harris' unbelief 
would in our day be regarded as not more heterodox than that 
preached by Dr. C. H. Briggs, Dr. Wm. Robertson Smith and 
other able divines, who have a large following in their respec- 
tive churches, although regarded by the majority as lacking the 
true faith. In other words, he was like those called among 
Episcopalians, "Broad Churchmen." It must be remembered 
that a hundred years ago there was much greater intolerance 
of differences of opinion than now. 

The first public examination was held on the 13th of July, 
1795, the first of the long series of Commencements, which 
have produced more eloquence, brought together more distin- 
guished men and beautiful women, provided a more abundant 
supply of unadulterated fun, and married off more congenial 
couples than any other similar occasion, in the land. Previous 
notice was given in the newspapers, over the signature of the 
Governor, Richard Dobbs Spaight. In an enthusiastic editorial 
in the North Carolina Journal, it was stated that the "young 
gentlemen" had submitted with a degree of cheerfulness and 
promptitude to the regulations of the University, which does 
them the greatest honor. — The Commons have exceeded the 
expectations both of students and of strangers. The. spirit of 
improvement, order and harmony, which reigns in this little 
community, emulously engaged in the noble work of cultivating 
the human mind, is most commendable." The editor at the 
same time gives glowing praises of the Academies of Thya- 
tira, under Dr. McCorkle, the Warrenton, under Rev. Marcus 
George, the Chatham under Rev. Wm. Bingham, and the New 
Bern, under Dr. T. P. Irving, as capable of furnishing students 
to the University. 

There is no contemporary account of this first Commence- 



JO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ment, but the deficiency is partly supplied by a letter from 
Hinton James, heretofore mentioned, written when he was 
about sixty years old. The public interest had not been aroused 
sufficiently to ensure a large attendance of visitors. Only one 
lady graced the occasion, the wife of the Governor, the first of 
the long procession of the thousands of the brightest and best 
of the womanhood of the land, — Mary (Leach) Spaight, well 
remembered as one of the most handsome and attractive of her 
sex. 

There were only about a dozen of the gentlemen of the State, 
the leaders of the hosts of the friends of higher education. 
Among them were "the University Father," General Davie, and 
the Secretary of State, James Glasgow, whose frauds in his 
office had not been discovered ; the merchant, James Hogg, and 
the eminent Attorney-General and Judge, Alfred Moore, the 
elder. These Trustees attended in pursuance of an ordinance 
of the Board that at every examination it should be the duty 
of one Trustee from each judicial district in alphabetical order 
to visit the classes and report the result of their inspection to 
the Board. As might have been expected, the attendance of 
the Trustees, at all times spasmodic, soon ceased altogether. 

It must have been an occasion of a staid and dignified nature, 
with no regaliad marshals, or dancing, or other amusements, to 
attract the fancy of young people. 

Oral examinations in the class-rooms and declamations and 
reading of compositions in one of the East Building rooms, fitted 
up for a public hall, in the presence of elderly gentlemen and 
Mrs. Spaight and probably Mrs. Mary Ker, the wife of the 
Presiding Professor, constituted the exercises. 

We have a letter from Davie written a few days afterwards, 
in which he says that the students acquitted themselves well, 
but with the refrigerating addition, "everything considered." 
The Trustees were disgusted with the exorbitant charges of the 
contractors, Patterson of Chatham and Hopkins, for extra 
work; in Davie's opinion four times what they ought to have 
been. There is abundant evidence all through the early records 
of the watchful economy of the guardians of the interests of the 
University. 



PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. Jl 

The letter was addressed to Treasurer John Haywood, who 
was absent from the meeting on account of the death of his 
first wife. It is interesting to see what kind of consolation the 
free-thinker, Davie, offers to one afflicted. "I regret exceed- 
ingly the various causes which produced your absence from th« 
Board. However, as the Arabs say, 'God would have it so and 
men must submit.' Under misfortunes like yours there is no 
comfort because nothing can be substituted. The only re- 
course of the human mind in such cases is in a kind of philo- 
sophic fortitude, the calm result of time, reason and reflection." 
Contrast this with the Christian's consolation, "Sorrow not as 
they who have no hope." 

Grammar School. 

On this occasion the Board determined to erect a house for 
a Grammar School, which should contain three or four lodging 
rooms, and thus relieve the congested state of the dwellers in 
the Old East Building. It would also separate from the older 
the very young students, some of whom were of such tender 
years, though tough in conscience, that it was necessary for 
their benefit to introduce corporal punishment. This school 
building was situated in the woods, south of Rosemary Street 
and west of the late public school, a place peculiarly lonely, 
but near two never- failing springs of purest water. 

Richard Sims, an advanced student from Warren County, 
seems to have been the first master of the Grammar School. 
In the month of December, 1796, was chosen Nicholas Delvaux, 
and with him on account of the rapid increase of numbers, was 
associated Samuel Allen Holmes, who had been a preacher. 
The antecedents of both of these teachers are unknown. Soon 
afterwards Holmes was promoted to the University and Wil- 
liam Richards, late a teacher in the Academy of Mr. Marcus 
George in Warrenton, was placed in the Grammar School in his" 
stead. 

It has been mentioned that those of the early students who 
wrote the best compositions were rewarded by having their 
names posted on an honor roll. The first who won this dis- 
tinction was in August, 1795, Richard Sims, of Warrenton, 



J2 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

his theme being "The Employment of Time." The second was 
Thomas A. Osborne on Habit. The third was Thomas A. Os- 
borne on the question, "Do Savage or Civilized Nations Enjoy 
the Most Happiness." The fourth Edwin Jay Osborne on "The 
Uses of Geometry." The fifth by Edwin Jay Osborne on "Self 
Government." He divided honors in the sixth with Hinton 
James, the themes respectively being, "The Uses of the Pas- 
sions" and "The Uses of the Sun." In the next week the same 
Osborne and Henry Kearney were the first, on "The Distinction 
Between Resentment and Revenge," by the former, and "The 
Uses of the Moon," by the latter. This honor roll was discon- 
tinued after the first year. 

The; Literary Societies. 

The Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies have been such a 
large part of our university life that I must give their origin. 

It was doubtless through the influence of Tutor Harris, who 
had seen the benefits of the renowned Whig Society of Prince- 
ton, of which he was a member, that the first literary society 
of the University was formed, as his name is the first on the 
list of signers to the preliminary articles. It was organized on 
the 3d day of June, 1795, under the name of "The Debating 
Society." The first President was James Mebane, of Orange, 
afterwards of Caswell; the first Clerk or Secretary was John 
Taylor, of Orange ; the first Treasurer was Lawrence Toole, 
who changed his name to Henry Irwin Toole, of Edgecombe, 
grandfather of Bishop Joseph B. Cheshire ; the first Censor 
Morum, Richard Sims, of Warren, afterwards Principal of 
the Grammar School. 

The objects of the society were expressed to be the cultiva- 
tion of a lasting friendship and the promotion of useful knowl- 
edge. The members pledged themselves under hands and 
seals to obedience to the laws of the society and due perform- 
ance of the regular exercises. I give the names of those fathers 
of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 

Charles Wilson Harris Cabarrus. 

Adam Haywood Edgecombe. 

Robert Smith Cabarrus. 

Alexander Osborne Iredell. 



THE DEBATING SOCIETY. 73 

Edwin Jay Osborne Rowan. 

William Houston Iredell. 

William Dickson Burke. 

James Mebane Orange. 

John Pettigrew Tyrrell. 

Richard Eagles. New Hanover. 

Hinton James New Hanover. 

Haywood Ruffin Greene. 

Richard Sims Warren. 

Lawrence Toole Edgecombe. 

Henry Kinchen Franklin. 

William Morgan Sneed Granville. 

Ebenezer Pettigrew Tyrrell. 

William C. Alston Halifax. 

Hut chins G. Burton. Senior Granville. 

Evan Jones New Hanover. 

John Taylor Orange. 

Maurice Moore Brunswick. 

Alfred Moore Brunswick. 

Thomas Davis Bennehan Orange. 

Francis Nash Williams Burton Granville. 

Allen Green South Carolina. 

Allen Jones Davie Halifax. 

Hyder Ali Davie Halifax. 

David Cook Unknown. 

Nicholas Long Franklin. 

George Washington Long Halifax. 

There was no constitution eo nomine, but there were "Laws 
and Regulations," some of which are worthy of mention. The 
officers were a President, Censor Morum, two Correctors, a 
Clerk, and Treasurer. The President and Treasurer held offie 
for three weeks, the other officers for six weeks. 

The Censor Morum was clothed with powers and duties 
which would not be tolerated in this generation, "to inspect the 
conduct and morals of the members and report to the society 
those who preserve inattention to the studies of the University, 
in neglect of their duties as members, or in acting in such a 
manner as to reflect disgrace on their fellow-members." This 
making the society responsible for attention to University exer- 
cises has been long ago abandoned, after the effort came near 
breaking it into fragments. This powerful officer, evidently 
modelled after the august Censors of Rome, presided in the 
absence of the President. 



74 HISTORY UNIVERSITY Ol 1 ' NORTH CAROLINA. 

The society met on Thursday evenings only. The members 
were divided into three classes. These read, spoke and com- 
posed alternately. There was a debate at each session, two 
opposing members previously appointed opening, and then the 
other members had a right to discuss the question, but were 
not compelled to do so. 

It was the duty of each member of the class whose turn it 
was to "read" to hand in a "query," then called "subject of de- 
bate," and out of these one was chosen for the next meeting 
by the society. 

It must be noticed that the "reading" mentioned above meant 
the reading aloud of an extract from some author. Of the other 
two classes one declaimed memorized extracts, and the other 
read aloud short essays of their own composition. 

Two votes were sufficient to negative an application for 
membership. The term "black-ball" was not then in vogue. 
The new members when admitted were required to "promise 
not to divulge any of the secrets of the society." The strin- 
gency of this provision has been since materially modified. 

It was made dangerous to "take umbrage at being fined," 
and to denote it by word or action," because, if the fine should 
be found to be legal, the accused must pay a quarter of a dollar 
for his squirming. There was mercifully no penalty for show- 
ing umbrage by a gloomy countenance unless the gloom was 
evidenced by frowning or other facial action. 

There seems to have been no fine for laughing or talking, 
unless a speaker was interrupted. 

The practice of wearing hats in the society, as is permitted 
in the English Parliament, was forbidden. The President, 
however, of at least one society, the Dialectic, was after some 
years required to preside with hat on, often a high-crowned 
beaver borrowed for the purpose. 

The admission fee was one quarter of a dollar. If a member 
absented himself for three months, without obtaining a diploma 
of dismission, he must seek a new admission. 

A member could leave the society without asking its consent, 
nor was any student compelled to join it. But having once 
left there could be no re-admission. 



A SECOND SOCIETY. 75 

It shows the high purpose of the founders of the society, 
that the first motion made after the admission of members, at 
the first meeting on June 3d, 1795, was for the purchase of 
books. It passed unanimously. The mover was Tutor Harris. 

The first speech made in this parent of the Dialectic and 
Philanthropic Societies was by James Mebane who sustained 
the affirmative of the first query ever debated, "Is the study 
of ancient authors useful?" He was answered by Robert 
Smith. I am proud to state that the classics won the day. 

At the second meeting, on June II, 1795, it was agreed to 
admit no more new members. A great moral question was 
then discussed, the names of the speakers being omitted. This 
was "Is the truth always to be adhered to?" the decision being 
"that breaches of faith are sometimes proper." It is gratifying 
to observe that the decisions of the queries debated were as a 
rule conservative and sensible. 

On the 25th of June, 1795, Maurice Moore moved that the 
society be divided. The motion was laid over for one week 
and on July 2d was taken up and carried. The new organiza- 
tion was called "The Concord Society." We can only con- 
jecture the cause of the new movement, as no reason appears 
on the journal. It is possible that there was in it an element 
of party feeling. Jeffersonian Democracy claimed to be the 
peculia advocate of the "Rights of Man." The name Con- 
cord, and the substituted Philanthropic, and the addition of the 
word Liberty to the motto of the other society, look in this 
direction. 

Another reason for the division was probably to have the 
number so small as to allow and require every member to per- 
form some duty at each weekly meeting. The prohibition of 
further addition to the membership of the first societv seems 
to show this. 

A third reason for the change was, I think, hostility to the 
extensive powers and duties of the Censor Morum, heretofore 
described. I make this conjecture because the officer was 
omitted in the new body, and when it was restored after many 
months his duties were carefully confined to behavior of mem- 
bers in society. Even this however proved unsatisfactory and 



70 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the name was changed to Vice-President. It will now be ad- 
mitted that the seceding students were right in their attitude. 
The Dialectic Society eventually came to the same conclusion. 

For some weeks it was allowable to belong to both societies, 
which was practicable as they met on different nights in order 
to have the use of the same room. The first student, Hinton 
James, and Maurice and Alfred Moore were for awhile active 
members of both. When the duplicate membership was for- 
bidden they elected the new. 

I cannot find an official list of the "Fathers" of the Concord 
or Philanthropic Society, but after carefully examining the 
journal I think that the following can be relied on : 

Hinton James New Hanover. 

Richard Eagles New Hanover. 

George Washington Long Halifax. 

John Taylor . .' Chapel Hill. 

William McKenzie Clark Martin. 

David Gillespie Duplin. 

Edwin Jay Osborne Salisbury. 

Evan Jones Wilmington. 

Nicholas Long Franklin. 

James Paine Unknown. 

Alexander McCulloch Halifax. 

David Evans Edgecombe. 

Henry Kearney Warren. 

Thomas Hunt Granville. 

Lewis Dickson Duplin. 

John Bryan Sampson. 

Lawrence Ashe Dorsey Wilmington. 

Joseph Gillespie Duplin. 

In all, 18. 

The residence of James Paine does not appear further than 
that he was from North Carolina. 

The records of the Dialectic Society state that the following 
remained in the Debating Society at the time of the division, 
their full names and residences having already been given, viz. : 
Messrs. Harris, Houston Toole, H. and F. Burton, R. Smith, 
Bennehan, Kinchen, Sims, Haywood, Ruffin, James, Green, A. 
Osborne, W. Dickson, Sneed, J. and E. Pettigrew, Davie, Me- 
bane, M. and A. Moore. Of these, as was said, James and the 
two Moores soon became members of the other, and John 
Pettigrew followed a year afterwards. 



CHANGE OF NAMES OF SOCIETIES. JJ 

The first meeting of the Concord Society was August 10, 
1795. David Gillespie was the first President, Evan Jones the 
first Treasurer, Henry Kearney the first Clerk. The first de- 
baters were George W. Long and Henry Kearney, on the ques- 
tion "Which is best — an Education or a Fortune?" It is con- 
sistent with the honorable career of the society that the decision 
was in favor of education. 

The first President, son of James Gillespie, of Duplin, mem- 
ber of Congress for eight years, was evidently a most promising 
student. By the courtesy of David S. Nicholson, I give a copy 
of the certificate granted him on his leaving the University, the 
first document in the nature of a diploma ever granted. 

We, the undersigned Professors of the University of North Carolina, 
have had under our particular care Mr. David Gillespie of this State. 
He has studied Greek and Latin and the elementary Mathematics in 
their application to Surveying, Navigation, etc. He has also read under 
our care Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. His behavior, while at 
this place, has met with our warmest approbation. Mr. Gillespie, being 
about to leave the University to attend Mr. Ellicot in determining the 
Southern boundary of the United States, we have thought proper to give 
him this certificate. 

Chas. W. Harris. 
Prof, of Math, and N. Phil. 
Sam'l Holmes, 

Prof, of Lang. 
W. L. Richards, 
Teacher of French and English. 
University, N. C., September 22, 1796. 

To this was attached the certificate of Sam. Ashe, Governor, 
attested by Roger Moore, Private Secretary, with the great 
seal of the State, that the above-named were professors of the 
University as alleged. 

After working for about a year it occurred to the members 
of both societies that English names were not of sufficient 
dignity. Accordingly on the 25th of August, 1736, in pursu- 
ance of a motion made by James Webb, of Hillsboro, a week 
preceding, the name Debating was changed into its Greek equiv- 
alent, Dialectic. And four days afterward, on the 29th of 
August, 1796, the Greek Philanthropic took the place of Con- 
cord, on motion of David Gillespie. I have no information 



78 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

as to whether, when this name was adopted the pronunciation 
was wrongly Phi-lanthropic instead of Phil-anthropic. John- 
son's dictionary, then the standard, gives no countenance to 
it, and I am inclined to think that the mispronunciation, pre- 
valent here for many decades, arose from the custom universal 
among students of abbreviating names in common use, and 
from the euphonic wish to have the nickname sound like Di. 
Those familiar with university life know well that under- 
graduates would smash every dictionary in the land before 
they would be called Phils., or, as it soon would have become, 
Phillies. 

The Fundamental Laws, afterwards called Constitution, and 
the course of proceedings of the two societies were much alike. 

In the Concord for a short while new members could be ad- 
mitted by a majority vote. The first restriction was the re- 
quirement of two-thirds in case the applicant was under fifteen 
years of age. I notice no other material differences, and I 
make-no further distinction between the two in endeavoring 
to reproduce their action. 

In the declamations, then called "speaking," we miss Patrick 
Henry's "give me liberty or give me death," because that 
speech was written by Wirt long afterwards, nor of course do 
we find Emmet's, "Let no man write my epitaph." In their 
places were Cicero's denunciations of Verres, and Demosthenes' 
thunderings against Philip, Micipsa's plea against Jugurtha, 
Brutus over the body of Lucretia, Catalines' speech to his 
soldiers, and the like. 

It is surprising that the stock utterances of our Revolutionary 
sires, such as Otis, Adams, Henry, Rutledge, R. H. Lee, were 
not reproduced in our halls. It is in accord with the hatred of 
Great Britain which had not all waned that there were no 
selections from the great English orators. 

The readings were extracts from history, poetry, the Spec- 
tator, and the like literature. They were generally serious ; oc- 
casionally comic, for example, "The Stuttering Soldier," "The 
Bald-headed Cove," "Anecdote of Miss Bush." It shows the 
difference in the habit of matutinal sleeping that one of the 
essavs was in ridicule of "The Bov Who Lav in Bed After 



QUERIES DEBATED. 79 

Sunrise." The extract chosen by David Gillespie from the 
preface to Murray's Grammar, just out of press, was of suffi- 
cient gravity. 

Not many of the subjects of composition are given. Among 
them I notice "Oratory," "Eloquence," "Unpoliteness," "In- 
dustry." 

But the subjects chosen for debates, and the votes taken 
thereon, throw much greater light on the intellectual attitude 
of the students. I therefore cull from the records of both 
societies such of those subjects as will show the tastes and 
opinions of the members during the first two years of the 
university life. 

I have already shown that the decision was that education 
is better than riches. It was likewise decided that public edu- 
cation is of more advantage than private, and horribile dictu, 
that the schoolmaster is of more advantage to society than the 
preacher. The members were of the opinion that wisdom tends 
to happiness; that modern history is of more value to students 
than ancient ; that a liberal education is more conducive to hap- 
piness than a savage life. The theory of Rousseau, that savage 
is on the whole happier than civilized life, was at one time 
affirmed; at another, negatived. It was voted that the French 
language is of more value than the Latin. 

In an unguarded moment one of the societies agreed to dis- 
cuss whether traveling improves the mind, whereupon there is 
the following curious entry, "As the question intended for 
debate is not "thinkable," the opponents coincided in opinion. 
The debate was therefore not a good one, but, after the regular 
business was over, we debated on this question, "Does a man 
with a competency, or he who is in a very affluent station, 
enjoy most happiness." The admirers of Solomon will be 
gratified to know that competency was successful. 

This incident reminds me that Mrs. Delphina E. Mendenhall, 
of Guilford, a Quakeress, presented to the Dialectic Society 
Dymond's Essays, advocating universal peace. When a stu- 
dent I induced the Query Committee to report the question, 
taken from the essays, "Is War Ever Justifiable?" The great 
debaters in the society declared that it was altogether one-sided, 



80 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

refused to discuss it, and censured the committee for adopting a 
query on one side of which nothing could be said. As it was 
not my turn to speak, I had not crammed on the subject from 
Dymond and was unable to bring forward a single Quaker 
argument in order to avert the displeasure of the house. 

The last educational topic will astonish readers of this gen- 
eration. It was however discussed seriously in a literary so- 
ciety of an American university, "Shall Corporal Punishment 
be Introduced Into the University?" The memory of smarting 
backs and knuckles produced an emphatic No ! I must explain 
that the small boys in the institution had not then been sepa- 
rated from the rest and placed in a preparatory department. 

The members were fairly orthodox, although infidelity and 
lawless theories were so prevalent throughout the world. It was 
decided that Religion makes mankind happy, that Self-Conceit 
does not produce happiness, that the Bible is to be believed, 
that the Profligate is more unhappy than the Moralist, that 
Polygamy is not consistent with the will of God, that tempo- 
rary marriages would not conduce to the good of society, that 
Suicide can never be justifiable. Even on the concrete ques- 
tion, whether Lucretia was justifiable in killing herself, it was 
voted that the poor lady was blameable, although by her mar- 
tyrdom she inaugurated popular government in Rome. 

On what is called the Jesuitical doctrine of Pious Frauds, it 
was voted that they are wrong, although on the similar question 
whether it is ever allowable to tell lies the members agreed 
with military men, statesmen and others that occasion may 
arise to justify them. As to which is most despicable the 
Thief or the Liar, the decision was that the Thief was the 
worst. Indeed on another occasion it was solemnly voted that 
he ought to be hung instead of receiving the milder punishment 
of forty stripes save one. On the question, "Is Debauchery or 
Drunkenness most prejudicial," drunkenness was pronounced 
the lesser evil. The miser was considered an unworthy char- 
acter evidently, because it was discussed whether we have the 
right to kill him and distribute his property. He was spared. 
A blow was struck at the Sermon on the Mount when it was 
decided that it is not consistent with reason to love one's ene- 



THE TWO SOCIETIES. 8 1 

mies. It is gratifying that they thought that actions cannot 
be politically right and morally wrong. Whether duelling is 
ever justifiable was discussed several times. Twice it was sus- 
tained and once the decision was adverse, though it is significant 
that Tutor Harris then opened the debate. Salaried ministers 
of the gospel should breathe more freely on learning that the 
students of 1796 deemed it conformable to the Christian re- 
ligion for preachers to get wages. Fun-lovers should be com- 
forted in knowing their opinion, that "moderate fortune and 
good humor are preferable to a large estate and bad disposi- 
tion." 

Other decisions were : that Health is better than Riches ; that 
love of mankind is more prevalent than love of money; that 
Flattery is sometimes useful; that the pursuit of an object gives 
greater happiness than the enjoyment; that Pride is essential to 
happiness ; that a man is happier in seeking his own approba- 
tion than in seeking that of others ; that a state of Nature is a 
state of war; that the Immortality of the soul is not deducible 
from reason ; that beasts have no souls. It is surprising that 
young men in the last decade of the 18th century, with the 
war spirit hot throughout the world, debated with warmth, 
but could not be brought to a decision, the question, "Is it 
justifiable to kill one who is threatening one's life ?" 

Among the moral and religious questions it should perhaps 
be mentioned that the opponents of such amusements as danc- 
ing, fox hunting, horse racing, and the like, had the strength 
to bring forward the query, "Is it politic for the Trustees to 
permit a Dancing School at the University?" They were out- 
voted. 

During the first years of the University the students were 
totally debarred from the society of ladies of their own age, 
as the village was merely on paper. It is to be noted, however, 
that none the less was their interest in all questions of a social 
nature. "Does a matrimonial or single life confer most happi- 
ness" was gravely decided in favor of marriage. "Are Talents 
or Riches greater recommendations to ladies?" was asked, and 
the society honored the fair sex by answering "Talents." "Are 
ladies or wine most deleterious to students ?" was another ques- 

6 



82 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

tion, the palm for deleteriousness being awarded, I grieve to 
say, to the ladies. Greater gratitude was shown, however, in 
the decision of the next, "Is female modesty natural or af- 
fected ?" nature getting the credit. The members wrestled with 
this rather nebulous speculation, "Is love without hope, or 
malice without revenge, most injurious," but never came to a 
conclusion. I presume this was one of the "non-thinkable" 
subjects. The members knew their own minds however on 
this question, "Should a man marry for gold or for beauty?", 
the preference being given to the red metal. 

Of course questions of public policy were frequently de- 
bated. Indeed one enthusiastic member proposed that the 
Constitution of the United States should be discussed clause 
by clause, but this was too great a task. The extent of the 
powers granted by the Constitution, the unconstitutionality of 
acts of Congress, seem not to have attracted attention. I find 
only questions of expediency or the reverse. For example, "Is 
an excise tax consistent with the principles of Liberty?" an- 
swered in the affirmative. "Are standing armies useful?" an- 
swered No. "Are the salaries of United States officers too 
great?" answered Yes. "Is the neutrality of the United States 
in the French-British War consistent with gratitude?" answer, 
Yes. "Should the United States pay the British debts?" an- 
swer, No. "Which is best a pure Democracy or a mixed gov- 
ernment?" answer, Mixed. "Should foreigners be allowed to 
hold offices in the United States?" answer at one time, Yes; 
at another, No. "Should army officers be appointed by the 
executive or Legislature?" answer, by the executive. "Should 
our diplomatic intercourse be diminished?" answer, No. "Is 
there just cause of war by the United States against France?" 
(February, 1797), decision, No. In April the same discussion 
arose and the war spirit gained the vote. Should our Navy be 
increased?" decision, Yes. "Should the United States further 
negotiate with Algiers?" Decision, No. "Is it equitable and 
politic to confiscate private property in war?" decision, Yes. 
"Is Spain blameable for obstructing the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi?" decision, Yes. "Are treaties contrary to the Law 
of Nations binding?" decision, Yes. "Should the United States 
adopt Sumptuary Laws ?" decision, Yes. 



THE TWO SOCIETIES. 83 

It is remarkable that the question should have been debated, 
"Is the Constitution of England or the United States prefer- 
able?" The decision, as might be expected, was in favor of 
the United States. The members pronounced themselves in 
favor of a protective tariff. They anticipated the action of this 
State sixty-one years in declaring for free suffrage for both 
branches of the General Assembly. This shows the preponder- 
ance of Western members. They likewise voted against the 
use of paper money. When this question was called, Robert 
Burton, afterwards a North Carolina judge, and Nathaniel 
Williams, afterwards a Tennessee judge, who had been ap- 
pointed to open the debate, declined to speak for the reason 
that they knew nothing of the subject. This excuse was unani- 
mously disallowed and they were promptly fined. 

When it was argued "Is peace or war most useful ?" ; it is 
honestly recorded that the vote was in favor of war "from the 
arguments." That Commerce is useful to Nations only passed 
by a majority vote. As to the relative advantageousness of 
Commerce and Agriculture, the preference was given to com- 
merce. Was not this the old contest between Poseidon against 
Athena, Neptune against Minerva? 

On the slavery question the members on the whole took the 
Southern view, yet there was evident a want of enthusiasm, 
if not positive doubt. It is likely that the decision on the 
query, "Whether Africans have not as much right to enslave 
Americans as Americans to enslave Africans ?" viz. : that 
"Africans have as good right, if not better." was in a jocular 
spirit. But there was no joking in the declaration that Death 
is preferable to Slavery, but it is probable that they meant 
slavery to white people. The fact, however, that the members 
discussed the question "Whether slaves are advantageous to 
the United States?" and "Whether the importation of African 
slaves is of advantage to the United States?" shows that there 
was difference of opinion, although the majority was in the af- 
firmative in both cases. A spirit of doubt as to the beneficence 
of the institution seems to be implied in the question "Should 
slavery be abolished at this time?", notwithstanding that the 
members answered no. 



84 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

I give a few miscellaneous questions perhaps worthy to be 
recorded. The right of the Legislatures of the States to in- 
struct members of Congress was debated but not decided. It 
is noticeable that a serious discussion was had as to whether 
public offices should be venal, i. e., at liberty to be bought and 
sold. The decision was adverse. It is in affirmance of what 
political economists say of the abominable evils of the poor 
laws of England at this time that a debate was had as to the 
propriety of making any provision for paupers, although the 
conclusion was favorable. The members voted that the fathers 
should retain the power of disinheriting altogether their chil- 
dren, although admirers of French ways contended otherwise. 
The latter, however, succeeded in obtaining a majority vote that 
Louis XVI. was justly beheaded. The members showed their 
jealousy of the Federal government by voting on one occasion 
that official salaries were too high, and on another that members 
of Congress should be paid less wages than soldiers. They 
voted at one time that bodily strength is better than valor in war, 
and at another that ingenuity is superior to bodily strength. It 
seems that the vegetarian theory, one of the first modern ab- 
surd "isms," had penetrated to our wilds, because the prohibi- 
tion of animal food was discussed, but it was too much to ex- 
pect our keen-stomached students with visions of ham and roast 
beef, or the savory fried chicken at to-morrow's dinner, to vote 
against their consumption. 

In the spring of 1796 both societies voted to substitute a play 
for all other exercises, and the members made preparations 
with enthusiasm. This action was probably stimulated by the 
advent of a tutor, Mr. Richards, who had been an actor. The 
scenery was purchased at Williamsboro, but it does not appear 
why such apparatus was in that village. Such was the zeal 
of the- amateur Thespians that one of the members who agreed 
to take two parts and failed without excuse was incontinently 
expelled from one of the societies. I regret that I can find no 
description of this great dramatic performance. 

As showing the contrast between the reading room of 1796 
and that of one hundred years later I state that a motion was 
made in one of the societies that the Halifax Journal be sub- 



THE TWO SOCIETIES. 85 

scribed for in behalf of the members ; whereupon Alexander 
McCulloch, brother-in-law of William Boylan, one of the edi- 
tors, generously offered the use of his copy, and the motion 
was withdrawn. A subsequent motion to buy the Fayetteville 
Hinerra was defeated, as one paper was deemed sufficient. The 
following is the first list of books ever purchased by either 
society. It shows taste for solid reading — not a novel among 
them. 

Locke on the Human Understanding. 

Woolstonecraffs Eights of Women. 

Gillie's Greece. 

Sully's Memoirs. 

Beccaria on Crimes and Punishments. 

Brown on Equality. 

Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History. 

Goldsmith's History of England, 4 volumes. 

Gibbon's Decline and Fall. 

Helvetius on the Human Mind. 

Porcupine's Bloody Buoy. 

Porcupine's Political Censor. 

Love and Patriotism. 

The Federalist. 

Smith's Constitutions. 

The most active of the earliest members of the Debating So- 
ciety were, in order of their names, Wm. Houston, Lawrence 
Toole, Robert Smith, Francis Burton, James Webb. Richard 
Simms, Alexander Osborne, Wm. M. Sneed, Hutchins G. Bur- 
ton, Wm. Dickson and Samuel Hinton. In the Concord So- 
ciety the leaders were David Gillespie, E. J. Osborne, George 
W. Long, Hinton James, Evan Jones, Henry Kearney, Nicholas 
Long, Wm. Alston, David Cook, Lawrence A. Dorsey, Joseph 
Gillespie. Of these David Gillespie, E. J. Osborne and George 
W. Long were most prominent. 

The professors of the University were admitted to be active 
members of one or the other society, but do not often appear 
in the debates. 

Early Student Life — The Pettigrew Letters. 

By the kindness of Miss Caroline Pettigrew, granddaughter 
of Ebenezer Pettigrew, who with his brother John was a 
student of the University from the spring of 1795 to the fall of 



86 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01? NORTH CAROLINA. 

1797, I am able to give glimpses of the inner life of the Univer- 
sity in its infancy from letters written by them to their father. 
Their father was Rev. Charles Pettigrew, of Tyrrell County, 
who was chosen Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
but was prevented, by the breaking out of yellow fever in Phila- 
delphia at the time, and failing health afterwards, from being 
consecrated. I have also been permitted by Mr. Norman Jones, 
of Raleigh, to examine a letter dated April, 1795, written to 
his mother by his ancestor, Nicholas Long, grandson of Colonel 
Nicholas Long, of the North Carolina Continental line. 

Letters by children to their parents were then as a rule 
much more formal than is now usual. Long addresses his 
mother as "Honored Mother ;" but the Pettigrews wrote "Dear 
Father." Long's father was dead and his mother had married 
a Methodist preacher, Rev. Daniel Shine. He sends his "re- 
spects" to Mr. Shine. A married sister he calls Sister Hill, 
and the husband of another sister he calls "Brother Green." 
The Presiding Professor he called Rev. Parson Ker. The Pet- 
tigrews sign themselves, or rather John signs for both, "your 
dutiful sons." They always send their "duties" to their mother 
and compliments to all others. In one letter the word "com- 
pliments" was in the message to the mother, but it was 
scratched out and "duties" substituted. Bishop Pettigrew's 
letter to Jackey and Ebley, as he calls them, are exceedingly 
affectionate and wise. 

The boys saw no newspapers. Weeks intervened between 
letters. The postage to Bertie County, where Dr. Pettigrew once 
lived, is usually endorsed 17 cents. Once John informed him 
that he was forced to pay at Chapel Hill 12 1-2 cents when his 
father prepaid the same amount. The latter afterwards re- 
torted : "What you designed for frugality accidentally resulted 
otherwise. You thought by your two letters on the same sheet, 
or rather half sheet of post paper, to save expenses, but I find 
44 cents on the letter. 45 is just the postage of three . letters. 
Your putting two wafers and two addresses has made it a 
double letter for which they charge double postage." The con- 
sistency of the charges of the Postal Department seems open 
to criticism, judging from the foregoing statements. 



THE PETTIGREW LETTERS. 87 

We learn from these letters, and from other sources, some- 
thing of the modes of travel to and from the University. Some 
came on horseback, some in "chairs" or double sulkies, others 
in carts. Long wrote that, if "the boy" would start by daybreak 
with the horse, he might make the journey from his home, 
Sandy Creek, in Franklin County, 65 miles, in one day. The 
following extract from one of the Pettigrew letters shows the 
difficulty of transporting persons and things. "Send up a dou- 
ble chair with a portmanteau and a pair of saddle-bags (as our 
chests will be too unhandy to be carried in a chair), in which 
we could carry our clothes and some particular books, but as 
there are a great many of them it would be needless to attempt 
carrying them all in a chair. In my opinion it would be best 
for the rest to stay until December when the boys who will 
come from Bertie will be coming up in a cart, and as the cart 
will be going back empty I have no doubt they would take 
down a chest of books to Windsor, from whence they might 
easily be conveyed to Tyrrell. My bed I can dispose of." They 
were not expecting to return to the University. 

Among other things they tell of the sad necessity of going 
nearly barefoot, because of the non-existence of a shoemaker 
in the village. They hope, however, that an itinerant mender 
of shoes while on his circuit will come to their relief. They 
asked their father to have pairs of new shoes ready at their 
homes when the session shall be over, for, said they, shoes are 
expensive at Chapel Hill, being 18 shillings or $1.80 a pair. 
They marked the length of their feet on the margin of the big 
sheet on which they wrote, thus giving us a hint of the rudeness 
of the foot coverings of that day, no other measure than the 
length being given to the workman. If they had enclosed a 
slip instead of notching the paper it would have subjected 
the letter to double postage, i. e., the postage of the order would 
have been nearly 20 per cent of the cost of the article. 

Another trouble they had was the difficulty of procuring a 
bed, meaning one made of the soft feathers of geese. They 
slept for a while at the house of a family named Kimball, in the 
only room to be rented in town, but, the Kimballs announcing 
their intention to move to "Caintuck" (Kentucky), it became 



88 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

necessary for the boys to move into the college building, and 
hence a bed of their own was essential. They state that the 
Steward, Mr. Taylor, had beds to rent for the enormous price 
of £12, or $24 per annum. Their father earnestly cautioned 
them against the danger of sleeping on hard boards after en- 
joying the luxury of feathers all the summer, and saved them 
from this evil by sending the coveted piece of furniture from 
his home in the "chair" designed for the return of the boys 
in vacation. 

Moving into the Old East, they were forced to share the 
apartment with four others, but they were comforted by the fact 
that two of them were little boys of the Grammar School. Some 
of the "small boys" they discovered were loud-mouthed nuis- 
ances. They found in this room a more grievous nuisance even 
than noisy "small boys" — the bully. "One of our room-mates 
desires," they wrote, "to reign king, saying if we would not 
obey him he would use rough methods." Those who had 
breathed the free air of the Albemarle could not submit to be 
slaves. "This we disliked," they said, "knowing that no stu- 
dent durst take upon himself the authority, and that we were 
all on an equality, and to be room-mates and not one inferior 
to another." Although the aspiring Kaiser was in a minority 
of one to five, the Pettigrews changed their quarters, but John 
remarked, "I shall say nothing of my new companions until 
I get better acquainted with them." He added, "There is only 
room for five or six more, unless the Trustees allow eight in 
a room, which we earnestly deprecate. I find it very difficult 
to get six well-behaved, it would be almost impossible to get 
eight well-behaved, boys in a room." 

As misfht be expected these growing boys were much con- 
cerned about their food. They praised Mrs. Puckett when 
they boarded with her, but the strictures on food at Commons 
are generally severe. At one time they said "The bread is not near 
so good as Fillis bakes for herself. It is impossible to describe 
the badness of the tea and coffee, and the meat generally 
stinks and has ma^eots in it." "Fillis" ("Phyllis") is evidently 
their mother's cook, and the bread for herself was in all prob- 
ability old-fashioned ashcakes. i. e., lumps of corn-meal dough, 
covered over with hot embers and so baked. 



THE PETTIGREW LETTERS. 89 

At another time these sons of a planter, who raised corn by 
the boat-load on the rich eastern bottoms, wrote: "We are 
afraid we will be pushed for provisions as Mr. Taylor (the 
Steward) buys corn by the bag-full. In case of necessity we 
shall get into hollow trees and do as the bears do. It would 
never do to set off for home. We would perish on the road." 

A more horrible grievance arose from those hideous ani- 
mals, who, in the darkness of the night, hasten to imbrue their 
jaws in human gore. Pine bedsteads with holes in the sides for 
the cords, and the wooden chests of six young fellows, ignorant 
of the arts of extermination, or too indolent to adopt them, gave 
full play to the JYIalthusian doctrine of increase by geometrical 
ratio, of these foes of man. We need not be surprised there- 
fore at their rapid multiplication in one year. "We dread the 
approach of warm weather," they plaintively wrote. "They 
are five times as- bad as last year, and then we were hardly 
able to rest. W r e will not need any bleeding (by physicians). 
There is one comfort, there are no mosquitoes." These noc- 
turnal foes they called Sabines, an inappropriate name it ap- 
pears to me, as the historians tell us those robbers carried off 
young ladies ; whereas young men were here the victims. The 
next year they raise a wail of woe : "The Sabines have quite de- 
feated us. We have given them the entire possession of our 
room. None of us have been able to sleep in it for five weeks. 
I generally spread out tables in the passage and pour water 
around the legs. They are in general poor swimmers." All 
these horrors, notwithstanding a by-law which ordered the stu- 
dents to cleanse their rooms of bugs every two weeks ! How 
their mother's heart must have ached at the persecution of her 
darlings ! 

In October, 1795, is the first mention of a dismissal of a 
student. The Pettigrew boys say he was "banished." As the 
offence recalls a custom among our ancestors which has be- 
come obsolete, I must, in the interest of folk-lore, explain it. 
Frank Burton and Joseph Green, after being prohibited, went 
to a "Cotton Picking." 

What was a Cotton Picking? I am able to give you the 
information derived from two veracious witnesses, in their 
youth participants in the game. 



90 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Before the use of Whitney's gin had become common the 
seed of cotton was separated from the lint by hand. This was 
generally done at night, each member of the household having 
his or her task. Each was compelled to fill one of his or her 
shoes with seed before being allowed to "court the balmy," as 
Dick Swiviller termed it. Of course, children and ladies of 
small feet had the advantage over those of mountainous under- 
standings who went late to bed. Darwin would explain the great 
preponderance of ladies of little feet, such as we see in all 
Southern gatherings, by the theory that females of former 
generations, able to wear diminutive shoes, filled them with seed 
early in the night, secured a larger amount of refreshing sleep, 
became thereby more healthy and beautiful, and in consequence 
always secured husbands, while the haggard faces of those 
going late to bed condemned the unfortunate big-footians to 
single blessedness. 

Sometimes the owner of the snowy pile would invite the 
young men and maidens to a Cotton Picking frolic, analagous 
to quiltings, corn-shuckings, and log-rollings, providing tooth- 
some refreshments. The cotton was placed in the middle of 
the room, parties would pick against each other, and amid 
good-humored rivalry and rustic merriment the work would 
soon be finished. Then the floor would be swept and the neigh- 
borhood fiddler, often as black as ebony, would strike up 
"Molly put the Kettle on," or "T-u Turkey, Ty Tie, T-u Tur- 
key Buzzard's Eye," or "Crow he Peeped at the Weasel," or 
"Old Molly Hare," in such entrancing strains that every toe 
in the assembly became stark crazy as if smitten by St. Vitus. 
Even the legs of the table would quiver with excitement. A 
jolly succession of reels and break-downs and "Cutting the 
pigeon's wing" would ensue. If the preacher's influence pre- 
vented dancing, games were substituted such as "Hunt the 
Slipper," "Blindman's Buff," or "I'm Pining." Burton and 
Green were attracted to one of these festivals, even as the 
candle-fly seeks the blazing torch. They had their fun, but the 
avenging eye of Dr. Ker was upon them. The sentence was 
public admonition before the University. Burton, "like a little 
man," took the medicine and afterwards won honors as a stu- 



THE PETTIGREW LETTERS. 91 

dent. But Joe Green's pride caused him to decline to submit 
and so sentence of dismissal was passed on him. I think it no 
harm to give his name as heading the line of students whose 
presence has been dispensed with by the Faculty; first, because 
he became a respected merchant of New Bern, his career not 
being impeded by this incident, and secondly, his offence was 
not a malum in se, but malum prohibitum only. 

It appears that Bishop Pettigrew requested his sons to give 
him confidential information as to the manners and morals of 
the students. They do so, but like loyal students ask him not 
to divulge their disclosures, satirically remarking, "its (the 
University's) character will be known soon enough to its dis- 
advantage and confusion." Their secret report thus made was 
that : "the students in general have nothing very criminal, ex- 
cept a vile and detestable practice of cursing and swearing — 
which are carried on here to the greatest perfection. Even 
from the smallest to the largest they vent their oaths with the 
greatest ease imaginable. Hardly a sentence passes without 
some of those high-flown words which sailors divert themselves 
with." "Their favorite book is Paine's Age of Reason." Doubt- 
less this account is substantially true. Profanity and infidelity 
were the fashion of the day. It should be taken, however, with 
the explanation that John and Ebenezer were raised on a large 
plantation, strictly and religiously, and probably were never as- 
sociated with boys before. They do not give examples of the 
oaths. Let us charitably hope that many of them were no 
worse than "Go to the Dickens," "Deuce Take You," "Durn 
It," "Dog Gone You," and like expletives, which some people 
do not distinguish from more pronounced profanity. It is 
comforting to have the report favorable as to drinking, gamb- 
ling, and the like. 

John writes that while Ebenezer is unable for lack of funds, 
he himself has joined a dancing school, saying that he could 
not forego gaining what he calls "such a genteel accomplish- 
ment." He adds, "There are a number of students in the class, 
but not any ladies, and there is not as much order and regu- 
larity as if there were several decent ladies." The terms were 
$4 for six months' instruction. 



92 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Their report as to study is, to use their expression, "mid- 
dling" favorable. They say: "the Seniors and others who are 
old enough to understand its value study pretty closely, but 
there are a great many small boys, half of whom do little or 
nothing. They are the ones who make the greatest proficiency 
in the art of swearing." 

The letter-writers praise highly Dr. Ker and Professor Har- 
ris. For the particular information of Latin students I state 
that they studied Eutropius and Cornelius Nepos before going 
into Caesar. Their testimony is that they learned more Latin 
in a few months than in all their lives before. 

As a contribution to the Society for Investigating Psychical 
Phenomena, I give a strange coincidence. Bishop Pettigrew 
and his wife both dreamed the same night that their sons were 
sick, and at that very moment, although separated by all the 
distance from Chapel Hill to Tyrrell County, about 180 miles 
as the crow flies, these boys were in unusual good health, and 
so continued for months. If only one of them had been, simul- 
taneously with the dreams, a little ailing, even to the extent 
of a head or tooth-ache, or groaning over the agonies of a 
green peach or so, what exultation would have filled the breasts 
of enthusiastic spiritualists. 

We gather also from the letters something of the health of 
the students and of the practice of medicine a hundred years 
ago. John Pettigrew had an enlarged spleen when he came, 
but it improved at Chapel Hill, although he was not cured. At 
one time he took for it arrow-root steeped in brandy two or 
three times a day. This remedy he quit because of the high 
price of the brandy, 75 cents a quart. He then turned to Peru- 
vian bark and snake-root, at one time ceasing for ten days 
because he could obtain no snake-root. Twice his spleen grew 
in size, but he attributes that to the want of exercise. 

On April 12, 1796, he wrote: "There are 86 students here. 
All are in perfect health except one taken with the rheumatism 
last night." In a letter dated May 27, 1797, he wrote, "The 
mumps is a disease which is very prevalent. There are 30 or 
40 cases, but none have been hurt by them very much. Ebley 
and I have had no symptoms as yet." 



THE PETTIGREW LETTERS. 93 

"The small-pox is seven or eight miles from here, brought by 
a man from Norfolk. He is well, but it is rumored that his 
mother has been taken. I do not believe that it will come 
here, as people are much afraid of it and use all precautions. 
It would certainly be destructive to this institution, as I have 
no doubt it would kill one-half of those infected, as our blood 
is in as bad a state as possible owing to the vast quantities 
of butter which we eat, and we have no proper attendance. 
But we would get horses and go home." The disease did not 
reach Chapel Hill then or at any subsequent day. 

John was a draughtsman and sent home a colored pic- 
ture of the Old East, 1797, two-storied and only two-thirds of 
its present length. [The bricks are of the original color, except 
that between the first and second stories there is a broad white 
band all around the building. There is a platform at each outer 
door, the steps descending from it towards the north and south.] 

Let me add that John's disease carried him off — an exceed- 
ingly promising man — two years after he left the University. 
Ebenezer became a prosperous planter ; his plantations Magno- 
lia and Belgrade, in Washington County, were famous for their 
fertility and good management. He was induced when a young 
man to serve two terms in the State Senate and, after passing 
middle life, to be a member of the House of Representatives 
of the United States, but he preferred the happier life of a 
private citizen. His youngest son was the lamented General 
James Johnston Pettigrew, a graduate of 1847, wno seemed 
to me to be the ablest man I ever met. Commodore Maury, 
who had seen the greatest men of his day said — this I know 
to be authentic — that if by any cause General Lee's place should 
be vacated, General Pettigrew would be the fittest man to take 
his place. 

The New Pean of Education. 

In December, 1795, after a year's experience with the raw, 
mostly untaught youths of diverse ages and acquirements, the 
institution was divided into two branches, called "The Prepara- 
tory School" and "The Professorships of the University." 

This plan is interesting because it is the idea of General Davie, 



94 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

is far ahead of the times, anticipates in some respects the 
work of Jefferson with the University of Virginia, and is very 
similar to our present plan : 

A. The Preparatory School. 

1st. (a) The English language, to be taught grammatically on the 
basis of Webster's and South's Grammar. 

(b) Writing in a neat and correct manner. 

(c) Arithmetic with the four first rules, with the Rule of Three 

(d) Reading and pronouncing select passages from the purest 
English authors. 

(e) Copying in a fair and correct manner select English Essays. 
2nd. After this preliminary course the student must learn the Latin 

Language, beginning with Ruddiman's Rudiments and then studying 
Cordery, then Erasmus, then Eutropius, then Cornelius Nepos, with 
translations. After these came Csesar's Commentaries, and Sallust, 
without translations, but at the request of parents translations 
might be used with them. Kennett's Roman Antiquities to be 
studied contemporaneously. 

When the students can render Eutropius into correct English and 
explain the government and connection of the words, then they must 
begin the study of the French Language. 1st, The Grammar; 2nd, 
Telemachus; 3rd, Cyrus; 4th, Gil Bias. 

The study of Greek is optional. If this language should be chosen 
the pupil must study, 1st, The Grammar; 2nd, The Gospels in the 
original, beginning when the French should have begun. 

The rudiments of Geography must be studied on the plan of 
Guthrie. 

After the students begin the French, the French and Latin lan- 
guages shall be so associated that both may be finished at nearly the 
same time. 

It is allowable to siudy all three of the above mentioned lan- 
guages, in which case the student must finish the Gospels in Greek 
when he is through the Preparatory School. 

The English language shall be regularly continued, it being con- 
sidered the primary object, and the other languages but auxiliaries. 

Any language, except English, may be omitted at the request of 
the parents. 
II. Plan of Education under the Professorships of the University: 
1st. The President. 

Rhetoric on the plan of Sheridan. 
Belles-Lettres on the plan of Blair and Rollin. 
B. Professorships of the University. 

a. Professor of Moral and Political Philosophy and History • the 
study of the following authors: 

Paley's Moral and Political Philosophy. 



NEW PLAN OF STUDIES. 95 

Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws. 
Civil Government and Political Constitutions. 
Adam's Defence of DeLolme. 
The Constitution of the United States. 
The Modern Constitutions of Europe. 
The Law of Nations. 
Vattel's Law of Nations. 

Burlamaqui's Principles of Natural and Political Law. 
On History, 

Priestly's Lectures on History. 

Millot's Ancient and Modern History. 

Hume's History of England, with Smollett's Continuation. 

Chronology on the most approved plan. 

b. Professor of Natural Philosophy, Astronomy and Geography. 

1. General properties of Matter, Laws of Motion, Mechanical 
Powers, Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Optics, Electricity, 
Magnetism. 

2. Geography. The use of Globes, the Geometrical, political and 
commercial relations of the different nations of the earth. Astron- 
omy on the plan of Ferguson. 

c. Professor of Mathematics. 

1. Arithmetic in a scientific manner. 

2. Algebra and the application of Algebra to Geometry. 

3. Euclid's Elements. 

4. Trigonometry and its application to the Mensuration of 
Heights and Distances of Surfaces and Solids, Surveying and Navi- 
gation. 

Electives. Thus far the mathematical studies are obligatory. 
The following might be pursued if desired. Conic Sections, The 
Doctrine of the Sphere and the Cylinder, The Projection of the 
Sphere, Spherical Trigonometry, The Doctrine of Fluxions, The Doc- 
trine of Chances and Annuities. 

d. The Professor of Chemistry and the Philosophy of Medicine, Agri- 

culture and the Mechanic Arts. 
Chemistry upon the most approved plan. 

e. Professor of Languages. 

1. The English Language — Elegant Extracts in Prose and Verse. 
Scott's Collections. 

2. The Latin Language — Virgil, Cicero's Orations, Horace's Epis- 
tles, including the Art of Poetry. 

3. The Greek Language — Lucian, Xenophon. 

In addition to the regular course, the Professor of Languages 
must "attend, when required, the reading of Cicero de Ofnciis, 
and Horace and Livy, and in the Greek Longinus on the Sub- 
lime, the Orations of Demosthenes and Homer's Iliad." The 



96 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OS NORTH CAROUNA. 

rudiments of language are to be attended to, the different 
forms and figures of speech are to be noticed by the professor, 
and comments made on the sentiments and beauties of the 
authors; parallel sentences quoted, particular idioms observed, 
and all allusions to distant manners and customs explained. 

The students under the Professor of Languages are to de- 
liver to him twice a week translations into English of some 
classic, in which, "after expressing the sense of the author, 
the spirit and elegance of the translation are principally to be 
regarded." 

The students of the other classes shall every Saturday de- 
liver to the President a composition on a subject of their own 
choosing, and he shall correct the errors in orthography, gram- 
mar, style or sentiment, and make the necessary observations 
thereon. 

Those passing approved examinations on the studies of the 
Preparatory School were entitled to be admitted "upon the 
general establishment of the University." 

Those passing an approved examination in English, and the 
first four rules of Arithmetic with the Rule of Three, could be 
admitted to study under the President and any of the Profes- 
sors, except the Professor of Languages. In order to enter 
his department the applicant must stand an approved examina- 
tion on the English language, and on Caesar's Commentaries 
and Sallust. But it was not required to translate English into 
Latin. 

No preliminary examination was required of one wishing to 
study under the fourth professor, i. e., Chemistry, the Philoso- 
phy of Medicine, Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. 

There were no prizes instituted by professors, but the Trus- 
tees endeavored to stimulate study by offering to donate a 
book to the best scholar in each department, viz. : a copy of the 
text-book used therein. The early students either borrowed 
or rented their text-books. 

This plan of education is all the more observable because 
it was the work of Davie after mature consideration. The 
record shows that he offered it, that it was referred to a com- 
mittee composed of himself, Judge Williams, Hogg, Haywood, 



PLAN OF EDUCATION. 97 

and Adlai Osborne, and was reported back and adopted. Tbe 
North Carolina Journal of that date has, doubtless in Davie's 
words, a statement of the object aimed at. He began by quoting 
from the French Convention, "That in every free government 
the law emanates from the people, it is necessary that the people 
should receive an education to enable them to direct the laws, 
and the political part of this education should be consonant to 
the principles of the constitution under which they live.'' He 
proceeds: "The plan of Education established by the Board ap- 
pears to be predicated on this principle, and designed to form 
useful and respectable members of society — citizens capable 
of comprehending, improving and defending the principles of 
government, citizens, who from the highest possible impulse, 
a just sense of their own and the general happiness, would be 
induced to practice the duties of social morality. A deep and 
fixed conviction that it is degrading to be tributaries to other 
States or countries for our literary and public characters, a 
general and strong desire to promote education and exalt and 
improve our national character, have given a tone to the public 
sentiment and bestowed a degree of emulation upon individuals, 
from which the most happy effects may be expected." 

Davie remembered that many of the leading men of the Revo- 
lution in North Carolina were from other States. Certainly 
the degrading dependence of our State for its public characters 
ceased after the establishment of the University. Not only 
that, but the institution has furnished chief legislative, executive, 
or judicial officers to all our Southern sisters, as well as to 
the general government. 

In correspondence with Caldwell on the subject of granting 
degrees, Davie gave a clear exposition of the principles under- 
lying his scheme. "The variation of the plan from that of 
other colleges makes the question of degrees a difficult one. A 
bachelor's degree generally imports a knowledge of the learned 
languages as well as the sciences. To confer such a degree 
upon a person who can understand neither Latin or Greek does 
not appear to be proper. The ruling or leading principle in 
our plan of education is that the student may apply himself 
to those branches of learning and science alone which are abso- 

7 



9& HISTORY UNIVERSITY OK NORTH CAROLINA. 

lutely necessary to lit him for his destined profession or occu- 
pation in life. One study does not imply the necessity of any 
other, unless of one necessary to make it intelligible. But I 
am well convinced of the utility and policy of conferring de- 
grees and granting special certificates." He then asks criticism 
of the following plan : First. The degree of Bachelor of Arts 
(A.B) evidenced by a diploma in the Latin language, for pro- 
ficiency in English, the sciences and either Latin or Greek. 
Second. A diploma in English certifying knowledge and pro- 
gress in the arts and sciences, to one omitting both the classics. 
He does not suggest a name for this diploma. 

These diplomas, as well as that of the Master's degree, 
should be signed by the President of the Board and another 
Trustees. In addition to the diplomas, certificates should be 
granted by the President of the University, specially stating 
the progress of the student. 

After Davie left the State in 1805, Caldwell acquired such 
commanding influence as to assimilate this University to Prince- 
ton, his alma mater. Only one diploma was granted, that of 
Bachelor of Arts (A.B.), both Latin and Greek being essential 
to obtaining it, and this rule continued for many years. After 
the re-organization in 1875, Davie's plan somewhat modified 
was re-introduced. Both classics were still required for A.B., 
but a new degree of equal dignity was adopted where 
one classic is omitted, that of Bachelor of Philosophy, 
while if both classics are omitted, equivalent sciences being 
substituted, the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.S) is con- 
ferred. Several great institutions, notably Harvard and Cor- 
nell, now grant Bachelor of Arts, without requiring either 
classic, and this institution has recently followed their example. 
All universities grant certificates for special attainments. 

It is remarkable that, after the University fell into the old 
Latin, Greek and Mathematical curriculum, which prevailed 
through so many decades, the scheme drawn by General Davie 
should have been substantially revived in our days. As proving 
the truth of this I mention the large liberty of electing studies, 
the not rigidly requiring Latin and Greek as necessary to 
graduation, the elevation of Chemistry, Agriculture and the 



PLAN OF EDUCATION. 99 

Mechanic Arts to a separate school, which can be solely at- 
tended, the requiring of classical and mathematical students a 
moderate proficiency in science, and making advanced work in 
these departments elective, the great prominence given to the 
study of English literature and the attainment of a clear and 
graceful style in speaking and writing, the other languages being 
expressly declared to be auxiliary to this, the elevation of the 
French to equal rank with the classics, and the allowance of 
the substitution of French for either Latin or Greek. Indeed 
if we cut down our professorships to six, as was the case in 
Davie's scheme, (President and five professors') it becomes ap- 
parent that the changes of our da}" are mere centennial revivals, 
although not intentionally so. 

The plan of education of to-day is an evolution mainly by 
the initiation of the Faculty, the Trustees as a matter of course 
ratifying their recommendations. In 1795, however, the Trus- 
tees controlled this as well as the other details of the institution, 
even prescribing text-books. x\ccordingly we find that the 
scheme was soon so modified as to strike out Geography as a 
required study in the Preparatory School, and Montesquieu's 
Spirit of Laws, Vattel's Law of Nations and Hume's History 
of England in the University. Astronomy was to be on the 
plan of Nicholson instead of Ferguson. 

The difficulty of procuring books in the old times may be 
conjectured by this fact, that the Trustees purchased as many 
as six sets of the prescribed books, of others only three, to be 
rented to the students at a moderate hire. 

It was found impracticable to put the new scheme, requiring 
a President and five professors, into full operation for two 
reasons : First, because of the want of funds, and secondly, 
because the Trustees could not find a man possessed of the 
necessary presidential gifts willing to take the place. Accord- 
ingly Governor Samuel Ashe, President of the Board, and 
Messrs. Davie, Willie Jones, Hogg, and Stone were appointed 
a committee to make inquiry for a proper person to be presi- 
dent and to ascertain the terms on which he could be procured. 
Three professors were then balloted for and the following 
were unanimouslv chosen : Samuel E. McCorkle, Professor 



lOO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

of Moral and Political Philosophy and History; Charles W. 
Harris, Professor of Mathematics ; Rev. David Ker', Professor 
of Languages. It was intended that Dr. McCorkle should have 
charge as Presiding Professor, thus dethroning Dr. Ker. 

But an unexpected difficulty arose. The canny Scotch-Irish- 
man foresaw that, when the President should be chosen, he 
would lose the snug residence provided for the chief executive. 
He therefore demanded that in case this should happen his 
salary should be increased to the extent of the annual value of 
the residence. To this the Trustees declined to accede and so 
Dr. Ker continued in office until the following July, the Uni- 
versity classes being taught by Professors Ker and Harris, and 
the Preparatory School by Nicholas Delveaux and Samuel 
Holmes, Delveaux having one of the higher classes in Latin. 

This rejection of the modest proposal of Dr. McCorckle was 
bitterly resented by his friends, although soon forgiven by that 
excellent man. Gen. John Steele, once a member of Congress 
and then first Comptroller of the Treasury, wrote General Davie 
a letter couched in such severe terms as to break the friendly 
relations between them. In the fall of 1799, after Davie's re- 
turn from his mission to France, he endeavored to renew their 
old friendship. General Steele's answer, of which he kept a 
copy, shows that the sore was unhealed. He said, "My letter 
was the dictate of what I considered at the time, and still 
think, a just indignation for the ill treatment which Doctor 
McCorckle received." . . . "I have no sons to educate, and 
my nephew (son of Dr. McCorckle) is relieved of the humili- 
ation of acquiring his education at an institution whose outset 
was characterized by acts of ingratitude and insult towards his 
father." As he begins the letter with a dry "Sir," it is clear 
that resumption of friendly relations was for awhile of a formal 
and business nature. 

The six months' term ending July, 1796, witnessed many 
disorders among the students, the nature of which we can only 
conjecture. This much is certain, that there Avas dissatis- 
faction with Dr. Ker, that much against his inclination he was 
constrained to send in his resignation, and the Trustees ac- 
cepted it under protest that he had not given six months' notice 



BY-LAWS. IOI 

as required by law. Professor Harris says that he was a man 
of talent, a furious Republican, and we learn from other sources 
that he became an outspoken infidel. Dr. Caldwell is authority 
also for the statement that another professor, Holmes, at that 
time "embraced and taught the wildest principles of licentious- 
ness/ 

When we remember that Harris, an excellent character in 
other respects, likewise had imbibed heterodox principles, we 
can easily see how a spirit of lawlessness and defiance of author- 
ity became rampant in the young institution, and how bitterly 
the Federalists among the students resented the violent partisan- 
ship of the Presiding Professor. 

1 he by-laws of the University were also extremely vexatious. 
The boys of the Preparatory School, whom it became lawful to 
chastise as in other schools, were allowed to have rooms in the 
University building, and the strictest espionage, which might 
have been proper for their government, was enforced over 
grown young men — many of them accustomed to the largest 
liberty, at home. The tutors of the Preparatory Department, 
sometimes undergraduates, were required to sleep among the 
students to see that they kept their rooms in study hours, to 
reprove and report them for every breach of the rules however 
trivial. Moreover the professors were ordered to visit each 
mom twice a day, and monitors, one from each class, were 
expected to be spies on their fellows and to report their misde- 
meanors and even peccadilloes. The attempt several years 
afterwards to prevent the monitors from shirking this obliga- 
tion led, as will be seen, to a serious disruption of the institu- 
tion. 

The rules governing the conduct of the students while eat- 
ing at Commons were still more likely to produce angry feel- 
ings. The tutor must reprove one complaining of the food 
unjustifiably in his opinion, and order one behaving unseemly 
from the table. This indignity created wrath in the youth 
subjected to such public insult, banished in disgrace from his 
food in presence of his fellows. 

While some of these rides and practices were from time to 
time rectified, others continued up to the end of the old regime 



102 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

in 1868. Their abolition in 1876 has been productive of more 
kindly relations between Faculty and students and general im- 
proved conduct in the institution. 

Notwithstanding the disorders of the term, the Trustees 
who attended the examinations in July, 1796, including, among 
others, Governor Samuel Ashe and General Davie, certified 
that they were highly satisfactory and that many showed the 
strongest evidences of industry and most promising talents. 
The inspection began on Monday, the nth of July, and was 
not finished until Friday, the 15th, Governor Ashe and a con- 
siderable number of Trustees, in addition to the committee, 
being present. The ladies did not vouchsafe their cheering 
presence. It is recorded that "several classes and some of the 
students received the marked approbation and applause of the 
Board and the committee." 

A clear view of the condition of the University at this second 
Commencement is given in the report signed by General Davie 
and Wm. Hinton, of Wake, the only Trustees who witnessed 
all the examinations : 

The first or Senior class, consisting of six, were examined 
on Natural Philosophy and Mathematics and were distinguished 
for accuracy and progress. 

The second, or Junior class of 12, were examined on Geog- 
raphy. Six merited the marked approbation of the committee 
and were publicly commended. 

The third, or Sophomore class, consisted of 12; were ex- 
amined on Arithmetic and obtained approbation. 

In Virgil and Cicero nine were examined. Those in Virgil 
did not give satisfaction ; those in Cicero were somewhat better. 

The Rhetoric class did well. That in English Grammar, 
although numerous, acquitted themselves with approbation, as 
did also the French class. The like applause was given to the 
class in Caesar and Sallust. 

The classes in Nepos, Eutropius and six other inferior classes 
in the Preparatory School were satisfactory. 

The Committee suggest that it is best to leave out Geography 
from the Preparatory School, "as most of the scholars will 
be too young: to benefit much bv the study in so earlv a state." 



EXAMINATION OF 1 796. IO3 

The action of the Board of Trustees at this time indicates 
two fruitful sources of trouble, the existence of the open grog- 
shops or taverns in the village, and the claim of the students 
of the Grammar School that they were only under the au- 
thority of their own tutors ; and of the other students that those 
tutors had no control over the University students. Ordinances 
were passed prohibiting visiting of taverns without leave of 
a professor, vesting the Preparatory teachers with disciplinary 
authority over all the students and making them members of 
the Faculty, but without a vote. Six months later the right 
to vote was given, but the rule that the two tutors should 
occupy the same room in the University building was repealed. 

At the same meeting the students were authorized to attend 
dancing schools with the permission of the Faculty. A letter 
from Governor Spaight certifies to the teaching abilities of a 
Mr. Perrin, a French gentleman. "He does not undertake to 
teach the English dance, but the minuet and French dance, such 
as cotillons, conges, etc." His terms were $2 per month, three 
afternoons each week. Davie wrote, "I am very desirous that 
my sons should be taught to dance well. There are some 
French gentlemen at New Bern who teach dancing in the most 
elegant style. They are really gentlemen and unfortunate 
refugees from St. Domingo." Doubtless Mr. Perrin was one 
of these refugees, as was Mr. Plunkett, who taught music in 
Mr. Mordecai's school in Warrenton a few years afterwards, 
forced to flee from the atrocities of the negroes in the island 
of Hayti, where they rose against the French, reduced from 
affluence to poverty in a strange land. 

In an unofficial letter Davie referred to another difficulty 
which seems to have been rectified. "Serious, and I believe, 
well-grounded complaints are made by the students against the 
Steward, but Messrs. Ker and Harris did not think proper 
to mention them to the Board although they gave assurance 
to the students that they would certainly do so." It should be 
remembered, however, that his two sons, Hyder and Allen, 
who had been accustomed to luxurious living, probably im- 
parted this information, and we have not the counter-statement 
of the professors. The North Carolina Journal expressly states 
the contrarv — that the Commons was eminently satisfactory. 



104 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Board of Trustees found that very few applications were 
made to them for the vacancies in the Faculty. It became neces- 
sary to have a committee whose duty it was to ascertain by 
correspondence or otherwise men of sufficient learning willing 
to accept the positions, and with power to employ them. The 
earliest committee was Judge Moore, General Davie, Willie 
Jones, David Stone and Judge John Williams. Afterwards the 
committee consisted of Hugh Williamson, Stone, Thomas H. 
Blount and Treasurer John Haygood. 

History of David Ker. 

As Dr. David Ker was first professor, and also, as Presiding 
Professor, the first executive of the University, it is proper to 
give his subsequent history. He lived for several years in 
Lumberton, Robeson County, engaged in a small way in mer- 
chandising; also pursuing the study of the law. Among his fast 
friends were a family by the name of Willis, which emigrated 
to Mississippi, and again became his neighbors and allies by 
marriage. From Lumberton in July, 1800, he emigrated to 
the Mississippi Territory, stopping several months with a friend 
in Nashville, Tennessee. He settled finally at Washington in 
the neighborhood of Natchez. He found the people, who had 
been injured by tobacco and indigo, rejoicing in the profits of 
growing cotton. An industrious planter in one year cleared the 
price of a negro. There was not a considerable school in the 
territory, but many planters had private tutors. He describes 
the people as largely composed of British sympathizers and 
"Revolutionary Tories," but with a few Republicans. He 
avows to his correspondent. Senator David Stone, his willing- 
ness to accept the office of Secretary of State, the present in- 
cumbent. Col. Steele, being in a languishing state of health, or 
of judge, as Judge Tilton contemplated resignation. He re-t 
minds Senator Stone that his principles were in harmony with 
those of President Jefferson. His pecuniary resources becom- 
ing extremely slender, his wife opened a schoool for girls, in 
which he was an assistant. The Governor, W. C. C. Claiborne. 
appointed him to the clerkship of the Superior Court of Adams 
County, and soon afterwards he was made Sheriff. He then. 



HISTORY OF DR. KER. IO5 

on the recommendation of Senator Stone, who had years be- 
fore nominated him as Professor of Humanity in our Univer- 
sity, received from President Jefferson the office of Territorial 
Judge. He is described as able and impartial. His career was 
short, as he was cut off by disease contracted while holding 
court in an open house without fire in severely cold weather. 
A gentleman who knew him well describes him as a "man of 
fine education, a classical scholar, well read in the principles of 
moral and natural philosophy, of law and religion. His prin- 
ciples were well formed and matured and his moral character of 
the best model, firm, stern, inflexible, unyielding." His wife, 
whose faith in the Chiistian religion was steadfast, burnt all 
his writings, lest they might contaminate others. The brave 
woman continued her school and educated her children, who 
founded some of the leading families of Mississippi and Louis- 
iana, many of whose members hold honorable positions in 
their communities. Since the war between the States which 
brought them nearly all to financial ruin, the unmarried wo- 
men of the family have shown the spirit of their first American 
ancestors, and have devoted themselves with enthusiasm to 
teaching. 

Of the five children of Judge Ker, David died unmarried and 
Sarah (Mrs. Cowden) left no child; Eliza married Mr. Rush 
Nutt, and has many living grandchildren. One is Charles 
Clark, a prominent lawyer of San Jose, California; another is 
Sargent Prentiss Nutt, once a lawyer of Washington, D. C, 
now a planter near Natchez, at the old homestead, Longwood. 
Nearly all the rest of the Nutt branch are cotton planters in 
Louisiana or Mississippi. 

Martha (or Patsey) Ker married Mr. Win. Terry, and left 
three daughters, one of them still living on her plantation on 
the Yazoo, the widow of William B. Prince. Another daugh- 
ter married Evan Jeffries, a wealthy planter, and their descend- 
ants are numerous. 

A son of Judge Ker was John Ker, M.D.. a surgeon in the 
Seminole war, who was afterwards a successful cotton planter 
and member of the legislatures of Louisiana and Mississippi. 
He had the religious faith of his mother, who lived with him 



lo6 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

until nearly 91 years of age. They are both buried at the old 
homestead, Linden, a mile from Natchez, by the side of Judge 
and David Ker, who were removed from their first resting 
place. 

Dr. John Ker left six children, all of whom are dead except 
the two youngest, Win. Henry and Mary S. Ker, who reside in 
Natchez. The oldest son, David, was a lawyer in Louisiana 
and then a sugar planter. Besides daughters, David has a son, 
J. Brownson Ker, a lawyer in New York City. Two of Da- 
vid Ker's daughters are successful teachers in the same city. 

The second son. John Ker, was a lawyer for awhile and then 
a cotton planter. He served throughout the Civil War as Cap- 
tain of a Louisiana company, was captured at Vicksburg. 
After the war he resumed the profession of the law. His son, 
Wm. B. Ker, is manager of a large sugar estate in Louisiana. 
One of his daughters is the wife of Hon. Murphy J. Foster, 
once Governor of Louisiana. 

Dr. Ker's third son, Lewis Baker Ker, left two sons and four 
daughters, all living in Southern Louisiana. 

The fourth son of Dr. John Ker is still living, Wm. Henry 
Ker of Natchez. He left the Junior class of Harvard to join 
the Confederate army and served throughout as a cavalry sol- 
dier in the army of Northern Virginia. After the war he un- 
dertook cotton planting, but not finding it profitable, adopted 
the profession of teaching and has pursued it with enthusiasm 
and success. For several years he has been Principal of the 
Natchez White Public Schools, President of the State Board of 
Education, and teacher in and once conductor of the Peabody 
Summer Normals in Mississippi. Harvard lately conferred on 
him the degree of A.B. At Harvard he was the stroke oar of 
the Harvard crew. He married Miss Josephine Chamberlain, 
and they have a son, John, living and two daughters, one of 
whom married Mr. Richard Butler, a sugar planter of Louis- 
iana. 

. Dr. John Ker's younger daughter is still living, a fine speci- 
men of the noble class of "Old Maids," Mary S. Ker, who in 
addition to her professional duties, cared for two generations 
of orphaned nieces and great nieces. She has been steadily 



CHARLES W. HARRIS, PRESIDING PROFESSOR. IO7 

engaged in teaching since 1871, with the exception of a vear and 
a half spent traveling in Europe. She has a place in the faculty 
of Stanton College, a female school in Natchez. It is to her 
courtesy that I am indebted for much of my information con- 
cerning the family of Dr. David Ker. 

I copy the modest inscriptions on the tombstones of the first 
professor and the first lady who ever lived in Chapel Hill. 

David Ker. Mary Ker. 

Born in Ireland Born in Ireland 

February, 1758. 30th March, 1757. 

Died in Mississippi Died in Natchez 

January 21, 1805. 30th November, 1847. 

Charles W. Harris, Presiding Professor : Joseph 
Caldwell, Professor. 

It can well be imagined that, during the first two terms, or 
sessions as they were called until 181 8, the scheme of studies 
laid down by the committee of which Dr. Corckle was chairman, 
was not closely adhered to. The chaotic state of education in 
the State rendered rigid classification impossible. 

In consequence of the retirement of Dr. Ker, in the summer 
of 1796, the duties of Presiding Professor, in addition to in- 
struction in Mathematics, were placed upon the strong but re- 
luctant shoulders of Mr. Harris and there rested until his resig- 
nation half a year afterwards much against the wishes of the 
Trustees. While so engaged he gave to his work undivided 
attention, grieving however over his abstinence from his law 
books. Whenever possible he mounted his horse, and, riding to 
Hillsboro, enjoyed refined society in the families of the Hoggs, 
Norwoods, Webbs, and others. Under his management the 
students steadily improved, and at the examination in December 
showed such proficiency that the visiting Trustees published a 
testimonial thereof. 

As Mr. Harris had given notice that he would retire after the 
close of the term in December, it became necessary to take 
measures to supply his place. He himself, loving the Univer- 
sity, took much interest in the question, and was freelv con- 
sulted by the Trustees. Remembering the character and repu- 



IOS HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

tation for ability of Joseph Caldwell, who graduated with high- 
est honors at Princeton in the class preceding his, and learning 
of his subsequent success as a tutor, he confidently recom- 
mended him for the Chair of Mathematics. It was a striking 
proof of the strong impression he made on the eminent men 
who composed the Board of Trustees, that they unanimously 
elected his nominee. Caldwell had been engaged in teaching 
mathematics at Princeton, was only twenty-three years of age, 
but of matured intellectual strength. If it shall be thought 
that the Trustees were rash in calling so young a man to so 
responsible a post, it should be remembered that they had a very 
narrow range of choice. The historian, Dr. Hugh Williamson, 
then residing in New York, commissioned by the Board to 
enquire for persons competent, wrote, "The salary offered 
(about $600) is so small as to preclude any chance of in- 
ducing any respectable man of learning to remove to a Southern 
State, where, as they all believe, the chances of health are 
greatly diminished." He says that: "men of moderate ability 
expect to make more money in other business than teaching, 
hence capable teachers are only among the clergy. The Pro- 
fessorship of Mathematics in the College of New Jersey 
(Princeton) has been vacant some time for want of a capable 
man. It is unfortunate that people measure salaries by the 
inflated price of provisions and the flood of real or fictitious 
money. $2.50 for a bushel of wheat, half a dollar in a 
tavern for breakfast, $1.25 a day for a common laborer, are too 
high to continue. When Europe is revisited by Peace, prices 
will fall and then we can employ teachers on moderate terms." 
He advises that tutors be engaged if those worthy of being 
called professors cannot be had. 

By request of the Trustees, Harris apprised Mr. Caldwell 
that" the Chair of Mathematics was open to him. Before de- 
ciding, the latter asked for a full statement of the condition 
and resources of the University, which was at once given min- 
utely and accurately. The following is the substance of this 
answer : 

There were about one hundred students "on the establish- 
ment." of whom about sixty were in the Preparatory Depart- 
ment, leaving about forty in the University proper. Of the 



CONDITION OF THE UNIVERSITY. IO9 

latter six were in the Moral Philosophy class and fifteen stud- 
ied Mathematics. The Geography and Arithmetic classes had 
about ten students each, the Latin class about the same, and 
there were five or six in Greek. Each tutor in the Grammar 
School had about thirty. "We imitate," he writes, "Nassau 
Hall in the conduct of our affairs, as much as circumstances 
will admit. The site at Chapel Hill was selected because of its 
healthiness. The expense of clothing is dearer than at Prince- 
ton. Our diet at Commons is preferable to yours and at the 
low rate of $40 a year." The buildings already completed 
are one wing 98 feet long, containing sixteen rooms, "an ele- 
gant and large house for the President," with outhouses, the 
Steward's House, Kitchen, etc. The buildings to be erected are 
a wing similar to the other, a Chapel 50 feet by 40, and a large 
three-storied house 115 feet long and 56 feet broad. The 
Chapel is contracted for to cost $3,000. The Trustees can 
realize $15,000 more, with which they resolve to commence the 
large building as soon as they can find an undertaker. The 
Treasurer informed him (the writer) that the funds, including 
what was not at once available, could be stated at $30,000. 
The University labors more at the present for the want of good 
teachers than anything else. If the buildings were completed 
and all the professorships filled there would be 200 students. 
The Professorship of Mathematics is worth $500 a year and 
in a short time will be $600. The society in the neighbor- 
hood is very uncultivated. When there is a little leisure a ride 
of 12 or 14 miles will find agreeable company, and the seminary 
is occasionallv visited by the most respectable gentlemen in the 
State. The newness of the University causes things to be in an 
unsettled state, but he expected that in a short time that a situ- 
ation here would be as agreeable and as profitable as any of a 
like kind in the Union. Mr. Ker left much against his will, 
and he himself would not wish to leave but for the intention to 
devote himself to the profession of the law. Our education 
at Princeton, he savs, was shamefully and inexcusably deficient 
in experimental Philosophy. He expects from London a small 
apparatus in October. He advises that Caldwell should visit 
Philadelphia and learn the use of the different kinds of electri- 



J JO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

cal machines, air-pumps, telescope, microscope, camera obscura, 
magic-lantern, quadrants, sextants and whatever else may be 
found useful. He would often have appeared ridiculous in his 
own eyes if he had not gotten a smattering of experimental 
Philosophy by visiting Williamsburg (William and Mary Col- 
lege) in Virginia. 

This fair statement of our University situation procured the 
acceptance by the Princeton tutor of the position tendered him. 
His determination may have been aided by the fact that the 
College of New Jersey was passing through a crisis, the cause 
of which is not disclosed. In a letter to Davie he stated that 
Dr. McLean, the Professor of Chemistry, from Glasgow, Scot- 
land, whose salary was paid out of the private pockets of the 
Trustees, was in the notion of applying for the same chair in 
North Carolina. Moreover, Brother Smith 1 would like to have 
proposals for a change and would be willing to make it if he 
could have direction of the plan of buildings, and their environs. 
Caldwell significantly adds, "I do not now hesitate to say that 
so far as the reputation of this college depends upon its immed- 
iate professors, you have an opportunity of transferring it in a 
great measure to the University of your State." 

But alas ! our Trustees did not have the funds adequate to 
enable them to embrace this promising opportunity. 

Joseph Caldwell, the new Professor of Mathematics, was a 
son of a physician of the same name, of Scotch-Irish descent, 
a resident of Lamington, New Jersey, born April 21, 1773, two 
days after his father's death. His mother was Rachel Harker, 
daughter of a Presbyterian clergyman of note, whose wife was 
a daughter of a Huguenot refugee. Mrs. Rachel Caldwell was 
a woman of rare energy and discretion, instilling into her son 
good principles, and under many privations in troublous times 
securing for him such educational advantages as enabled him to 
graduate at Princeton in 1791 at the age of 19. In recognition 
of his superior scholarship he was awarded the honor of deliv- 
ering the Latin Salutatory. 

After leaving Princeton, Caldwell entered at once on his life- 
work as a teacher, for a short while having charge of a school 

'Samuel Stanhope Smith. D.D., President Princeton College. 



SKETCH OF JOSEPH CALDWELL. Ill 

for young children, then for a year or so being usher, or assist- 
ant, in a classical academy at Elizabethtown. His intelligence 
and faithfulness were so conspicuous in this position that in 
April, 1795, he was chosen to be tutor in his alma mater, having 
for his associate and life-long friend, John Henry Hobart. 

While performing their duties as teachers both these tutors 
were pursuing theological studies. They soon parted, one go- 
ing North to become famous as Protestant Episcopal Bishop of 
New York, the other coming South to become eminent as a 
preacher in the Presbyterian Church, exerting still wider in- 
fluence as Professor and President of a State University. 

Caldwell was licensed to preach the gospel while at Prince- 
ton by the Presbytery of New Brunswick. Afterwards, when on 
his way to Chapel Hill, he stopped in Philadelphia and preached 
in the church of the celebrated divine. Dr. Ashbel Green. His 
sermon made such a strong impression on the audience that he 
was virtually offered the charge of an important congregation. 
Dr. Green prevented any possibility of his yielding to this 
tempting invitation, extremely attractive to a young man of 
twenty-three years of age, by saying abruptly, "Mr. Caldwell is 
on his way to Carolina and to Carolina he is certainly to go. 
To speak of other places will be in vain." The splendid career 
of usefulness pursued by his young friend, is proof of the pious 
wisdom of this great man in inculcating respect for the sanctity 
of a contract. 

On September 6, 1796. Professor Harris wrote to Caldwell 
expressing the great pleasure the tidings of his acceptance 
gives him, regretting that Dr. Smith is not agreeably situated 
at Princeton, and promising to suggest to our Trustees to en- 
deavor to make his removal to this University profitable and 
agreeable. He advised relinquishment of the idea of coming 
by water. To travel by public stage would cost $50, before 
reaching Petersburg, 170 miles from Chapel Hill. The best 
plan is to purchase a small, but good, horse and a single chair, 
(i. e. two-wheeled sulky, holding one person). A half-worn 
chair, if well made, would answer the purpose. With this trav- 
eling would be as expeditious as on horseback. In the chair- 
box could be carried manv necessaries. This could be made 



112 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

cheap and healthful, and would occupy about thirty days. By 
adhering- to the post-route through the cities of Washington, 
Alexandria, passing near Mount Vernon, Richmond, Peters- 
burg, etc., much entertainment and knowledge of geography 
would be gained. The loss on re-sale of the horse would not be 
considerable. Let Mr. Caldwell fill his trunk with one or two 
pieces of linen, stockings, shoes, broadcloth, and whatever 
clothing will be needed for a year, as these things are dearer 
here than in Philadelphia and often not procurable. Trunks 
should be sent by water to Petersburg, Virginia, in the care of 
Grain and Anderson, who will pay charges and forward them 
on to Hillsboro at once. 

A more striking contrast between the old time and the new 
can hardly be shown. The solitary professor journeying in 
all kinds of weather in the open air, occupying over a month, 
and trusting his baggage by a devious and uncertain route to a 
point 12 miles from Chapel Hill, while the modern professor 
makes the trip in comfort, even luxury, his baggage accom- 
panying him, in less than twenty-four hours, and does not have 
a broken-down horse and a worn-out vehicle on his hands at 
the end of his journey. 

Even before the advent of railroad transportation the raoiditv 
of travel greatly increased. In June, 1821, Rev. Wm. Hooper 
wrote to his wife from New York City : "It is astonishing to 
think that I should have left you Friday morning and on the 
following Tuesday be in New York, 600 miles distant." His 
route was first to Petersburg or Richmond, thence down the 
river to Norfolk, thence by sea to his destination. I remark in 
passing that the good doctor offered to preach on Sunday but 
the Captain, ascertaining that his passengers objected, declined 
to allow him. 

Fortunately Dr. Caldwell kept copies of many of his letters, 
and by the kindness of his step-son and executor these are in 
the archives of the University. He had, according to the fash- 
ion of the day, quite a diffuse style, and I take the liberty of 
giving often the substance of what appears to be of historic 
value. 

One of the most interesting of these letters was written to a 



CALDWEU/S VISIT TO RALEIGH. 113 

"Rev. Sir" soon after his reaching Chapel Hill. He says, "I 
arrived on the 31st October (1796) and on the second day after 
entered on the business of the class. The University is almost 
entirely in infancy, cut out of the woods, one building of the 
smaller kind is finished. The Trustees are endeavoring to get 
an undertaker for the largest, 115 by 56 feet. The foundation 
of the Chapel is laid but the completion is uncertain, as the 
mason and his negroes have spent the favorable fall in raising 
the foundation to the surface of the ground. According to 
agreement it must be finished by the 1st day of July next. The 
Trustees offer for the completion of the large building 10,000 or 
12,000 pounds ($20 or $24,000). The President's house is well 
finished. It is one hundred yards from the nearest building 
of the University. 

Soon after his arrival he made a trip to Raleigh. "The Legis- 
lature in numbers appeared respectable. General Davie stands 
foremost and an almost unrivaled leader in every capital enter- 
prise." He spent the greater part of two evenings with Davie 
and pronounced him "a man of good abilities and active in 
every measure for promoting the honor and interest of the 
State." "In the Legislature he seems like a parent struggling 
for the happiness and welfare of his children. No doubt he 
frequently finds them refractory." 

The youthful professor, having had a few days view of this 
State of over 50,000 square miles, felt qualified to tell all about 
its people. He said, "The State appears to be swarming with 
lawyers. It is almost the only profession for which parents 
educate their children. Religion is so little in vogue, that it 
affords no temptation to undertake its cause. In New Jersey 
it had a public respect and support. In North Carolina, and 
particularly in the part east of Chapel Hill, every one believes 
that the way of rising to respectability is to disavow as often 
and as publicly as possible the leading doctrines of the Scrip- 
tures. They are bugbears, very well fitted to scare the ignorant 
and weak into obedience to the laws ; but the laws of morality 
and honor are sufficient to regulate the conduct of men of letters 
and cultivated reasons. One reason, why religion is so scouted 
from the most influential part of society, is that it is taught only 



114 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

by ranters, with whom it seems to consist only in the powers of 
their throats and the wildness and madness of their gesticula- 
tions and distortions. If it could be regularly taught by men of 
prudence, real piety and improved talents it would claim the 
support of the people." 

It is amazing that a man of sense, as Caldwell certainly was, 
should have expressed such positive convictions when he had 
so little means of forming a judgment. A letter from his 
friend, John Henry Hobart, then Tutor at Princeton, gives us 
further insight into his views of things at Chapel Hill and 
elsewhere. Hobart was pleased to see that "Caldwell's disagree- 
able feelings were wearing off. The country must have pre- 
sented a barren and gloomy prospect, and the manners of the 
lower class congenial to it, except where the noise of intemper- 
ate mirth gave liveliness to the dull scene. I have understood 
that in Virginia especially the rich planters are men of hospi- 
tality and polished manners. It is to be hoped that the rays 
from your University, the Sun of Science, will illuminate the 
darkness of society. Your Faculty seems to constitute a motley 
group. Presbyterians and Arians, infidels and Roman Catho- 
lics. The age of reason has surely come. Superstition and 
bigotry are buried in one common grave. Philosophy and 
charity begin to bless the people." 

"I expected something better from Harris. I did not expect 
that he would become the disciple of infidelity. I feel for 
your situation thus deprived otf relligious conversation and 
society, exposed to the insults of the profane and scoffs of the 
infidel. Your resolution to stand firm is worthy of your pro- 
fession. Providence seems to have placed you in a position 
where you will need much firmness, but where you may do 
much good. It seems as if you were called to proclaim the 
glorious truths of the Gospel, where they have not been known, 
or known only to the contemned." Hobart then tells of the 
losses of the Federalists in Pennsylvania and hopes that by 
"the aid of Webster's and Fenno's papers you will be able to 
make good Federalists of some of your North Carolina friends." 
This Webster was the author of the Unabridged Dictionary 
who once edited a political journal. 



davie's estimate of caldweel. 115 

It appears from a letter by Thomas Y. How to Caldwell that 
the latter had a conversation with Davie on the Evidences of 
Christianity. He gave to How a summary of his arguments, 
which were pronounced, judicious and forcible. Nothing is 
said of the impression made on the mind of Davie. How is 
alarmed at the progress of infidelity. He believes that the 
French government sends emissaries to the United States to 
convert the people to Deism in order to make them lose their 
Republican virtue, and then France by intrigue and bribery can 
control their policy. 

We have Davie's impressions of Caldwell, formed after a 
six months' acquaintance. "The more I know Caldwell the 
more I am pleased with him. I think him a respectable char- 
acter and well qualified to fill the Mathematical and Natural 
Philosophy chairs. Perhaps he has not studied attentively 
Moral Philosophy and the Belles Tettres, but I believe him pos- 
sessed of talent sufficient to attain to any proficiency in any 
science that may be necessary. I am very sorry that he has 
notified his determination to leave us. He seems to think that 
his constitution is too weak to undergo the anxiety and fatigue 
of the President's place." It will be seen that this intention 
was abandoned. 

Mr. Caldwell, after resting only one day, began his duties 
as professor on the 26. of November, 1796, Harris having the 
duties of Presiding Professor. When in accordance with his 
notification the latter's resignation took effect, Caldwell, with 
great reluctance, succeeded him in the management , Rev. Sam- 
uel A. Holmes, who had been Tutor, being elevated to the Pro- 
fessorship of Languages, W. A. Richards being teacher of 
French and German. The Preparatory Department was under 
the management of Nicholas Delvaux, assisted by Richards. 

I give briefly the career of the excellent Professor Harris 
after his leaving the University. He settled in Halifax, one of 
the court towns, arriving there April 10, 1797. He was spared 
the usual dreary waiting of a young practitioner. General Davie 
was elected Governor in the fall of the same year, and in the 
next was sent, together with Chief Justice Ellsworth and Van 
Murray, our minister to the Hague, to negotiate with Napoleon 



Il6 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

for peace with France. He intrusted the bulk of his practice 
to Harris, so that the public soon learned his worth. In 1800 
he was elected a Trustee of the University, and being placed on 
the Visiting Committee aided in conducting the examinations 
in June of that year. His legal abilities were so generally recog- 
nized that he was urged by his Federalist friends to allow his 
name to go before the General Assembly for the office of Judge, 
but he declined on account of bad health. Hoping for relief 
he made a voyage to the West Indies in 1803, but finding no 
benefit, returned and died January 15, 1804, at the residence 
of his brother, Robert Wilson Harris, in Sneedsboro, on the 
Pee Dee in the county of Anson. Before his death he returned 
to the faith of his father, an elder in the Presbyterian church 
at Poplar Tent. He was agreeable with his friends, reserved 
among strangers, scrupulously truthful and honorable, an as- 
siduous and accomplished scholar. Seldom has pulmonary con- 
sumption carried off a more promising man. 

Under the judicious management of Caldwell the spring term 
of 1797 moved on harmoniously and prosperously to all out- 
ward seeming, though we learn from his letters that he was 
not pleased with some of his associates. 

The cares incident to the office of Acting President so 
weighed upon Mr. Caldwell that, as Davie wrote, he avowed his 
intention to leave the institution. The Trustees, however, in- 
duced him to remain by the election at the close of 1797 of 
James Smiley Gillaspie as Professor of Natural Philosophy, to 
be also Presiding Professor. 

The examination of July 18, 1797, was quite numerously at- 
tended by the Trustees, there being present Governor Benjamin 
Williams, Judge John Williams, James Hogg, Adlai Osborne, 
Willie Jones and Walter Alves. Their report was most favor- 
able. "The Professors and Tutors deserve praise and thanks, 
and the students approbation and applause, and both were ac- 
cordingly given by the Trustees." "Rosy health appeared in 
the countenances of the students, a few boys excepted, who 
came from the eastern parts of the State." "The complaints 
which have existed against the Steward have entirely sub- 
sided." 



EXAMINATION GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 117 

We have a letter from James Hogg to General Davie, explain- 
ing that the duty of attending the Board of Trustees and the 
necessity of leaving for home on the fifth day caused a too 
meagre attention to the examination of the classes of the Pre- 
paratory Department. He reports that "Mr. Delvaux's classes 
on Sallust, Caesar, Cornelius Nepos, Eutropius and two classes 
on Corderius seemed to me to be taught with accuracy. It is 
true that they had been prepared, but each student drew by 
lot the chapter or section which he was to read. His students 
in the French Grammar were satisfactory. He has a class in 
the Latin Grammar which was not examined." 

"Mr. Richard's classes on Telemaque and Gil Bias, French 
exercises and in French Grammar made a satisfactory exami- 
nation. A large class on the common rules of Arithmetic and 
practice and a large class in English Grammar in general per- 
formed well." There were two classes in reading and spelling 
but there was not time to test the proficiency of the students. 
Davie wrote that he feared that sufficient attention is not paid 
to reading and spelling. He has heard complaint of the school 
in this regard, especially in the northeast section of the State. 

"A man of prominent character is necessary in the Grammar 
School." He is sorry to hear of the differences between Del- 
vaux and Richards. They can be met by appointment of an 
additional Tutor. Robert Moore is recommended, also Archi- 
bald D. Murphey. from Caswell. Moore would probably teach 
for his board and tuition. Davie adds, "It is so difficult to find 
men for our purpose tolerably well qualified, that I am very 
sorry that Mr. Delvaux is to leave us. It is not likely that we 
shall meet with his equal." 

We are informed in this report that Caldwell, in addition 
to his duties in the University proper, taught about twenty 
pupils in the Preparatory Department in reading. 

Hogg's explanation of the chapters, to be examined on, hav- 
ing been notified in advance to the students reminds me that 
when seven years of age I was at the school of Mrs. Harriet 
Bobbitt in Louisburg; she, apparently as a matter of course, 
gave to the pupils the words which we were to spell at the public 
examinations bv the Trustees. The result was more favorable 



Il8 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to the accuracy of the spelling than to the moral lesson incul- 
cated. I very much fear that similar deceptions were not un- 
common in "the good old days." It is remarkable that there 
are in the archives of the University two valedictory orations 
in Caldwell's handwriting, and a third endorsed as copied by 
E. J. Osborne for him, which seems to imply that he supplied 
members of the graduating classes with productions similar 
to those which he had listened to with tearful eyes at Princeton. 
His unbending rectitude of principle leads to the conclusion 
that the matter was well understood by the students and the 
public. I conjecture that similar deceptions are not uncommon 
in our day. I have been occasionally requested by pupils of 
distant schools to supply them with "original speeches," one of 
them naming the subject — "Love, the Causes of Love, the 
Effects of Love," etc., but I have invariably declined. 

The Principalship of Gillaspie. 

The new Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Smiley 
Gillaspie, as he spelt his name, was honored with the title of 
Principal of the University, instead of Presiding Professor. 
He was son of John Gillaspie, doubtless a near relative of Col. 
Daniel Gillaspie, of the Revolution, and Senator from Guil- 
ford. His home was at Martinsville, a village which took the 
place of old Guilford Court-House. By inducing him to as- 
sume executive duties and by adopting a resolution endorsing 
Caldwell's course, the Trustees induced the latter to accept the 
Chair of Mathematics. He voluntarily agreed to teach French 
in the Preparatory Department, for which an allowance of $30 
was made. 

The first year of Gillaspie's administration was fairly suc- 
cessful. His colleagues were Caldwell and Holmes in the Uni- 
versity, and Richards and William Edwards Webb, a promising 
member of the Senior class, in the Grammar School. 

Early Donations — Governor Smith. 

I have chronicled the fact that Governor Smith offered to the 
University warrants for 20,000 acres of soldiers' land warrants 
at the first meeting of the Board in 1789, and handed over the 
warrants at the second meeting in 1790. 



GOVERNOR SMITH. 119 

The munificence of Colonel, afterwards Governor and Gen- 
eral Smith brought, however, no present funds into the treas- 
ury. The warrants were for lands located in Obion County, 
in the extreme northwest of Tennessee. By the treaty of Hope- 
well in 1785 the United States ceded this territory to the Chick- 
asaw Indians. In 1810 one of the most terrific earthquakes 
which ever afflicted the Mississippi Valley turned portions of 
the land into lakelets. It was not until twenty-five years after- 
wards that a sale was effected, which realized $14,000. Never- 
theless it was certainly a graceful act to name our library build- 
ing Smith Hall in his honor, although it was delayed over half a 
century. John Harvard gained immortality by a legacy of less 
than $4,000 to the college at Newton, afterwards Cambridge, 
in Massachusetts. I feel it a duty to give the man, who made 
a much more munificent donation to our infant institution, this 
special notice. 

Benjamin Smith was a man of force. In the Revolutionary 
struggle he was a special aid to Washington in the masterly 
retreat from Long Island. He partook of the glory in defeat- 
ing Parker's fleet at Charleston. In contemplation of war with 
England or France, when his great chief was President, he was 
made Brigadier-General of militia. When a struggle with 
France was imminent, during the Presidency of elder Adams, 
the entire militia force of Brunswick volunteered after a fiery 
speech from him. In 1810, when the troubles with England 
were culminating he was made General of the county forces. He 
was fifteen times State Senator from his county of Brunswick. 
The capital of the county was called in his honor Smithville. 
With forgetfulness of the old hero and hankering after modern 
sheckels, the name has been changed to Southport. His mem- 
ory is still perpetuated not alone by the gratitude of the Uni- 
versity, but by the name of the bleak island, which far out in 
the ocean forms the dangerous projection of shifting 1 sand, 
called by the ancient mariner in his terror Promontorium Tre- 
mendum, or Cape Fear. 

As he advanced in years Governor Smith lost his health bv 
high living and his fortune by too o-enerous suretvshio. He 
became irascible and prone to resent fancied slights. His 



120 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

tongue became venomous to opponents. He once spoke with 
undeserved abusiveness of Judge Alfred Moore, and the insult 
was avenged by one of the members of the Assembly from 
Brunswick, Judge Moore's son Maurice, who next to Hinton 
James was one of the first students of the University. The duel 
was fought on the 28th June, 1805, in South Carolina, not far 
from the seaside, where then stood the Boundary House, the 
line running thro' the centre of the hall entrance. When North 
Carolina officers sent in pursuit reached the house they were 
unable to cross the imaginary line into the south side of the 
house, where the duellistsand their friends, triumphant under 
the jurisdiction of South Carolina, were laughing over their 
fruitless chase. The second of Captain Maurice Moore was 
his cousin, Major Duncan Moore, while General Smith was 
attended by General Joseph Gardner Swift, whose "Memoirs," 
published only for private circulation and re-published by the 
University in the James Sprunt Historical Monographs, is of 
much interest. At the second fire the bullet of Moore entered 
the side of Smith, and although not fatal was long the cause of 
pain and discomfort. When some years after his death his 
bones were exhumed for removal to another cemetery, the 
"vengeful lead" was found among them. 

It is sad to relate that in his old age he was arrested by the 
attorney of the University, who, Smith alleged, was his per- 
sonal enemy, and held for a security debt ; but on learning the 
fact he was released by order of the Trustees with promptness. 
Even after his death, it is said, his body was pursued by hungry 
creditors, a ghastly power then allowed by law, and his friends 
were forced to bur}/ it in the darkness of night in an obscure 
spot, where the money ghouls could not find it. 

General Person. 

About the time of the construction of the old East, the old 
Chapel, or Person Hall, was begun. When funds ran low the 
hearts of the Trustees were gladdened by the gift of $1,050 in 
"hard money," said to have been paid in shining silver dol- 
lars, for the purpose of finishing it, by General Thomas Person, 
of Granville. He was an old bachelor, who, not having children 



GENERAL PERSON. 121 

of his own, felt impelled to help educate those of others. Gen- 
eral Person was a wealthy planter of Granville County. He 
was a sympathizer with the Regulators in their wrongs, but 
did not approve their overt resistance. He was an active pa- 
triot of the Revolution — a delegate to the first assembly of the 
people at New Bern in 1774, which met in defiance of the 
prohibition of the royal Governor. He appeared again as a 
member of the Provincial Congress at Hillsboro in 1775, and of 
the Congress at the same place in the spring of 1776, by which 
the State was organized for war, and which led the van in 
authorizing the members of the Continental Congress to vote 
for independence. He was one of the stout patriots who amid 
the storms of war framed a constitution for free Xorth Caro- 
lina at Halifax in December, 1776. He was the second named 
of the large and able committee which reported the Constitu- 
tion for the consideration of the body, and did their work so 
well that no changes were made in it. Nor was he trusted as 
a legislator only. He was one of the Provincial Council, which 
constituted the Provisional government of the State prior to 
the Constitution, and of the Council of Safety, which was its 
successor. He was one of the six Brigadier-Generals of the 
first military establishment. He was a member of the House 
of Commons during the entire war, and either as Senator or 
Commoner represented Granville County in the General As- 
sembly for sixteen years. He always enjoyed the esteem and 
confidence of our people. He was always a fast friend of edu- 
cation and of the University. He was among the influential 
men who formed the first Board of Trustees. He attended the 
first meeting of the Trustees in 1790 at Fayetteville. For many 
years the "Old Chapel" was the place of divine worship and 
of all public meetings. For some time the two societies held 
therein their sessions. It witnessed the Commencement exer- 
cises and conferring the diplomas. Until after our great Civil 
War these documents bore on their face in sonorous Latin the 
antiquated words, "in Aula Personica." The grateful Trustees 
directed that a slab be inserted in front of the building with 
the following inscription : 



122 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

BY THE TRUSTEES 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

THIS MONUMENT IS ERECTED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL THOMAS PERSON, 

WHO EVINCED HIS PATRIOTISM 

AND LOVE OF LEARNING 

BY A PECUNIARY DONATION 

WITH WHICH THIS CHAPEL WAS COMPLETED 

IN THE YEAR 179 

IN HONOUR OF WHICH MUNIFICENCE 
IT IS DISTINGUISHED BY THE NAME OF 

PERSON HALL. 

OBIIT AN. 1 
AET. 

This pious work was never executed. 
Subscriptions. 

On January 9, 1793, Willie Jones and Wm. R. Davie, the 
leaders of the Republican and Federalist parties in the eastern 
section, in politics opposed, but personal friends, issued a joint 
appeal for subscriptions, stating that they were clearly of the 
opinion that the liberal education of youth must tend to pro- 
mote the prosperity and happiness of the people. They hope 
that "the gentlemen of the county of Halifax, on an occasion 
so interesting to the rising generation, when the gentlemen of 
the county of Orange had given near $2,000, will not suffer 
any county in the State to exceed Halifax in supporting an 
institution of such vast and general utility." The following 
is a list of donations from the Judicial Districts : 

Total Hillsborough District $1614.80 

" Halifax " 1608 . 

" Wilmington " 2222 . 

" Newbern " 950 . 

" Fayetteville " 170 . 

Salisbury 158 . 50 

Grand Total $6,723 . 30 

In the appendix will be found the list of names — a veritable 
roll of honor. The subscriptions run all the way from $5 to 
$200. Wm. Cain, of Orange, Alfred Moore, of Brunswick, 
soon to be a Judge, and Walter Alves, of Orange, were the 



SUBSCRIPTIONS. 1 23 

largest subscribers. The latter, however, added his own dona- 
tion to a legacy willed by his father-in-law in order to make 
up the $200. He was a son of James Hogg, changing his name 
at his father's request. The $100 subscribers were Jesse Nevill, 
of Orange; Wm. R. Davie, Willie Jones and Nicholas Long, 
of Halifax ; John Burgwin, of Wilmington ; Governor Spaight, 
Joseph Leech, Daniel Carthy, George Pollock, and Wilson 
Blount, of New Bern. In the lists will be found ancestors of 
many of the leading citizens of the State and friends of the 
University, such as the Spaights, Donnells, Bryans, Davises, 
Blounts, Greens, Osbornes, Halls, Moores, Ashes, Kenans, 
Burgwins, Wrights, Toomers, Joneses, Cutlars, Jameses, Hills, 
Dudleys, Sneads, Waddells, Haywoods, Alstons, Malletts, 
Longs, Whitakers, Smiths, Watters, Hooper, Strayhorns, 
Renchers, Johnstons, and many others, not counting those on 
the female side. 

It is particularly gratifying to see the name of Wm. Bing- 
ham, the founder of the distinguished family of teachers in 
our State, who gave $20, a large sum for a teacher, then a 
recent settler among us. Rev. Dr. Samuel E. McCorkle showed 
his interest by procuring $42 from his congregation. The Cen- 
tral Benevolent Association, of Iredell County, subscribed $100 
for the purchase of books and apparatus, and Rev. James Hall, 
D.D., the Preacher-Captain in the Revolution, out of his meagre 
salary sent $5. 

It is evident that two or more of the agents procuring sub- 
scriptions neglected their duty. It is impossible to believe that 
so many well-to-do counties around Albemarle Sound and in 
the valleys of the Tar, the Neuse above Craven, the Pee Dee, 
the Catawba, the Yadkin, and other rivers, would have been 
totally unrepresented in this list if they had been properly can- 
vassed. We should give all the more praise to James Hogg, 
W. R. Davie, Richard Dobb Spaight, Alfred Moore and Wm. 
H. Hill for successful activity. Wm. Barry Grove would have 
undoubtedly gathered a larger sum if he had not been engaged 
in his congressional duties. 

The foregoing subscriptions were not, however, payable at 
once, but according to the dates fixed by the donors — mostly 
in one or two vears. 



124 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OE NORTH CAROLINA. 

Besides these, were subscriptions of $460 in Wake and $80 in 
Rowan, under the provision in the charter authorizing donors 
of $20 to have a four years' free scholarship. In 1796 the 
Trustees cancelled all these. It should be added that the first 
donor of apparatus for instruction was Alfred Moore, then 
called Colonel, a pair of globes ; and next to him was Richard 
Bennehan. 

Major Gerrard. 

In 1798 the Trustees were, gladdened by the bequest of valu- 
able lands and land warrants in Tennessee by a worthy Revolu- 
tionary officer, a Lieutenant in the Fifth Battalion of the Conti- 
nental line, whose first Colonel was Edward Buncombe. His 
name was Charles Gerrard, a native of Carteret County, but 
at his death a citizen of Edgecombe, married, though childless. 
He was described in the North Carolina Journal "as a soldier 
brave, active and persevering, and justly admired as a citizen, 
husband, friend and neighbor." His rank as Lieutenant en- 
titled him to a grant of 2,560 acres which he located in 1783 
at the junction of Yellow Creek with Cumberland River, not 
far below the city of Nashville. 

This tract, the fruit of his toil and suffering and blood, he 
regarded with peculiar affection, and when he bequeathed it he 
requested in his will that it should perpetually remain the prop- 
erty of the University. For thirty-five years the Trustees re- 
garded this wish as sacred. 

The spelling given is according to the original will of Major 
Gerrard. Judges Gaston and Badger, in reporting the here- 
after mentioned resolutions, adopt it. Afterwards the name 
was wrongly confounded with that of the founder of Girard 
College. 

In addition to this tract, which was called his "service right," 
Gerrard bequeathed warrants which he had purchased amount- 
ing to 11,364 acres. The story of the sale of these will be told 
hereafter. 

The Main, or South Buieding. 

I think it best to continue the history of the efforts for the 
construction of the early buildings, although departing from 
chronological order. 



plan of buildings. 1 25 

The South,, or Main Building. 

The first Trustees planned to have one long building facing 
the East, as Orientalization was the fashion in architecture. 
From its centre as I have mentioned stretched a broad avenue 
to Piney (or Point, as it was then called) Prospect. From 
want of funds the northern wing only was first erected. What 
is now called the Old West Building was intended to be the 
southern wing of the larger central structure. The whole was 
to be exactly similar to the Insane Asylum which overlooks 
Raleigh from Dix Hill. The design was to finish first the 
northern wing, afterwards called the East, and now Old East, 
then the Main Building and finally the north wing. This ex- 
planation somewhat excuses the sale of lots on the north side 
of the campus. The University was to have a double front 
eastward and westward. 

When Professors Harris and Caldwell entered the Faculty, 
with such influential Princetonians as McCorkle, Davie, and 
Stone in the Board of Trustees, this plan gave way to the ortho- 
dox idea of a quadrangle, which in England and Scotland is, 
with more or less efficiency, a veritable prison for detention of 
students at night; and the name "Main" in course of time gave 
way to South, the name "Wing" to East, and the University 
now fronted north. About 1830, under the influence of Dr. 
Elisha Mitchell, an abortive attempt was made to turn the front 
to the south, and hence the useless south porch to Gerrard Hall. 

In 1798, emboldened by the donation of Major Gerrard, the 
Trustees concluded to begin the erection of the Main Building, 
and the cornerstone was laid. Its walls reached the height of 
a story and a half, and then remained roofless for years. 

The cornerstone was laid, as had been that of the Old East 
with Masonic ceremonies. The following is the entry on the 
Journals of the Grand Lodge located in Raleigh : 

"On the 14th of April, 1798, by order of its most worshipful 
Grand Master, a special Grand Lodge was called at the L T ni- 
versity of North Carolina for the express purpose of laying 
the foundation and cornerstone of the principal college of that 
seminary and to join the Trustees of the Liniversity in one ejac- 
ulation to heaven and the Great Architect of the universe for the 



126 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

auspices of His eternal goodness and for the prosperity of 
learning, wisdom and virtue of that college." 

Lotteries. 

In order to complete the Main Building the Trustees obtained 
from the Legislature of 1801 the liberty of raising, by one or 
more lotteries, not exceeding 2,000 pounds ($4,000). The pub- 
lic conscience of that day saw no harm in calling in the aid 
of the Goddess Fortuna for promoting religion, education, or 
any other desirable end. The following was the plan of the 
University lottery No. 1 : There were 1,500 tickets, costing 
$5 each. Of these 531 bore prizes and 969 blanks. There was 
one prize each for $1,500, $500, $250, $200, two of $100 each, 
five of $50 each, ten of $10 each, and five hundred of $5 each. 
The $250 prize was to belong to the last drawn ticket. The 
prizes aggregated $5,500, leaving a net profit of $2,000. The 
drawing was had under the superintendence of State officers, 
Wm. White, Secretary of State, and John Craven, Comptroller. 
The highest prize was drawn by ticket No. 11 38, held by Gen- 
eral Lawrence Baker, grandfather of a Confederate General of 
the same name. 

The scheme of the second lottery drawn in 1802 was as fol- 
lows: 

There was 1 prize of $1,000 

1 " 500 

2 " 250 
1 " 100 

to be the first-drawn ticket of the last day of drawing. 

1 prize of $200 to be the last drawn ticket. 
20 prizes " 100 
15 " " 50 
S95 " " 10 

931 prizes. 
1S64 blanks. 

2800 tickets @ $5 each, $14,000. 

The foregoing is the scheme as stated in the Raleigh Register. 
As the prizes foot up $14,000 it is to be presumed that the Uni- 
versity retained a large number of tickets and participated in 



LOTTERIES. 1 27 

the drawing. At any rate the net amount to the University 
Treasury was $2,865.36. The net amount from the first lottery 
was $2,215.45. The whole amount was, therefore, $5,080.81. 

It is remarkable how completely public sentiment has changed 
on the subject of lotteries. The hostility to them seems to 
tend towards driving them from their last refuge, Church 
Fairs. In 1802 the best men lent their names and active aid 
to them. I have in my collections an autograph of George 
Washington, date not given, signed to a lottery ticket. In 
order to induce our citizens to buy the tickets of the University 
lotteries, batches of them were placed in the hands of Trustees 
and other friends of the institution, who were expected to use 
their personal influence to procure purchasers. We have copies 
of these letters of transmission. One is signed by Henry Potter, 
Judge of the District Court of the United States, Henry Sea- 
well, State Senator and afterwards Superior Court Judge, John 
Haywood, State Treasurer, and Wm. Polk, President of the 
State Bank. They assert that "the interests of the University 
of North Carolina, and of Learning and Science generally 
throughout our State, are concerned in the immediate sale of 
the tickets." They continue with delicate flattery: "From a 
belief that no measure calculated to promote the prosperity and 
happiness of our country is indifferent to you, this request is 
made." 

In order to inspire confidence, the proceeds of sale were to 
be sent to Benjamin Williams, who was not only Governor 
but a man of character and wealth. With a sense of propriety 
characteristic of the old school of gentlemen his official title is 
omitted. 

The Commissioners of the second lottery were Messrs. Polk, 
Haywood and Potter. They state that the want of punctuality, 
in making returns by some of the agents for sale of the tickets 
in the first lottery, had occasioned "much difficulty, delay and 
embarrassment in the course of the drawing." Those who per- 
formed their duty have the satisfaction that "their patriotic 
and well-meant endeavors have proved effectual and have al- 
ready brightened the prospects of this institution, and of our 



128 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

country throughout, so far as depends on a general diffusion 
of Learning and Science." The Commissioners are sanguine 
in their expectations of this mode of raising money, "however 
illy it may comport with the wealth and dignity of the State." 

The slowness with which the returns were made met with 
the stern denunciation of the Treasurer, Gavin Alves, son of 
James Hogg, who had by act of Assembly adopted his mother's 
name. In a letter to the Commissioners he accuses the "back- 
ward gentlemen" of shameful neglect of the trust reposed in 
them. He asks leave to threaten public exposure. At any rate 
"if neither sense of shame nor regard to propriety can actuate 
them I must try what incessant importunity will do." 

I find a third lottery advertised, identical with the second, 
but the project was abandoned. More than was allowed by the 
act of Assembly had already been realized. 

It is painful to be compelled to record that $300 of lottery 
No. 1 and $604 of lottery No. 2 had not been returned by the 
agents of the University, mostly Trustees, as late as December, 
1803. Measures were taken to notify delinquents that those 
not accounting within six months should have their names pub- 
lished in the newspapers. It was afterwards ascertained that 
those charged with the value of tickets intrusted to them for 
sale had failed to dispose of the same, so that it was a case of 
carelessness, not fraud. 

Appeals for Subscriptions — Donations. 

In February, 1803, the lottery money not being sufficient to 
finish the Main Building, efforts were made to raise additional 
funds by subscription. Col. Polk, President of the Board, is- 
sued an appeal deploring the necessity of beholding its exposed 
and roofless walls and the almost naked shelves of the Library. 
He urged all "Patriots to come to the rescue, because no coun- 
try can long remain free unless its religious, civil and political 
rights are understood by the mass of its citizens." "Every one 
contributing even one volume toward improving the minds of 
youths, who are to succeed us on the stage of life, must feel 
a self-approbation. On these youths the character and fate 
of our country depends." 



APPEAL FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS. I2Q, 

A Trustee for each Judicial District was appointed for the 
receipt of contributions for the increase of the library, as well 
as finishing the building, and as those considered most active 
in behalf of the University were appointed I give their names : 
Robert Montgomery, Senator from Hertford for the Edenton 
District; Calvin Jones, a physician of Wake County of repu- 
tation and public spirit; Joshua G. Wright, Commoner from 
Wilmington, Speaker of the House, soon to be Judge in the 
Wilmington District; Charles W. Harris, late Presiding Pro- 
fessor of the University, of Halifax District ; Duncan Cameron, 
Commoner from Orange, soon to be a Judge, of the Hillsboro 
District ; Nathaniel Alexander, late Senator from Mecklenburg, 
a member of Congress and soon to be Governor, of the Salis- 
bury District; Wm. Barry Grove, Member of Congress, of the 
Fayetteville District ; and Wallace Alexander, late Senator from 
Lincoln, of the Morgan District. 

The appeal was not greatly successful. $1,664 was raised in 
cash. Some of the Trustees appointed seem not to have acted. 
Charles W. Harris had the seeds of consumption and was soon 
to start on his trip to the West Indies in the vain effort to 
escape his foe. Wallace Alexander about this time closed his 
honored life. The most active Trustees were primarily Wm. 
Polk, and after him Robert Montgomery and Durant Hatch, of 
Jones County. Col. Polk was not only successful in procuring 
donations from others, fifty in number, but gave $100 himself. 
Among the fifty are some notable names. Judge Cameron, 
William Norwood, Henry Potter, Emmanuel Shober, William 
Peace, John D. Hawkins, Robert Williams, Judge John Hall, 
Theophilus Hunter, Wm. Creecy, Sherwood and William 
Henry Haywood, and many other citizens of Wake and ad- 
joining counties. John Spence West, of Craven, was likewise 
active and raised $80 in addition to his own subscription of $20. 
Ex-Governor Samuel Johnston, who had that year resigned 
his judgeship, donated $100. 

On July 3, 1803, the Trustees concluded to ask again for 
funds for the completion of "the Principal Building." An elo- 
quent address was issued, prepared evidently by Governor Mar- 
tin. They claimed that literary institutions are the grand se- 
9 



130 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROUNA. 

curity of our liberties and that from them in great measure 
all civil and religious information flows, that they qualify 
young citizens to discharge their political duties with honor 
and reputation. The Trustees boast with honest pride that 
heretofore their guardianship has not been in vain. The aids 
amply supplied by the acts establishing the University have 
been taken away. This caused the disagreeable necessity of 
resorting to lotteries, "a mode not the most honorable of rais- 
ing money for the institution." The money thus raised has 
been invested in stocks of the Bank of the United States, "not 
to be drawn upon but under a pressing emergency." The peo- 
ple were exhorted to equal in generosity that recently shown 
by private donations and legislative endowments in several of 
the United States. The success of this movement is elsewhere 
shown. 

We learn from Governor Stone that in 1800 another Repre- 
sentative in Congress who was an active Trustee, William Barry 
Grove, of Fayetteville, had procured, with funds placed in his 
hands for the purpose, an electrical apparatus, and that Gov- 
ernor Martin, then Senator of the United States, had ordered 
as a gift a new telescope. About the same time the excellent 
body of Christians, the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians, through 
Frederick William Marshall and Gotlieb Shober, donated $200 
in cash. And then there was in 1802 a gift of a new pair of 
globes. The letter accompanying the gift was written by Mrs. 
Winifred Gales, wife of Joseph Gales, the editor of the Raleigh 
Register, who was one of the contributors, but whose name was 
not signed to the letter for some reason, possibly because her 
husband edited the Republican organ, the Raleigh Register, 
and the University was accused of being a Federalist institu- 
tion. The letter was published in the Minerva or Anti-Jacobin, 
the organ of the Federalists. As a good sample of the stately 
style of the old days I give it complete : 

To the Rev. Joseph Caldwell, Presiding Professor of the University of 
North Carolina. 
Sirs — The Ladies of Raleigh, learning that the Globes belonging to the 
University are too much defaced to be useful, respectfully present the 
Institution with a new pair, 12 inches in diameter, with the latest dis- 
coveries, with a compass, which they entreat you, Sir, to present in their 
name. 



GIFTS OF LADIES. 131 

Sensible of the literary advantages which the rising generation will 
derive from this valuable seminary of learning, they beg leave to express 
their affectionate wishes that it may continue to advance in the estima- 
tion of the public, as well from the ability of the Professors, as the 
acquirements of the students, who, bringing into public life the knowl- 
edge they have there imbibed, may at once be a credit to the State of 
North Carolina, a crown of honor to their parents, and a blessing to 
themselves. 

May the past, the present and the future students distinguish them- 
selves in society, no less by their literary attainments, than by a virtuous 
course of conduct, which giving additional lustre to talents will render 
themselves at once useful and honorable members of society. 
We are with great respect, 

Your obedient servants, 

S. W. Potter, Sarah Polk, 

Axsa White, Eliza E. Haywood, 

Eliza Williams, Nancy Haywood, 

Nancy Boxd, Margaret McKeithax, 

Priscilla Shaw, Margaret Casso, 

Haxxah Paddisox, Rebecca Williaais, 

Eleaxor H. P. Smith, Svsaxxah Parish, 
Winifred Mears, Axx O'Bryan. 

I am quite sure that neither in diction nor in penmanship can 
the ladies of the present day excel the venerable mothers of the 
city of Raleigh. 

Among them we notice the wives of Judge Potter, Secretary 
of State White, Colonel Polk, Treasurer Haywood, Sherwood 
Haywood, Robert Williams, the University Treasurer, and 
of the lady, wife of Peter Casso, the tavern-keeper, who gave 
the name to the baby son of her husband's hostler, Andrew 
Johnson, afterwards President of the United States. Mrs. Anna 
White was a daughter of Governor Caswell. 

On the 26th November, 1803, the heart of Mr. Caldwell was 
cheered by the receipt of another gift from ladies, this time 
from New Bern. It is addressed to him as "First Professor 
of the University," and is as follows : 

SiR: — Desirous to manifest our solicitude for the prosperity of the 
Institution, over which you preside, we request you to accept for the use 
of the Philosophical Class, a Quadrant, the best we could procure, but 
not the most valuable gift we would wish to present. 

Our sex can never be indifferent to the promotion of science, connected 
as it is with the virtues that impart civility to manners and refinement 



132 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

to life. Nor can we suppress the emotions of (we hope) an honest pride, 
at the reflection that our native country boasts a seminary, where, by 
the proper extension of Legislative patronage, its ingenuous youth might 
be taught to emulate the worth of their fathers, where their minds might 
be enlightened with knowledge, and their hearts impressed with a love 
of justice, morality and religion; where they might learn to embellish 
the manly and patriotic endowments, which constitute strength of char- 
acter and qualify men to cherish "the mountain nymph, sweet Liberty," 
with all the arts that polish, all the charities that sweeten the inter- 
course of social life. With great respect, 
We are, Sir, 

Your obedient servants, 

Mary Daves, Mary McKinlay, 

Jane Carney, Julia A. Hawks, 

Hannah Taylor, Amaryllis Ellis, 

Elizabeth Graham, Sarah Woods, 

Fanny Devereux, Elizabeth Arnett, 

Susannah Jones, Elizabeth Osborn, 

Elizabeth Stanly, Jane Taylor, 

Susan Gaston, Mary Nash. 

In his reply Caldwell refers pointedly to the unpopularity 
of the institution, while claiming that it was unfounded. "The 
University," he says, "early excited expectations which were un- 
fortunately too sanguine and premature to be realized. * * * 
Though liberal education improves the young it cannot make 
them perfect. Though the attainment of knowledge may be 
rendered comparatively easy, it is chimerical to propose that 
it shall be universal, or totally without expense. Add to these 
the circumstance of raising and supporting the institution by 
a species of fraud which the interested would execrate and the 
popular would decry. * * * Prejudice in some and want of 
information in others were unhappily assisted by the indiscre- 
tion and misconduct of youth." Notice that he attributes the 
odium which had been excited against the University partly to 
disappointment in regard to expense, to the clamor aroused by 
enforcing claims to confiscated lands and debts, and to reports 
widely circulated of the bad behavior of the students. He is 
however so hopeful that he proceeds in a strain of eloquent 
and courtly compliment to the fair donors. "The steadfast 
friends of the University have sustained the trial in its severi- 
ties, its toils and alternate despondencies, till they can bless 



DONATIONS. I33 

the new dawnings of prosperity, which gild the horizon of 
their venerable years. For the animation they have felt in the 
conflict they are greatly indebted to that sex, which best knows 
how to estimate the virtues that impart civility to manners and 
refinement to life. The torch of patriotism which burned so 
inextinguishably in their breasts has been peculiarly brightened 
by the united flame of an honest pride in you, which kindled at 
the reflection, that our native country boasts this seminary." 
He closes with the last sentence of the letter of the ladies. 

Among the donations of a minor nature at this period it is 
recorded that ex-Governor Alexander Martin gave a pamphlet 
of his own composition entitled, "A New Science, interesting 
to the people of the United States, additional to the historical 
play of Columbus." This presents the worthy patriot in a new 
role of dramatic author. The General Assembly of the State 
gave three volumes of a history of Geneva. The same Alex- 
ander Martin presented a microscope and acromatic telescope 
31-2 feet long, magnifying 70 times for land objects and 80 
times for astronomical purposes ; Judge Alfred Moore, a pair 
of globes; Hon. W. B. Grove, a barometer and thermometer; 
Professor Caldwell, a camera obscura. Other instruments were 
purchased. To the Museum were donated objects of much in- 
terest, such as by General Davie, three medals of Xapoleon 
at Marengo ; stained glass from Leon in old Spain ; Indian orna- 
ments of copper found near Halifax ; Indian pipes of curious 
workmanship ; by Charles \Y. Harris, inter alia, a Bezoar 
stone from the stomach of a deer ; by Dr. Fisher, copper coins 
of Rome ; by Henry Young, a jointed or glass snake and a 
"Bezoar stone from the stomach of a veal." There were vari- 
ous other objects in the Museum, all lost in the casualties of 
four-score years and ten. The fact that the Bezoar stones vol- 
untarily relinquished the ownership of charms against evil 
shows the decay of an ancient superstition. 

In 1809 it was determined to make still another effort to 
raise funds for the completion of the South (or Main) Build- 
ing. President Caldwell, Treasurer Haywood and Wm. Gas- 
ton were the committee to draft an address to the friends of 
education in the State ; and Caldwell was authorized to travel 



134 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

through the State in vacation to secure subscriptions. The 
plan was his. In that year and again in 1811 he visited the 
more opulent parts of the State and secured about $8,220, and, 
while our people were going crazy over their naval victories 
in 1 8 14, the rejoicing students moved into the completed South 
Building. The undertaker, or contractor, had the fitting name 
of John Close. There were 30 who gave $100 each. In the $100 
list will be found such well-known names as those of Judge 
Lowry, Judge Henderson, Judge Hall, Archibald Henderson, 
William Boylan, Governor Williams, Chief Justice Taylor, Rev. 
Andrew Flinn, D.D., then of Charlotte. Judge Donnell gave 
$75, and Wm. Holt, of Wilmington, $40. There were 23 of $50 
each, among them Joseph Gales, the editor ; General Beverly 
Daniel, Governor Owen, John Gray Blount, General Thomas 
H. Blount. Among the four $40 subscribers was Dr. A. J. De 
Rosset, the elder. Among the six $30 subscribers we find Gov- 
ernor Dudley. Of the seven $25 donors is Judge Potter. Of 
the 13 $20 men are Wm. Peace, who gave $10,000 to Peace 
Institute. There were 18 who gave smaller amounts, among 
them General Joseph G. Swift, of the United States army, who 
married Miss Walker in Wilmington, who was in the $10 list. 

It is noticeable that the baleful effects of party spirit, the 
luke-warmness, if not hostility to the University because the 
President and at least the majority of the Faculty were Feder- 
alists, are apparent on this list. The largest generosity was in 
the seaport towns, where hostility to Jefferson's Embargo was 
intense, while the farming section where Republicanism was 
supreme gave little. The $900 of Orange was by five men, 
one of whom was President of the University. The $300 of 
Halifax was by two donors, that county, after the departure 
of Governor Davie, being intensely Jeffersonian, and the $300 
of Granville was also by two donors. 

It is pleasant to see how the young Raleigh merchants, Wm. 
Peace and Richard Smith, are found on the list; the former 
afterwards, as said, being the founder of Peace Institute, and 
the only daughter of the latter, by her bequest of $37,000 es- 
tablishing the Professorship of General and Analytical Chem- 
istry. In their company is seen the name of a learned divine, a 



BENEFACTORS. 135 

graduate of 1799, who after teaching and preaching in North 
Carolina, soon became pastor of a Presbyterian congregation in 
the city of Charleston in our neighboring State on the south, 
Andrew Flinn, D.D. 

Some of these benefactors have left memories of varied and 
important services to the State. There are Governors, United 
States Senators, Chief Justices and Judges, Attorney-Generals, 
leading divines, teachers, physicians, farmers, lawyers, mer- 
chants, in fine all the business pursuits of our people. 



CHAPTER II. 

Confiscated Property and Hostile Legislation. 

In December, 1794, the General Assembly was induced to 
make a grant to the University which brought to it little money 
but much animosity. The preamble recites that the Trustees 
have, with a laudable zeal for the promotion of literature, 
erected a building for the use of the institution entrusted to 
them and are prepared to commence the exercises, but have not 
funds to proceed in the liberal manner, which the honor and 
interest of the public demand. The act then gives the Trustees 
all unsold confiscated land, including the forfeited rights of 
Henry Eustace McCulloch, a British subject, for lands con- 
tracted to be sold by him, title being withheld for security of 
the purchase money. The Trustees were authorized to make 
title on payment of the balances due. The donation under the 
act was greatly weakened by the provision that all above twenty 
thousand dollars should be paid over to the State, that only 
the interest on receipts should be used, and that after ten years 
the principal should be subject to the disposition of the General 
Assembly. 

The Trustees employed able lawyers to realize funds under 
the act. The principal receipts were from the moneys due 
McCulloch, for lands contracted to be sold to sundry inhabi- 
tants of Mecklenburg and adjoining counties, and from' the 
sale of confiscated lands, principally of McCulloch. Adlai Os- 
borne, of Rowan, a University attorney, reported sales from 
June, 1795, to July, 1798, amounting to $14,946, most of which 
were on credit. There were 'j'j buyers. The net amount re- 
ceived up to November, 1807, was $7,160.58. In 1804 the 
Court of Conference decided in the cases of Ray's Executors 
v. McCulloch, and Trustees v. Rice, that the claim of McCul- 
loch was by the Treaty of Peace of 1783 made good to him; 
whereupon the General Assembly ordered the refunding of the 
foregoing amount, which had been invested in United States 
stock, to the State Treasury in trust for such of his debtors as 



HOSTILITY TO UNIVERSITY. 1 37 

had paid the Trustees. The University, however, had the re- 
ceipt of the interest on the amount collected from time to time. 
Notwithstanding this, as will be hereafter s^en, the act of 1794 
was a distinct injury. It raised unfounded hopes and caused 
the University to be hated in a very powerful section of the 
State. It well nigh caused its ruin. Davie alludes to it in one 
of his letters, evidently with little hope. 

"If any man of proper literary merit could be found impru- 
dent enough to engage with us as President upon the prospect 
of our ten years fund, I hope the Board may have more dis- 
cretion than to employ him. I still hope these funds may be- 
come permanent. As the proceeds of the confiscated lands will 
now soon be collected it may perhaps be in our power to employ 
another professor." * * * Dr. McCorckle has pledged himself 
to demonstrate to the Board at the next meeting that we are 
able to employ all the officers the plan of education calls for, 
and pay them liberally, too. I am afraid it will remain a prob- 
lem notwithstanding the doctor's learning and talents." 

We learn from a letter of Caldwell written in January, 1804, 
that it was his opinion that the chief cause of the outbreak of 
the hostility against the University in the General Assembly of 
1800 was the litigation instituted by the Trustees under the 
authority of the act of 1794. Having enjoyed these lands for 
about twenty years since the confiscation law was passed, it 
was in accordance with human nature for their possessors to 
be angry with a corporation which was actively pressing in the 
courts suits on these old claims. We find that George Fisher, 
of Rowan, a county adjoining that in which most of them re- 
sided, made the motion, which was supported by all the mem- 
bers from that and the adjacent counties with only four ex- 
ceptions, to repeal the act. 

A letter from a "Gentleman in Raleigh" to the editors of a 
journal called "The Anthology," in relation to the literature of 
North Carolina, states in regard to the University : 

"The Rev. Joseph Caldwell, President of the University, is 
the first scientific and literary character in the State. He is now 
employed in writing a book on Mathematics intended as a school 
book. Two sermons and an eulogium on General Washington 



138 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

by him, which have been published separately in pamphlets, 
are handsome specimens of his abilities." 

"To a 'huge misshapen pile,' which is placed on a higti rocky 
eminence twenty-eight miles from this (Raleigh), has been 
given the name of a college, and a donation from General 
Thomas Person, built a neat Chapel. After considerable diffi- 
culties were experienced on account of incompetent teachers 
and insurrections among the students, the institution under the 
direction of Mr. Caldwell, two professors and two tutors, ac- 
quired regularity and consistency in its exercises. When our 
enlightened Legislature discovered that education was incon- 
sistent with Republicanism, that it created an aristocracy of the 
learned who would trample upon the rights and liberties of the 
ignorant, and that an equality of intellect was necessary to 
preserve an equality of rights , influenced by these wise and 
patriotic considerations the Legislature gave to themselves 
again what they had before given to the University. The in- 
stitution now languishes. Mr. Caldwell's anti-Republican love 
of literature, and not the emoluments of his office, induces him 
to preserve in existence and by his influence, even the shadow 
of a college. He is assisted by only one tutor ; the funds do 
not permit the employment of more." 

Such was the popular odium at this time against the Uni- 
versity that the General Assembly of 1800 not only repealed 
the act of 1794, but, notwithstanding the strenuous exertions 
of some of the ablest men of the day, went further and re- 
pealed that of 1789, granting escheated property. So far as 
the hostile legislation affected confiscated property, it was not 
of much consequence, because the grant wa's to expire in 1804 
and the courts would have forced the University to disgorge 
the receipts from the mortgages and liens of McCulloch. But 
the deprivation of escheats, if successfully carried out, would 
have been fatal. It would have taken away the unclaimed land 
warrants located in Tennessee, the proceeds of which were the 
interest bearing endowment prior to the Civil War. 

But it was not carried into effect. In the first place the 
Court of Conference in the case of University v. Foy, 1 Mur- 
phy, 58, decided the repealing act unconstitutional ; and although 



VOTES FOR UNIVERSITY. 1 39 

this case was overruled by that of University v. Maultsby, 8 
Ired. Eq., 257, the action of the court, and we hope a change 
of sentiment, led the General Assembly in 1805 to restore the 
escheats. One of the strongest advocates of such restoration 
was Maurice Moore, heretofore described as one of the early 
students. I have examined the votes on this drastic measure 
and find them chiefly, but not entirely, on party lines. The 
names of those who stood by the institution on this vital ques- 
tion should be recorded. 

The Senators were Henry S. Bonner, of Beaufort ; John 
Johnston, of Bertie; I. Lewis, of Bladen; Benjamin Smith, of 
Brunswick; Caleb Phifer, of Cabarrus; William Gaston, of 
Craven ; Bythell Bell, of Edgecombe ; Jordan Hill, of Franklin ; 
Thomas Taylor, of Granville ; Robert White, of Green ; Stephen 
W. Conner, of Halifax ; Thomas Wynns, of Hertford ; Joseph 
Masters, of Hyde ; Durant Hatch, of Jones ; Wm. McKenzie, of 
Martin; John H. Drake, of Nash; John Hill, of New Hanover; 
John M. Beauford. of Northampton; David Ray. of Orange; 
Frederick Bryan, of Pitt ; Elias Barnes, of Robeson ; James 
Collier, of Warren ; Richard Croom, of Greene. 

John Johnston was a nephew of Governor Samuel Johnston. 
Wm. Gaston at the age of twenty-two was beginning his long 
career of enlightened public service, always advocating liberal 
and progressive ideas. He made a motion which would have 
secured to the University all lands actually taken ;nto the pos- 
session of the Trustees, but it was voted down. Senator Ben- 
jamin Smith is the same who. at the first meeting of the Board 
in 1790, donated Tennessee land warrants to the new institu- 
tion. He induced the Senate by his powerful influence to 
agree to refer the whole matter to a joint committee, but the 
House refused to agree to it. 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 32 to 23, having al- 
ready passed the House by the decisive majority of 82 to 35. 
Arnong the minority Senators I notice only one who attained 
any eminence: Peter Forney, of Lincoln, who was afterwards 
a member of Congress. Of the majority, Senators Smith be- 
came Governor, Gaston a member of Congress and Judge of the 
Supreme Court of our State, Wynns, after whom Winton is 
named, a member of Congress. 



I40 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The members of the House who stood up against the ad- 
versaries of the University were John Kennedy and Frederick 
Grist, of Beaufort; Joseph Jordan, of Bertie; Street Ashford 
and J. Bradley, of Bladen; Benjamin Mills, of New Brunswick; 
George Ellis, James Gatling and John S. Nelson, of Craven; 
Thomas C. Ferebee, of Currituck ; Sterling Yancey, of Gran- 
ville; Stephen Harwell, of Halifax; Robert Montgomery and 
James Jones, of Hertford ; Joseph Jordan and Adam Gaskins, 
of Hyde ; John Moore, of Lincoln ; Jeremiah Slade, of Martin ; 
Charles Polk, of Mecklenburg ; Samuel Ashe, Joshua G. Wright 
and Alexander D. Moore, of New Hanover ; Samuel Benton ; 
John Cabe and Absalom Tatom, of Orange ; John Nixon and 
Charles W. Blount, of Perquimans ; Herndon Harolson, of 
Person ; Richard Evans, of Pitt ; Evan Alexander, of Rowan ; 
Henry Seawell, of Wake; James Turner and Thomas E. Sum- 
ner, of Warren ; and Meshack Franklin, of Surry. 

Of the above John Moore, Alexander Duncan Moore, Evan 
Alexander and John Hill, brother of William H. Hill, who 
assisted in selecting the site of the University, were members 
of the Board of Trustees. Charles Polk was, I think, the 
brother of Col. Wm. Polk, who, on account of his love of fun, 
went by the name of "Devil Charley." Joshua G. Wright was 
afterwards a Judge. Samuel Ashe was a worthy son of Gov- 
ernor Samuel Ashe. Samuel Benton was a brother of Jesse, 
father of Thomas Hart Benton. 

Absalom Tatum had been a member of Congress, as were 
also Evan Alexander and Meshack Franklin. James Turner 
was in two years to be Governor, and then Senator of the 
United States. Thomas E. Sumner was a son of General Jethro 
Sumner of the Continental line, and soon afterwards emigrated 
to Tennessee. 

It seems evident that those who voted to sustain the Univer- 
sity were not punished by the people for their action. It is 
equally clear that its opponents did not lose the favor of the 
people. More exciting questions occupied their minds. 

In a letter written June 9, 1805, on the eve of his departure 
to his plantation in South Carolina, Davie deplored the dis- 
tressing state of the University on account of legislative hos- 



LETTER OF BISHOP HOBART. I4I 

tility. Great injury had been inflicted by this hostility on the 
reputation of the State. He says, "men of science in other 
States regard the people of North Carolina as a sort of semi- 
barbarians, among whom neither learning, virtue nor men of 
science possess any estimation. * * * In South Carolina a 
professorship is more eagerly canvassed than the secretaryship 
of the government of the United States, the consequence of 
the liberal spirit displayed by their Assembly. After a hand- 
some and permanent endowment of the offices of the institu- 
tion (South Carolina College) they voted $10,000 for purchase 
of a library and philosophical apparatus. What a contrast. Poor 
North Carolina!" 

It is interesting to inquire whether there were other causes 
of the unpopularity of the University besides the litigation 
under the act of 1794. 

Naturally the reports of the misbehavior of students, un- 
doubtedly bad, but grievously exaggerated, had a tendency to 
weaken the influence of the University, all the more because 
none of the Faculty were known to our people. But papers in 
our archives show conclusively that political feeling was the 
chief cause. 

A letter from John Henry Hobart, heretofore described, to 
Mr. Caldwell in March, 1798, indicates the views of the two 
friends about public matters. After a little badinage on the 
subject of love and regret that Caldwell's health had not im- 
proved, he said, "What think you of the honorable Congress? 
Do you not think that they are in a fair way to rival the French 
Convention? We have sometimes heard of members there 
tusseling for the tribune (i. e., to 'get the floor'). But Mr. 
Lyon has improved upon them and attempted to make spitting 
in the face fashionable. Is it not astonishing that party spirit 
should have shielded this infamous wretch from punishment ? 
Dr. Griswold has tried the thickness of his coarse hide, and I 
only wish he had beaten him to a jelly." 

"No direct news from our Commissioners. It appears that 
the French Directory treat them with silent contempt. When 
will the American spirit be roused? Is it content tamely to 
lick the dust? Can vou not infuse some Federalism into vour 



142 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

neighbors in Carolina, and displace some of your present ig- 
norant and pusillanimous members?" 

The North Carolina Senators were then Alexander Martin 
and Timothy Bloodworth ; and the Representatives, Thomas 
Blount, Nathan Bryan, Dempsey Burgess, Win. Barry Grove, 
Matthew Locke, Nathaniel Macon, Joseph McDowell (of 
Quaker Meadows), Richard Stanford and Robert Williams, all 
men of good character and not one deserving the harsh lan- 
guage of Bishop Hobart. 

There is some evidence that Caldwell was indiscreet in re- 
gard to the utterance of his political sentiments. We have 
proof positive that there was a widespread opinion that he was 
a bitter partisan. 

On the 22d of February he delivered an address on the char- 
acter of General Washington, who died about two months pre- 
viously. The Senior and Junior classes requested a copy for 
publication. They say "The theme, noble as it is, has received 
additional splendor from the spirit of candor in which it was 
discussed. The publication will refute the calumnies which 
have been so industriously circulated." 

Two or three years after this a man, styling himself "Citi- 
zen," attacked the University fiercely in the public prints. One 
of his charges was that "every effort is made to give direction 
to the minds of the students on political subjects, favorable to 
a high-toned aristocratic government." * * * "The country 
will be imbued with aristocratic principles because an aristocrat 
is at the head of it." 

In giving this a bitter denial, Caldwell says : "It has been 
made the subject of declamation on public election grounds a 
long time." * * * "I have common sense to refrain from sub- 
jects upon which, if I were to enter into discussion with ray 
pupils, I should only incur their contempt. Politics is a subject 
upon which youth will speak and determine with as much confi- 
dence as men of any age, experience or study." He appeals to 
the Republican members of the Board to say whether he sought 
the office of executive head. 

It was already recognized that Governor Davie was the vir- 
tual head of the University. "Citizen" makes an ill-natured 
fling at him. 



DEFENCE BY CALDWELL. 1 43 

Another cause of unpopularity was the fact that the manage- 
ment of the University was in the hands of a self-perpetuating 
body. The Board of Trustees filling the vacancies in its body, 
having been Federalist in the beginning, naturally continued 
so. although the people -tfere generally Republican. 

It seems strange that it should have been seriously attempted 
to bring odium on the authorities of the University because of 
the beginning of the South Building. The correspondent "Citi- 
zen" denounces it as "the palace-like erection, which is much 
too large for usefulness, and might be aptly termed the 'Temple 
of Folly,' planned by the Demi-God Davie." Caldwell answers 
this sarcasm by showing that it was absolutely essential to the 
progress of the institution. "No Northern college has more 
than two persons in each room and the rooms are larger than 
ours." In each room at Princeton are three windows instead 
of two. Into our smaller rooms originally three beds and fur- 
niture for six persons were forced, leaving hardly space for the 
six inhabitants to turn without jostling one another. This was 
endured for some years. The Board determined to put an 
end to this. The Main Building was commenced and an order 
passed that only four should occupy one room. This was bad 
enough. "Here are fifty-six persons huddled together with 
their trunks, beds, tables, chairs, books and clothes into four- 
teen little rooms, which by the excessive heat of summer are 
enough to stifle them, and in the winter scarcely admit them 
to sit around the fireplace. When the weather permits they 
fly to the shade of the trees, where they find a retreat from 
the burr and hurry and irrepressible conversation of a crowded 
society." They even erected huts in the forest for greater 
privacy, but this was found to interfere with discipline, and 
was prohibited by law. 

The building was planned not by the "Demi-God Davie," but 
by Governor Spaight. It was to have twenty-three habitable 
rooms. ''These with the rooms in the East Building will 
amount to 38, holding 76 students. We have more than once 
had over 70. The excess above 56, i. e., four to a room, lived 
in the village." Caldwell winds up his statements with a spurt 
of eloquence. "If rooms sufficient were here we would have 



144- HISTORY UNIVERSITY 0$ NORTH CAROLINA. 

ioo students and our nation would have, not a Temple of 
Folly, but a monument of glory to herself and a pledge of utility 
and worth to all succeeding generations." He closes his dis- 
cussion of this charge of Citizen with a trenchant sarcasm. "As 
soon as the light of truth is thrown 'Upon Citizen, the visage 
from which issued such noisy and imposing declamation ap- 
pears nothing more than one wretched blank of inanity and 
dullness. Malignity and lust of sway are his guiding principles 
and his composition unites with the boisterousness of a stentor, 
the hardihood of callous feelings." 

To the charge of "Citizen" that the University employed as 
teachers men from other States, as far as Massachusetts, and 
even from Europe, Caldwell admitted the truth and contended 
that the only way to escape from this degrading dependence is 
to facilitate education among ourselves, "the true method of 
preventing an aristocracy of learning." 

He complained bitterly of the unjust charges made against 
the University. He indignantly affirmed that its enemies had 
caught up flying rumors, not founded in fact, and then pro- 
ceeded to multiply and misrepresent and aggravate until the 
country was at length led to believe that the institution could 
not be worse if it were filled with a parcel of inveterate demons 
from among the damned." 

I think I have shown that there were bitter partisan feelings 
against the University, which naturally excited strong language 
on the part of the pugnacious young Scotch-Irishman at its 
head. Archibald Murphey, however, the young lawyer, ex- 
professor, writing from Martinsville, (old Guilford Court- 
house) , seemed to attribute less importance to hostile attacks. 

"Be up and active, for the University suffers as much from 
the supineness of its friends, as from the malignity of its 
enemies." 

The friends of the University generally trembled for its fate 
during that alarming period. Judge Sitgreaves, writing to 
Treasurer Haywood, says, "It would be a most painful idea to 
suppose that after so much pains had been used by yourself and 
others to get it on its legs it should by any accident be over- 
turned. The aspect of the last legislature appeared to be rather 



SCARCITY OF TEACHERS. 145 

malignant." He sees no remedy except the election of a Presi- 
dent, "whose weight of character will influence the Faculty as 
well as the students." 

David Stone, soon to be Senator and Governor, in a letter in 
1800 to the same Treasurer Haywood from Washington, where 
he was in attendance on Congress as a Representative, did not 
agree with Sitgreaves, and mentioned a different difficulty en- 
countered by the distressed University. "There is danger of 
being entirely without teachers," but he hopes that the profess- 
ors will stay. He argued against having a President because the 
salary would not command a first-class man. "The operations of 
the present government, or some other cause, has made money 
so much to abound this way, and further East, and raised the 
price of living to such an extravagant height, that salaries, 
considered handsome with us (in North Carolina) are here 
scarcely thought worth notice." 

On April 15, 1800, Hugh Williamson wrote from New York, 
then his residence, that he hoped to get for a professor a 
clergyman, educated at the New Haven College (Yale), because 
"his congregation originally small is greatly diminished by the 
operation of politics. Many of his former hearers are so com- 
pletely modernized and philosophised as to think with the 
French National Convention that "Death is an eternal sleep." 
He is more solicitious to get one who has the spirit of command 
than one merely a good scholar. He quotes . . . Qui docet 
indoctos licet indoctissimiis est. Ipse tamen breve doctior esse 
que at. 

Caldwell as a Controversialist. 

The worthy President was in those days a fighting member 
of the Church militant. We have a long and extremely spirited 
reply of his to an attack on the University for which he held 
Basil Gaither, Senator from Rowan, Absalom Tatum, Com- 
moner from the borough of Hillsboro, who had once been a 
friend of the institution, James Welbourn, Senator from Wilkes 
and William Slade, Commoner from Edenton, responsible. An 
analysis of this open letter gives a good idea of arguments used 
by the opponents of higher education a century ago, and of 
Caldwell's style and manner of answering them. 

10 



I46 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01? NORTH CAROLINA. 

He begins by accusing them of being most conspicuous in 
trying to ruin the University — 

1. The charge that it has been a costly institution is not true. 
The State only gave property lying dormant and useless to the 
public. This is correct with the exception of $10,000 loaned 
and converted into a gift. 

2. The cry that the poor are being taxed for the benefit of 
the rich is but a trick of hypocrisy, the crooked policy of 
imposture. 

3. The attack is founded on an unreasonable envy, which 
some men feel at the superior advantages of others. 

4. It is objected that University education will bring mon- 
archical principles upon us. It is impossible. The State is too 
extensive, the land too much divided. Education at the Uni- 
versity only costs $100 per year. It cannot be engrossed by 
the rich. Those making these objections are really afraid that 
improved minds may oust them fiom their "seats of elevation, 
leaving them at home to drink their whiskey until they are 
besotted, or to drive their negroes in the cornfield." 

Our youth educated abroad will have little State pride. The 
effectual method of building up an aristocracy is to deny edu- 
cation to all except those who are rich enough to send their 
sons abroad/' at a cost of $400 or $500. "It is a fact which 
all witness that those, not North Carolinians, who come in 
among us are able to supplant our own citizens in the transac- 
tion of our own business. If education should become easy and 
plenty among us. we shall preserve our public liberties from the 
grasp of those who would otherwise engross all merit and 
abilities and knowledge to themselves." 

5. Forcing our citizens to send their sons to Northern Col- 
leges sends out streams of wealth, and increases the advantages 
they already have over us. Per contra by creating a University 
of character we cause currents of wealth to flow into us. We 
are already obliged to send our wealth and commerce into Vir- 
ginia, South Carolina and Pennsylvania. It is sought to force 
us to give them other fruits of our labors, whereas we may 
easily make reprisals on them. 

As a specimen of Caldwell's power of vituperation, I give 
his peroration to this branch of the subject: "Be assured, gen- 



CALDWEU. AS A CONTROVERSIALIST. 14/ 

tlemen, the stupidity of your politics shall be known. . . . The 
grave may open to you a retreat from public anger and con- 
tempt, and you shall still live notorious monuments of that vile- 
ness, into which a sinister, a malignant and insidious warfare 
against the good of the country must very shortly descend," 
and more of the same sort. 

He contended that "every national institution serves to gen- 
erate among us a national spirit and character. ... It gives 
a spring to the public nerve, and, by keeping it active, gives it 
tone and power." "It is the very nature of a place of public 
education to polish and give play to the springs of human 
action, to spread abroad a desire of information, a spirit of 
active enterprise, and the instruments of interest, which must, 
without it, be buried in some distant part of the world." 

7. Another argument for the University is that it trains at a 
critical period of their lives youths of fortune, who would 
otherwise waste their time and learn dissipation. They should 
be considered the property of the country and such training 
provided for them as will ensure improvement to their genius, 
regularity to their conduct, and a love of religion to their 
affections. 

8. It may be said, let the rich erect their own institutions. 
The objections are — 

1. It is too expensive to have separate institutions for dif- 
ferent classes of society. 

2. Education is the business of the public and should not be 
delegated. 

3. Alen of means should not be allowed exclusivelv to sup- 
port the University — 

a. Because the students would not have a sense of obliga- 
tion to the State, but to the men of wealth whose bounty thev 
received. 

b. A generous people should desire the chief share in effect- 
ing what is most honorable and advantageous to themselves. 
But Caldwell here breaks off into invective. "It is such men as 
you who rob a people, when you once get the swav into your 
hands, of the honor and the pleasure of everv liberal act thev 
could do." 



I48 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Other arguments in favor of the University are urged. North 
Carolina must come into competition with others. Will it do 
to send to the national government men who know nothing of 
the world, of civil government, of the power of speaking with 
some degree of oratory; who have never strengthened and 
quickened the powers of their minds by long study and the exer- 
cise of reason ? Then the irate Scotch-Irish preacher bursts into 
a fierce argumentum ad homines. 

"It is by no means impossible that chosen as our congressmen 
are by districts, you might make the people near to you think 
that you were fit to make laws for a generation. But what 
would be the result? The capital of the United States would 
be to you like another world. The hall of Congress fitted with 
members not only of as strong natural genius but of as perfect 
education as any men in the country, would be a place where 
you would shrink from the eye of every spectator. . . . You 
would be glad to take shelter under a dumb and listening 
silence. And when you heard the tongue of eloquence rolling 
upon your ear the imposing accents of reasoning and harmony, 
all that would be left for you would be to be shaped at the 
will of skilful politicians." 

"If you look at the representatives of this State for some 
years this will be proved past controversy. ... It is true, in 
a large representation, we may see that there will be some 
who are senseless enough. But unfortunately for us, so large 
a proportion of ours has always been of a cast so completely 
inferior, being hardly able to show i.wo or three of respectable 
talents, from among a dozen, that there is no wonder that our 
State, though so large and populous, is regarded in the very 
lowest rank in the Union. ... In what light ought we to 
view such men as you, who are striving with all your might 
and main to condemn us to endless continuance in the same 
unhappy lot?" 

Caldwell then defends the University against the charge of 
immorality. 

9. "It is customary with you to raise a clamor about the irre- 
ligion and vice which you ignorantly affirm to prevail among the 
youth who are educated at a University. You are industrious 



PARTY FEEDING AGAINST THE UNIVERSITY. I49 

to search out every boyish trick which you can come to the 
knowledge of, and you do not fail to paint every act in the 
deepest colors of criminality and corruption. ... It is less 
unjust to you to condemn a whole society of people for the in- 
discretion or absurd behavior of a few, than it is for these few 
to be guilty of some absurdities. . . . How dreadful, how un- 
just, how hard it is that calumny must be forever watching, as 
with a lynx's eye, the disorders of a few wrong-headed young 
people, who are mixed up in a college with the body of the 
students." 

That the ferocity of party spirit was baleful to the University 
is further shown by a letter written by the eminent "Log-col- 
lege" teacher and fighting parson, Captain of Cavalry in the 
Revolution, Rev. Dr. James Hall, acknowledging the degree of 
D.D. conferred on him in 1810. He was nettled that some- 
time before his name had been proposed as a Trustee without 
success. He begs that he be not again nominated, partly because 
he was in his 69th year and partly because an editor — a "fugitive 
European" [Joseph Gales] had characterized all clerical Feder- 
alists as "Rebel Priests." His uniform character as a patriot 
and the part he acted through the whole Revolution have not 
saved him from this and other most odious epithets. One of 
his co-presbyters had been elected a member, (Rev. Dr. James 
Wallis), the only Democrat in the Two Presbyteries, consisting 
of at least thirty members. He urges that party spirit had pre- 
vailed too much in the choice of Trustees, and in counselling 
that more of the clergy should be made members of the Board, 
he asserts, that it is well known that no set of men under 
heaven have done so much, or are capable of doing so much 
for the promotion of literature, as those of the clerical order. 
He then gives unstinted praise to President Caldwell. "I query 
if Christendom can produce such an example on that subject 
as has been, and now may be found in the University of North 
Carolina." He then announces that he intends to donate a con- 
siderable number of volumes to the University, which was after- 
wards done, a most pleasing proof that this most worthy man, 
who in his day exerted wide influence for good, retained no 
malice for the injury which in his opinion the Federalist Trus- 
tees had done him. 



150 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01 ? NORTH CAROLINA. 

When the escheats were restored in 1805, the same act made 
the Governor for the time being the ex-ofhclo President of the 
Board of Trustees. Further popularity was gained by giving 
the General Assembly on joint ballot the power of filling va- 
cancies, and, to ensure regularity of attendance, two years con- 
tinued absence from meetings forfeited the seat of the delin- 
quent. 

In 1807 the Board was rendered more efficient by making 
seven members a quorum for transacting business. In 1809 
balances in the hands of executors and administrators, remain- 
ing for seven years unclaimed, were vested in the University. 
And so were likewise balances due the State by Sheriffs and 
other officers prior to December 31st, 1799, but of course claims 
of such venerable antiquity were not copious fountains of 
wealth. It shows badly either for the financial integrity of 
the officers of the old times, or for the accuracy of their busi- 
ness methods, that there were no less than sixty-eight judg- 
ments and other evidences of debt against the same number of 
defaulters turned over to the University. Among these there 
were seven clerks, sixteen sheriffs, nineteen sellers of confis- 
cated property, nine entry-takers, eight agents for sale of lot- 
tery tickets in which the State, in behalf of the city of Raleigh, 
was interested, one "Cornmissionary," i. e. Commissary, and 
two judges. The dues of the judges, Samuel Spencer and John 
Haywood, were for licenses of lawyers. The total amount due 
amounted to the handsome sum — on paper — of $111,010 certi- 
ficates and $38,942 in money. 

Collection of Escheats. 

For the purpose of more thoroughly realizing the escheats, 
which had been re-granted to the institution, the State was 
divided in 1809 into ten districts and an attorney over each 
appointed. Naturally the friends of education were chosen and 
hence their names should be recorded. For the 1st District be- 
ginning with Ashe, Israel Pickens of Burke and Robert H. 
Burton of Lincoln ; for the 2nd beginning with Rowan, Lewis 
Beard of Salisbury; for the 3rd beginning with Anson. John 
Cameron of Fayetteville and Alexander McMillan of Richmond 
County ; for the 4th beginning with New Hanover, Samuel R. 



COLLECTION OF ESCHEATS. 151 

Jocelyn of Wilmington ; for the 5th beginning with Chatham, 
A. ~D.J£dn?phey of Hillsboro ; for the 6th beginning with Hali- 
Tax\ John Whitaker of Halifax ; for the 7th beginning with 
Carteret, Wright C. Stanly and John T. West, both of New- 
bern ; for the 8th beginning with Hyde. John Roulhac of Mar- 
tin County and Thomas B. Haughton of Washington County ; 
for the 9th beginning with Bertie. Samuel Turner of Bertie : 
for the 10th beginning with Wake. Robert H. Jones of Warren. 

Any two Trustees, with the Attorney, were authorized to 
compromise all litigation. They might select three freeholders 
to fix the price of land, which might be sold on a credit of one. 
two and three years, with a discount of six per cent allowed for 
cash. The Attorneys were allowed three per cent commissions 
for selling, and two and a half per cent for collecting and pay- 
ing over the money. In case of suit fees usual among lawyers 
could be charged. Annual reports must be made. Amounts 
over $1,000 were to be remitted in one month. Less amounts 
within three months. As might be expected the commissions 
were increased in special cases. In settling with Samuel R. 
Jocelyn he was, on account of great and signal services, allowed 
ten per cent on sales, and was not charged with failure to col- 
lect $3,218. This was very handsome, as his sales amounted to 
$21,800. 

At the same session of the Board Samuel Polk of Tennessee 
was authorized to sell all the Gerrard lands except his "service 
right," 2,560 acres. Under this authority Col. Win. Polk be- 
came the purchaser at the price of $4,352. for all which could 
be identified. 

The receipts mainly from this source and from escheats were 
so liberal about this time that the Trustees were not only able to 
pay for the South Building, but to buy Si 1,050 stock in the 
Bank of Newbern, $8,400 in the Bank of Cape Fear, and $2,000 
in the State Bank of N. C. Twenty shares of the Xewbern 
Bank were bought of Judge Gaston at 1 5 per cent premium and 
27 shares of Cape Fear at 25 per cent premium of Judge Mur- 
phey. Dividends of 8 and 10 per cent per annum were received 
from the State Bank in addition to a bonus of 17 1-2 per cent. 

As in duty bound the Trustees were act : ve and watchful in 



152 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OI f NORTH CAROLINA. 

claiming the rights devolved by the law upon them, yet when- 
ever a case appealing to their generous feelings came up they 
were sufficiently liberal. I give one example : John R. Don- 
nell, afterwards a Superior Court Judge, who graduated at the 
University with highest honors in 1807, was the heir of an 
uncle who owned a plantation in Lenoir County. As young 
Donnell was born in Ireland, he could not, as the law then 
stood, inherit the land. The Trustees in 1810 relinquished 
their claim, taking the precaution, however, to have the General 
Assembly approve their -action. 

I find an application for relief by Jonathan Price. In a let- 
ter dated July 21st, 1817, he stated that the State, in 1792 and 
1794, loaned him and Christmas, (William Christmas, doubt- 
less, the Surveyor who laid out the city of Raleigh, Senator 
from Franklin), money to complete a map of the State from 
actual survey. This debt was transferred to the University. 
Christmas deserted him and Strother took his place. In this 
work he had spent the prime of his life and his little patrimony. 
The work commanded the admiration not only of our sister 
States, but of European Reviewers. One of the English Re- 
views pronounced the map worthy to be classed among the first 
published of its kind in the world. Some of the States have 
made provision for the publication of the maps of their terri- 
tories "on the plan of that of Price and Strother," and have 
voted ample means for the purpose. He pathetically adds, 
"May the persons employed reap the reward of their labors, 
and not, like me, in the winter of their age. be left in the pinch- 
ing hands of poverty, nor doomed to the melancholy reflection, 
that on one hand a grave is yawning to receive them and on 
the other a prison. But I should feel proud, even in a dungeon, 
of the advantages which the present generation are receiving, 
and which posterity will receive, from the time and fortune I 
have devoted to my country ; and though my feelings make my 
old hand tremble while I write, my heart beats with honest ex- 
ultation in the recollection that my labors will survive me." He 
applied to the legislature for relief. If that should be refused, 
he offered, if the University withdraw the process issued 
against him, to give one-half of all sums due him for maps 



FIRST GRADUATES. 153 

sold, and half of future sales during his life, reserving the other 
half as a small pittance for his maintenance; after his death the 
copyright and all unsold to go to the University. It must be 
remembered that at this time a debtor could be. imprisoned by 
the creditor twenty days before taking the proper oath and 
being released. 

Three members of the Executive Committee, Messrs. Porter, 
Haywood and Polk, authorized the recall of the ca-sa which 
had been issued and reference of the matter to the Board of 
Trustees. At their next meeting further action for the collec- 
tion of the debt, £698, 18s. was indefinitely suspended on pay- 
ment of costs, the reason given being the poverty of the defend- 
ant. The offer of Mr. Price with regard to sales and copyright 
was generously not accepted. 

The map referred to was the only large, or Avail, map until 
that of McRae was published in 183 1. 

The First Graduating Class. — Troublous Times. 

The first Commencement during which diplomas were grant- 
ed was on July 4, 1798. Seven young men headed the honor- 
able procession of graduates of the University of North Caro- 
lina. 

It is proper to name all of these graduate fathers. Samuel 
Hinton of Wake, a farmer; William Houston, a physician of 
Iredell ; Hinton James, the first student ; Robert Locke, farmer 
of Rowan ; Alexander Osborne, physician of Rowan ; Edwin 
Jay Osborne, lawyer of Salisbury and New York; Adam A. 
Springs, planter of Mecklenburg, all prominent and useful citi- 
zens. Houston, Locke and Springs were distinguished. 

The Committee of Visitation after expressing their high sense 
of the talents of the gentlemen engaged in the competition in 
declamation, awarded the first honor to Mr. Nathaniel W. Wil- 
liams of Tennessee, the second to Mr. Richard Eagles of Bruns- 
wick, and the third to Mr. John B. Baker of Gates. It appear- 
ing that there was a tendency to adopt dramatic acting, General 
Davie strongly advised against it. 

He wrote, "Dramas are by no means so well calculated for 
improvement in elocution as single speeches. If the Faculty 



154 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

insist on this kind of exhibition the Board must interfere. Our 
object is to make the students men, not players." It appears 
that very harsh criticism of the teaching and morals of the in- 
stitution had been idulged in in some quarters. Davie remarks 
concerning this : "Human malevolence in some, interested views 
in others, the ignorance and caprice of parents, will continue to 
injure our institution, until it has acquired some stability, some 
fixed character, and this process will require some years." 

The creation of the spirit of dramatic acting was due to the 
influence of a very interesting person, William Augustus Rich- 
ards, the Tutor in the Preparatory Department, of whom we 
have an excellent sketch by Judge Murphey. He was a native 
of London, and had a fair education. For some reason he left 
home and enlisted as a common sailor, serving both on mer- 
chantmen and men of war. Having aspirations for a higher 
life, he deserted his ship at either Baltimore or Norfolk and 
was saved from the searching party by the kindness of an old 
lady, who had pity on his forlorn condition. By accident he 
met the manager of a strolling band of players and joined the 
company, gaining of course only a small pittance for his ser- 
vices. In the course of their journeyings they reached War- 
renton in North Carolina, the seat of an excellent Academy, 
under the management of Air. Marcus George, the teacher of 
many of our best men, among them Chief Justice Ruffin and 
Weldon N. Edwards, a member of Congress and President of 
the Convention of 1861. Two of the Trustees of the Academy, 
Dr. Gloster and .Mr. Wm. Falkener, discerned in Richards qual- 
ities superior to his station and procured his appointment as 
assistant to Mr. George. Thence he was induced to come to the 
University as Tutor, and till his death in December, 1798, dis- 
charged his duties, in the language of the Board of Trustees, 
"with singular reputation to himself and advantage to the insti- 
tution." Judge Murphey says, "His acquaintance with the 
stage in some degree vitiated his morals and gave an air of 
affectation to his manners. But these defects he greatly cor- 
rected before his death, and counterbalanced by his many good 
qualities of mind and heart." He naturally was interested in 
instructing the young men in elocution, and his proposal to 



DISORDERS. 155 

deliver lectures on oratory was accepted by the Trustees, but its 
execution was prevented by his death. It was he who induced 
the Literary Societies to join in substituting for a time a dra- 
matic performance for all other duties. It is allowable to con- 
jecture that the scenery in Williamsboro, a few miles from War- 
renton, which they purchased for the occasion, was the tristes 
reliquiae of the strolling company, which he left for more 
serious and useful work. 

The term preceding the Commencement of 1799 was especi- 
ally stormy. For some reason Mr. Gillaspie became personally 
obnoxious and the students broke out in rebellion against the 
laws and the Faculty. They actually, according to the testi- 
mony of Mr. Caldwell, "beat Mr. Gillaspie personally, waylaid 
and stoned Mr. Webb, accosted Mr. Flinn with the intention 
of beating him, but were diverted from it, and at length uttered 
violent threats against Mr. Murphey and Mr. Caldwell, which 
were never put into execution." The disorders were going on 
for a week. The students proposed to Mr. Caldwell that he 
should assume the supreme authority, which request was, in 
his own language, "rejected with contempt. It was necessary 
to summon the Trustees for the appointment of a superinten- 
dent and restoring submission to the laws." Three of the worst 
offenders were dismissed from the institution. 

The effect of these disorders, of course, was to diminish the 
number of the students. While there were eight graduates 
in 1799, there were only three in 1800. The Faculty all ten- 
dered their resignations, so that there was danger of the Uni- 
versity failing for want of teachers. In November, 1799. a 
committee of the Trustees, by order of the Board, advertised 
for a Professor of Natural. Moral and Political Philosophy, 
of the Languages and Belles Lettres, and of Mathematics. They 
stated that the salary and emoluments of each professorship 
had been upwards of 500 dollars per annum, exclusive of board 
at Commons. A Tutor in the Preparatorv Department was 
also wanted at a salary of 200 dollars and board. The result 
of this glittering offer was the re-election of Caldwell to the 
Chair of Mathematics, also to succeed Gillaspie as Presiding 
Professor, and of Wm. Edwards Webb to be Professor of 
Languages in the place of Holmes. 



I50 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The early records of the University are so meagre and in 
such confusion that we cannot ascertain definitely the causes 
of this most disreputable riot of 1799. Certain facts which 
have come down to us throw a light upon it. 

We find an indictment of Prof. Samuel Allen Holmes by the 
other professors, in the handwriting of Caldwell, charging him 
with offences so serious as to show, if they were well grounded, 
that he was an 18th century anarchist in theory, and a traitor 
to the University in practice. 

The charges in substance were that when he entered the 
service of the University he was a Baptist preacher, but he 
at once became an apostate. He advocated the doctrine that 
there is no such thing as virtue — that the love of virtue is a 
mere superstition ; that to shake off its obligations and to 
bend to the circumstances and character of the times so as to 
advance one's interest or ambition is the best morality. For any 
man to profess to be governed by the fixed principles of justice, 
of honor, of truth, or of generosity, is sufficient to stamp him 
a hypocrite and a designing knave, that is lying in wait under 
these characters for the happiness of others. He called in 
question every truth of religion and then proceeded to shake 
out of his mind every moral sentiment. He openly avowed that 
what is called virtue and integrity are deceptions and injurious 
pretenses. 

It is stated that Holmes was a trouble and a pest to Mr. Ker. 
Mr. Harris. Mr. Caldwell, and Mr. Gillaspie. He undermined 
their influence by blaming among the students their acts of dis- 
cipline. Caldwell tendered his resignation in 1796 because ''he 
perceived that so long as he was to act with a feeble-minded 
monk (Delvaux), an apostate and skepticized preacher 
(Holmes), whose little mind was fruitful in every kind of 
villainy which envy could suggest * * * and the onlv one in 
whom he could place dependence was a man whose orevious 
life had not earned him an exalted character (Richards'!, it 
required no great sagacity to discover that the public affairs 
were not to be advantageously conducted." 

Caldwell further stated that, not content with taking the 
part of students charged with breaches of the law. Holmes 



PROFESSOR HOLMES. 157 

constantly vilified and slandered the other professors. In re- 
gard to Caldwell he said among the students that indolence and 
ignorance were his true characters, that he was unprincipled, 
actuated by mean motives, and a drunkard, and that the more 
effectually there should be an insurrection against the estab- 
lished authority the better. 

Notwithstanding this invective, when the subject of it died 
in Raleigh about six years afterwards Caldwell preached his 
funeral sermon. It was of such excellence that its publication 
was called for. I have been unable to procure a copy and have 
no means of knowing to what extent the preacher modified his 
unfavorable views, but his journeying twenty-eight miles and 
the preparation of a written discourse tend to prove that Holmes 
had discarded his anarchistic views. Moreover the Raleigh 
Register, in which this notice is found, eulogistically states that 
"for several years past Holmes was a Tutor in the University, 
in which situation he acquitted himself much to his own credit 
and with great advantage to the establishment." The editor 
mistakes in calling him Tutor, as he was Professor most of his 
time of service. Remembering that the Register was a Repub- 
lican paper, and the extreme bitterness of party spirit, I think 
it probable that Holmes became a violent Jeffersonian, indulged 
in the Voltairian, Tom Paine cant of the times, talked swellingly 
of Big Liberty and the Rights of Man, and his tenets and con- 
duct were misunderstood and distorted by his Federalist col- 
leagues. He probably repented his errors. It was common 
in those days to talk in the strain of modern anarchists. 

Such differences in the Faculty would have produced discord 
in quiet times. But the times were not quiet. Fighting and 
drinking and gambling were almost universally fashionable and 
of course could not be banished from the microcosm of the 
University. There was in the air a spirit of revolt against 
authority, divine and human, which was felt in all circles 
whether of youth or manhood. Universities and even schools 
for children found their pupils inclined to recklessness and 
insubordination, and fathers had little correcting influence be- 
cause the children were but following their example. 

It is probable also that the spirit of party was a disturbing 



158 HISTORY UNIVERSITY Otf NORTH CAROLINA. 

element. Caldwell was a Federalist — possibly others of the 
Faculty. Certainly soon afterwards the institution was vio- 
lently attacked in the newspapers and in the Legislature because 
of their alleged opposition to Democratic principles. Party 
spirit was so bitter during John Adams' administration, the days 
of the Alien and Sedition laws, that friendly relations could 
with difficulty exist between opponents. The followers of Jef- 
ferson were charged with seeking to introduce mob-rule and 
French Red-Republicanism, while they alleged that their op- 
ponents were seeking to change our government into a virtual 
monarchy. Republican students thought it highly patriotic to 
insult and worry instructors, who, as they thought, were enemies 
of the rule of the people, seeking to introduce an aristocracy, 
if not a king. 

This conjecture is sustained by the law passed by the Trus- 
tees during that period. "No speech by a student shall have 
any allusion to party politics. The Faculty shall be responsible 
that nothing indecent, immoral or profane shall be spoken on 
the public stage." The first part of this prohibition was 
destined to create an insurrection after a few years. 

The difficulty ' of governing the students by reason of the 
evil influence of Holmes was increased by the character of the 
rest of the teaching force. The best of them (Caldwell) was 
only 27 years of age, and a native of New Jersey, then a 
month's distance from North Carolina. Gillaspie was a young 
native of the State, not a graduate of a college, evidently lacking 
in the sound judgment and tact necessary to overcome these 
difficulties. The beating of an executive officer is "unthinkable" 
in our days, and is a sure sign of the want of what is called 
personal magnetism, however well-intentioned was the officer. 

The other instructors, Webb, Murphey and Flinn, were, as 
I have said, young men, not yet graduated, although eminently 
worthy. 

But the most efficient cause of insubordination was the con- 
duct of the Trustees. Instead of entrusting discipline wholly 
to the Faculty they constantly interfered. The result was to 
take from the Faculty their sense of full responsibility, and to 
infuse into the minds of the governed a contempt for their 



INTERFERENCE OF TRUSTEES. 159 

authority. Mr. Gillaspie expressed bitterly the views of the 
Faculty on this subject, in a letter written from Martinsville, 
February 19, 1800. "When at the University I understood that 
two of the dismissed students had been re-admitted. This in- 
formation at first gave me some surprise and induced me to 
believe that the institution would not be soon enough ruined 
by the system of measures which had been previously formed. 
But upon further recollection I found nothing more than a 
continuation of their resolution to support the students against 
the Faculty. Such doings and undoings must be productive 
of the worst effects.'' Here was a rebellion, the professors 
beaten and stoned, exercises broken up for a week, the three 
chief offenders dismissed, and after about three months two of 
them, on petition and submission, were re-admitted without 
consulting the Faculty, by the Trustees, nearly all of whom were 
politicians. They were good men too, Governor Benjamin 
Williams, Col. Wm. Polk, Judge Joshua C. Wright, Mr. John 
Hay, ex-Gov. Samuel Johnston, Air. Wm. Porter, Gov. Benj. 
Smith, Mr. Wm. Hinton, Messrs. Wallace and Evan Alexander, 
Mr. Thomas Wynns, Mr. John Moore (Lincoln), Mr. Thomas 
Blount. Excellent men, but their actions show that the wisest 
may err in matters outside their usual callings. Caldwell had 
strength as he grew older to break up the practice and it has 
never been resumed. 

Too watchful interference of the Trustees with the internal 
management of the University is ludicrously shown by a letter 
from Major Pleasant Henderson, the Steward. In a letter to 
Walter Alves, Treasurer, he denounces the report of the Com- 
mittee of Visitation, "that his invariable service of mutton and 
of bacon too fat to be eaten had nearly starved the boys. This 
report comes like a thunder-clap on me, because I knew it was 
founded on information false as hell." He confesses to "only 
11 muttons, about 500 pounds, 12 or 13 dinners, about seven 
pounds apiece for the whole session. Does this look like forcing 
mutton on them ?" Even this small amount was bought because 
neither beef, shoats nor chickens could be had. The doughty 
Major admits the fatness of the bacon, but he solemnly asks 
"could the committee conceive that the middlings should be 



l60 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

thrown away?" The students had eaten all the hams served 
to them when vegetables were scarce, and "certainly they ought 
to have the fatter part." That the worthy patriot's feelings 
were cut to the quick is shown by the statement : "Appearances 
are indicative of, if not ruin, the most severe stroke I ever had." 

The University shared in the general admiration of the 
Father of our country. The farewell letter that he wrote to 
our people on his retirement from the Presidential office in 
I 797 was ordered to be read publicly to the students twice a 
year. And when he died on the 14th of December, 1799, the 
Acting President, Caldwell, delivered an address of such merit 
that it was by request of the students and Faculty printed for 
general distribution. 

As Professor James Smiley Gillaspie (I adopt his spelling; 
indeed Gillespie was universally pronounced Gillaspie) left the 
University in 1799, I give some facts of his subsequent life. He 
married Fanny Henderson, a daughter of Samuel Henderson 
and Elizabeth Calloway. Samuel was a brother of Judge 
Richard and an uncle of Chief Justice Leonard and of Archibald 
Henderson. Elizabeth Calloway was one of the three girls, her 
sister and Daniel Boone's daughter being the others, captured 
by the Indians and rescued by Boone and others. Mr. Gillaspie 
became a highly respected Presbyterian minister and with mem- 
bers of the Transylvania colony, of which Richard and Samuel 
Henderson, with others, were the founders, settled on lands 
granted the company. His eldest daughter, Fanny, was the first 
white child born in the limits of Kentucky. He left three daugh- 
ters and one son, who is ancestor of Mrs. Conway H. Arnold, 
of Montclair, New Jersey, wife of a Lieutenant in the United 
States Navy. 

Gileaspie Retires — Caedweee Presiding Proeessor — Grad- 
uates to 181 2. 

The difficulty of procuring teachers in our State at the close 
of the 18th century is indicated by the fact that, of the five 
teachers in the service of the University in 1797, one was a 
recent citizen of New Jersey, (Caldwell), another, was a French 
Roman Catholic ex-monk, (Delvaux), a third was a strolling 



CLASS OF I799. l6l 

player, a deserter from the English mercantile navy, (Rich- 
ards). The difficulty was chiefly from the meagre salaries of- 
fered. The dignity of a teacher's calling was not then, nor for 
many years afterwards, if ever, properly appreciated, either by 
parents or the public. 

At the Commencement of 1799, July 5th, the second list of 
graduates was announced. They were nine in number. 

Francis Nash Williams Burton, Granville ; Win. Dunlap 
Crawford, Lancaster County, S. C. ; Andrew Flinn, Mecklen- 
burg ; Samuel Allen Holmes, Chapel Hill ; George Washington 
Long, Halifax; Archibald Debow Murphey, Caswell; John 
Phifer, Cabarrus; Wm. Morgan Sneed, Granville; Wm. Smith 
Webb, Granville. 

George M. Marr passed the examinations but did not ask for 
a degree. Burton, Flinn, Murphey and Phifer were distin- 
guished. Murphey and Flinn were Tutors in the University and ■ 
Holmes had been a Professor. Flinn rose to be an eminent 
Presbyterian minister of Charleston, S. C, and was awarded in 
181 1 the degree of D.D. by this University. Burton was * a 
prominent lawyer. Long died early. Phifer was often State 
Senator from Cabarrus, as was Sneed from Granville; while 
Webb became a prominent physician in Tennessee, and Craw- 
ford in South Carolina. Marr was a Representative in Con- 
gress from Tennessee. 

Of those who did not graduate, are to be noted Hutchins G. 
Burton, a Representative in the State Legislature and in 
Congress, Attorney-General, and Governor of North Carolina ; 
Robert Harris, an influential merchant of Salisbury and Sneeds- 
boro, a brother of Charles W. Harris ; James Mebane, Maurice 
Moore, Ebenezer Pettigrew, Planter and Congressman; John 
Pettigrew, Richard H. Sims, a Tutor in the University and 
head of the Grammar School ; Robert W. Smith, seven times 
Senator from Cabarrus ; James Webb, an eminent physician of 
Hillsboro and a Trustee of the University. David Gillespie, 
after his United States Coast Survey Service, was a Repre- 
sentative of Bladen in the Legislature ; Richard Eagles and 
Nicholas Long were influential planters from New Hanover 
and Franklin counties iespectively. 
11 



l62 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

A modest beginning was made of granting honorary degrees, 
the Faculty nominating and the Trustees confirming. The hon- 
orary degree of Master of Arts (Artium Magister, A. M.) 
was conferred on Joseph Caldwell, the new Presiding Profes- 
sor, Charles Wilson Harris, the first Professor of Mathe- 
matics, and Joseph Blount Littlejohn, a member of the Legisla- 
ture from Chowan. The academic degree of Bachelor of Arts 
was given to the retiring Presiding Professor James Smiley 
Gillaspie. This last honor indicates that the recipient was too 
young and unlearned to be the head of the institution, as he had 
learned by experience. 

The Commencement of 1800 was held on June 28th. There 
was a good attendance of Trustees. Besides Alexander Mar- 
tin, Richard Bennehan, and David Stone, who were the Com- 
mittee of Visitation, there were Samuel Johnston, James Hogg, 
John Haywood, Wm. Polk, Walter Alves, and Evan Alexander. 

The graduates were : William Cherry, Bertie County ; John 
Lawson Henderson, Salisbury; Thomas D. Hunt, Granville 
County. 

Of these, Cherry had a brilliant but short career as a lawyer 
and politician. He was a member of the Legislature from 
Bertie. Henderson was a member of the Legislature from 
Rowan, State Comptroller, of high character and usefulness, 
but not the equal of his more distinguished brothers, Chief 
Justice Leonard Henderson and the leader of the Western Bar, 
Archibald Henderson. Hunt was a physician. 

Of those matriculating with this class Robert H. Burton, as 
I have stated, was a Judge; Daniel Newman, a Representative 
in Congress ; William Peace, a much respected merchant of 
Raleigh, Director of the State Bank forty-five years and founder 
of Peace Institute. 

Wm. E. Webb was Professor of Ancient Languages 1799- 
1800, having been a student for several years. After leaving 
the institution he taught school in Halifax County for a number 
of years, with reputation. In 1809, 1810 and 181 1 he was a 
Commoner from his county in the General Assembly, and from 
1809 to 1818 was a Trustee of the University. 

Archibald Debow Murphey, a high honor graduate of 1799, 



A. D. MURPHEY. 163 

was Professor of Ancient Languages for the year 1800. He 
was a native of Caswell, born in 1777, son of a Revolutionary 
officer. After leaving the University he settled as a lawyer in 
Hillsboro. From 1812 to 1818 he was a State Senator, and as 
such was the most active of all our public men in promoting 
a Public School System and Internal Improvements. His re- 
port to the Legislature of 1819, on the public school systems 
of different countries deemed most successful, is a marvel of 
intelligent labor. From 1818 to 1820 he was a Judge of the 
Superior Court, and in 1820 he was, under an act since repealed, 
a Judge of the Supreme Court for one term as a substitute for 
Judge Henderson, who had been counsel in important cases 
then before the court. He was Reporter of the decisions of the 
old Supreme Court 1804 to 1813, and of the new court in 1818 
and 1 8 19. He was a Trustee of the University for thirty years. 
Shortly before his death he collected valuable material for a 
history of the State, and to aid him in writing and printing it 
the deneral Assembly gave him authority to realize $15,000 
by a lottery. This material was used by Joseph Seawell Jones 
(Shocco) in writing his "Defence of North Carolina" and by 
President Swain in preparing his "War of the Regulation" and 
other monographs. Judge Murphey's address before the two 
societies of the University in 1827 is full of historical informa- 
tion of value. 

A letter from him to President Caldwell, dated December 29, 
1808, indicates that, wearied with his professional pursuits, he 
sometimes longed for the academic shades he had resigned. He 
regrets that his "prime of life" is spent in vulgar pursuits. The 
improvement of the mind is suspended, the paths of wisdom are 
unexplored. He fears he will lose a relish for the pleasures 
of intellect; what is worse that he will lose that fine tone which 
the pursuit of knowledge gives to the feelings, and without 
which the world can afford but little happiness. While not 
finding fault with Providence, he had often wished that fortune 
had thrown into his way riches, that he might withdraw from 
the distractions of petty business and attempt once more to 
cultivate true knowledge. Fortune has smiled on him since 
he left the University and he entreats her to continue her friend- 



164 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ship until she enables him to live in independence and afflu- 
ence." Alas ! the good man, notwithstanding a most honorable 
career in public and private life, lost all his property by 
unfortunate investments and suretyships, and was even sub- 
jected for a short while to the indignity of confinement in 
prison bounds for debt. 

Judge Murphey was always a true and active friend of the 
University. In the scholarly report on Public Education above- 
mentioned he is emphatic in testifying to its good work and in 
advocating State aid in its behalf. I give some of his language : 
"This institution has been eminently useful to the State. It 
has contributed, perhaps more than any other cause, to diffuse 
a taste for reading among the people, and excite a spirit of 
liberal improvement. It has contributed to change our manners 
and elevate our character." He then urges the construction of 
three additional buildings, i. e., two dormitories and one for 
library and apparatus ; that a library and suitable apparatus be 
purchased, that two professorships be endowed and that six 
additional teachers be provided. "When former prejudices 
have died away, when liberal ideas begin to prevail, when the 
pride of the State is awakened and an honorable ambition is 
cherished for her glory, an appeal is made to the patriot: sm 
and the generous feelings of the Legislature in favor of an in- 
stitution which in all civilized nations has been regarded as the 
nursery of moral greatness and the palladium of civil liberty. 
That people who cultivate the sciences and the arts with most 
success acquire a most enviable superiority over others. Learned 
men by their discoveries and their works give a lasting splendor 
to national character; and such is the enthusiasm of man that 
there is not an individual, however humble in life his lot may 
be, who does not feel himself blessed to belong to a country 
honored with great men and magnificent institutions. It is clue 
to North Carolina, it is due to the great man (General Davie) 
who first proposed the foundation of the University, to foster it 
with parental fondness and to give it an importance commensu- 
rate with the high destinies of the State." 

The graduates of the first year of the Nineteenth century 
(1801) triples those of the last vear of the Eighteenth. Thev 



CLASS OF 1 80 1. 165 

were : Thomas Gale Amis, Northampton County ; Thomas 
Davis Bennehan, Orange County; John Branch, Halifax Coun- 
ty ; William McKenzie Clark, Martin County ; Francis Little 
Dancy, Edgecombe County ; John Davis Hawkins, Franklin 
County ; Thomas D. King, Sampson County ; Archibald Lytle, 
Tennessee ; Wm. Hardy Murfree, Hertford County. 

Amis had a very large brain and won distinction in his 
studies. He afterwards sailed from Charleston without dis- 
closing his object, and was nevermore heard from. Bennehan 
was a wealthy farmer of Orange, a Trustee of the University, 
and at Farintosh, his residence, dispensed a bounteous hospi- 
tality ; Branch, Governor of this State and of the Territory of 
Florida, and Secretary of the Xavy under Jackson ; Dancy, a 
lawyer of much reputation; Hawkins was often a legislator, 
fifty years a Trustee of the University, one of the foremost in 
building the Raleigh & Gaston Railroad. Murfree, founder of 
Murfreesboro, was a grandfather of the eminent Southern 
novelist, Mary Noailles Murfree who, under the pen name of 
Charles Egbert Craddock, has so faithfully and impressively 
delineated the characters of our mountaineers and the beauty 
and grandeur of the Alleghanies. He was son of Colonel 
Hardy Murfree, who aided in the daring and successful storm- 
ing of Stony Point. Clark was a planter, brother of the grand- 
father of Chief Justice Walter Clark. King, probably an elder 
brother of Vice-President William Rufus King, represented 
Sampson County in the Legislature. 

Of the non-graduating matriculates with this class, Jesse 
Cobb was a man of ability. Removing to Tennessee he became 
the founder of an influential family, one of whom, William Cobb, 
became Governor of that State. Nathaniel W. Williams was 
a Judge of the Superior Court of Tennessee ; Johnston Blakely, 
as Captain of the Wasp, captured the Reindeer, for which a 
gold medal was voted by Congress. He also captured the At- 
lanta, and was lost at sea with his vessel. John Goode was a 
lawyer in Virginia. 

Of the Commencement speakers President Caldwell notes 
that "some portrayed in language at once splendid and elegant 
the excellence of a Republ'can form of government and de- 



l66 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

scribed the glory of the American Revolution in glowing col- 
ors." In the figurative language of a later elate they evidently 
"flew a magnificent spread eagle." 

The Tutor for 1800 and up to 1804 was Richard Henderson. 
He was the son of a brother of Chief Justice Henderson, who 
emigrated to Kentucky to settle on lands sold to the Transyl- 
vania Company by the Indians, which sale was repudiated by 
the States of North Carolina and Virginia, but 400,000 acres 
being allowed them by way of compromise. The son was a 
man of worth and talents. After being principal of the Academy 
in Hillsboro he returned to his native State and became a promi- 
nent lawyer. The Trustees gave him the degree of A.B., though 
he had not passed his examinations, because they were satisfied 
with his classical and scientific training while Tutor. 

In 1802 P. Celestine Molie was employed to teach French 
for one year. Nothing is known of him except that, like most 
foreigners instructing our youth in early days, he was the sub- 
ject of merciless ridicule and frequent insults. Probably he 
was either a French emigre or a refugee from Hayti. 

Professor Murphey was succeeded in 1801 by one who has 
profoundly influenced for good this and other States — Rev. 
Wm. Bingham, an honor graduate of the University of Glas- 
gow, a Scotch-Irishman of Ulster. He emigrated about 1788 
on account of political troubles, landed in Delaware, but soon 
removed to Wilmington, N. C. He here preached and estab- 
lished a classical school. I have mentioned that he was among 
the first subscribers to the inauguration of the University. As 
many of the wealthier inhabitants of the lower Cape Fear either 
settled permanently or spent their summers on the hills of 
Chatham, he transferred his school about 1795 to Pittsboro, 
and remained there until his removal to the University. 

After resigning his professorship in 1805 he re-opened his 
school at Pittsboro, but, concluding that Hillsboro had a larger 
future, removed it to that town in 1808. Probably on account 
of the drunkenness and rowdyism attending court towns he 
soon bought a plantation five miles north of Mebane, named 
it Mount Repose, and, erecting a school house of logs, there 
taught until his death in 1825. 



WM. BINGHAM. \6j 

Wm. Bingham was a man of force, high purpose, and power 
of influencing ushers. According to the recollection of Hon. 
Giles Mebane, once Speaker of the Senate, he was "about five 
feet six inches tall, with no surplus flesh, weighing 150 or 160 
pounds ; very quick and brisk in his movements, walking erect 
like a well-drilled soldier. He was bald, the boys nicknaming 
him "Old Slick." He walked three miles to church on Sun- 
days, leading his boarders. He waia reasonably talkative, and 
sometimes jocose, but never undignified." 

His wife was Annie Jean, daughter of Colonel Slingsby, of 
the English Army, who was stationed at Wilmington during 
the Revolutionary War, highly regarded by the Americans for 
humanity and justice. Colonel Slingby's family remained in 
Wilmington after the declaration of peace. 

Professor Bingham left several children, the most prominent 
being Wm. James, born at Chapel Hill in the house built for 
the President. On his father's death he gave up his chosen 
profession of the law and took up the school work at Mount 
Repose, but soon removed to Hillsboro and thence to a farm 
called Oaks in western Orange. He advanced still further the 
fame of the Bingham School, and handed it on to his sons, 
Colonels William and Robert Bingham, whose reputation as 
teachers extends througout the Southern States. Professor 
Bingham's grandson, Wm. Bingham Lynch, of Florida, is like- 
wise an eminent teacher, while the husband of a great-grand- 
daughter, Preston Gray, is Principal of a flourishing academy 
called the Wm. Bingham School. 

Dr. Caldwell has left a noble tribute to the character of Mr. 
Bingham, the elder. He wrote, "His qualifications and virtues 
were of that unobtrusive, but substantial cast, which merit and 
must secure the respect of every upright and generous bosom. 
Whoever shall have occasion to be acquainted with this man 
shall find him to be one of those whom the great poet of Eng- 
land has denominated to be among 'The noblest works of 
God.' " 

It was charged by a bitter partisan that Mr. Bingham was 
driven from the University because of his being a Republican 
in politics. Dr. Caldwell emphatically denied this. He asserted 



l68 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

"Mr. Bingham was nevei^ exiled from the University. His vir- 
tues were too sound and irreproachable for men of any political 
principles even to feel disposed to injure him. When Mr. Bing- 
ham left us I can assure 'Citizen' that his good qualities were 
not unknown to the Trustees or the Faculty." By "Citizen" 
he meant an anonymous critic of the University. 

The graduates of 1802 were Adlai Laurens Osborne, of 
Rowan; George Washington Thornton, of Virginia; and Carey 
Whitaker, of Halifax County. All were praised for proficiency 
in studies. Osborne became a lawyer in full practice. Thorn- 
ton was a physician. 

Of the matriculates not graduating Jeremiah Battle was a 
physician of prominence in Tarboro and Raleigh, and author 
of valuable medical monographs ; John Rutherford London, of 
Wilmington, a lawyer, planter and President of the Bank 
of Cape Fear ; John Duncan Toomer, a member of the Legisla- 
ture, Judge of the Superior and Supreme Courts. 

Of the examination at the Commencement of 1802 we have 
a full report by the Committee of Trustees, Messrs. Adlai Os- 
borne, lawyer and Clerk of the Superior Court of Rowan, 
Henry Potter, afterwards for many years Judge of the United 
States District Court, a Trustee of the University from 1799 
until his death in 1856, and Charles W. Harris, lawyer at Hali- 
fax, late Professor, the report being doubtless written by Harris. 
In the Preparatory School there were the following classes, two 
in Reading and Spelling, two in Webster's Grammar, one in 
Arithmetic to the Rule of Three, one in Latin Grammar, one in 
Cordery, one in Latin Grammar, Aesop's Fables and Eutropius, 
one in Eramus, Selectae -de Profanis and Vocables, one in 
Caesar, one in Latin Introduction, one in Sallust, one in Ovid 
and Virgil's Eclogues, one in French Grammar, two in French 
Fables, two in Telemachus, one in Gil Bias, one in Voltaire and 
Racine. It will be difficult to show in modern days a better 
program of studies. 

The Freshman class of the University proper was examined 
in three stud : es, Virgil, Latin Introduction and Greek Testa- 
ment ; the Sophomore class in Cicero, Geography, Arithmetic, 
Webster's Grammar, Svntax and Lowth's Grammar; the lunior 



CLASS OF l802 AND 1803. 1 69 

class in Ewing's Synopsis, Algebra and Ferguson's Astronomy ; 
the Seniors in Adams' Defence and DeLolme on the English 
Constitution. In the next year, 1803, by the Freshman class, in 
addition to Virgil, the Odes of Horace were studied and the 
Dialogues of Lucian in the place of the Greek Testament; in 
the Sophomore, the Satires, Epistles and Art of Poetry of 
Horace were added ; in the Junior Algebra, Euclid, Trigonom- 
etry, Heights and Distances, Navigation and Logarithms, were 
in the place of Astronomy ; in the Senior class Blair's Lec- 
tures, Millot's Elements of History and Paley's Moral Philoso- 
phy were substituted for Adams and DeLolme. 

The graduates of 1803 were: Chesley Daniel, Halifax 
County ; William P. Hall, Halifax County ; Matthew Troy, 
Salisbury. 

Daniel was a teacher and a member of the Legislature ; Hall 
was a teacher ; Troy was a lawyer of standing, after being 
a Tutor in the University Grammar School. 

Of those who matriculated with them, Joel Battle was a plan- 
ter and cotton manufacturer, one of the first in the State, his 
factory on Tar river beginning to work in 1820; Thomas H. 
Hall, a physician and Representative in the State Legislature 
and s'xteen years in Congress; George Phifer. of Cabarrus 
County, a merchant and planter ; Lemuel Sawyer, a representa- 
tive in the State Legislature and sixteen years in Congress, a 
President'al Elector and an author ; Thomas Hart Benton, a 
member of the Tennessee Legislature, United States Senator 
from Missouri for thirty years, author ; Joseph Hawkins, State 
Comptroller, Senator from Warren ; Robert C. Hilliard, mem- 
ber of the Legislature from Nash ; Richmond Pearson, an 
enlightened agriculturist, father of Chief Justice Pearson ; 
Fleming Saunders, Judge of the General Court of Virginia. 

In 1804 the number of graduates advanced to six: Richard 
Armistead. Plymouth ; Thomas Brown, Bladen County ; Richard 
Henderson, Kentucky; Atlas Jones, Moore County; Willie Wil- 
liam Jones, Halifax County; James Sneed, Granville County. 

Of these, Henderson has been already described. Willie Wil- 
liam Jones, son of Willie Jones, of Revolutionary fame, was a 
physician in Raleigh and a Trustee of his Alma Mater. He was 



I70 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the donor of the site of the First Methodist church. Atlas 
Jones, son of Edmund Jones, one of the University donors, was 
a Tutor in the U. of N. C. and a Trustee, a lawyer and member 
of the Legislature from Moore County. The humorous lawyer, 
long- a popular Representative in the Legislature from Anson, 
Atlas J. Dargan, was named for him. Sneed was a physician. 

We are fortunately in the possession of the recollections of Dr. 
Wm. Hooper, who entered the Preparatory Department in 1804. 
The Faculty consisted of President Caldwell, Prof. Bingham 
and Tutor Henderson. The President was known among the 
students as "Old Joe," though only thirty years of age and ex- 
tremely active. Bingham's nickname "Old Slick" was because 
of the glossiness of his hairless scalp. Henderson's small size 
suggested his nickname, Little Dick. Matthew Troy and Ches- 
ley Daniel presided over the Preparatory Department. All 
things were fashioned after the model of Princeton, which prob- 
ably imitated the Scottish universities. Students were required 
to rise at daylight in the winter and to go to prayers by candle- 
light. Troy taught the Jugurtha and Cataline of Sallust and 
and to a well-behaved boy was kindly, but quick with the lash 
on the idle and the wicked. 

In the University proper Greek was required for a degree 
first in 1804. Thirty dialogues of Lucian were at first sufficient. 
It was thought necessary to have a native Frenchman to teach 
properly his language, and "to torment him and amuse them- 
selves with his transports of rage and broken English, was a 
regular part of the college fun." Chemistry and Differential 
and Integral Calculus were not in the course. 

The South Building was still unfinished. The rough huts 
of the students in the corners, picturesque but unbeautiful, were 
still quiet retreats in fair weather, but the skill of the occupants 
was not sufficient to protect them from rain. 

The Junior and Senior classes only recited once a day. Geom- 
etry was studied from a manuscript copy of a treatise by Dr. 
Caldwell, which at a subsequent period was printed. The 
copies of this made by the students swarmed with errors, which 
fact was often alleged as an excuse for ignorance. The Junior 
recitation was at it o'clock, after which some took to their 



COMMENCEMENT OF 1804. IJl 

books, some stole off to hunting or fishing, while others, would 
make up a party for a dinner at James Craig's, called in dis- 
tinction from the habitation of a man of the same name on the 
Durham road, "Fur (or far) Craig's." This was of chicken- 
pie or fried chicken with biscuits and coffee, costing twenty-five 
cents a head, and was eagerly enjoyed as vastly superior to the 
ordinary meals at Commons. 

According to the recollections of Dr. Hooper the Commence- 
ment of 1804 fell on the 4th of July, and it was duly celebrated 
by the students. Thomas Brown, of Bladen, was elected Gen- 
eral and Orator, and Hyder Ali Davie second in command, by 
the whole body of students. Says Dr. Hooper: "All things 
being duly arranged the General, clad in full regimentals, with 
cocked hat and dancing red plume, placed himself at the head 
of his troops, (for we were all trained into soldiers for the 
nonce), and marched up to the foot of the 'Big Poplar' where 
was placed for him a rostrum, which he mounted, and all the 
military disposing themselves before him, he gracefully took 
off his plumed helmet and made profound obeisance to the 
army. I can tell you nothing of the graduating class or their 
speeches. My childish fancy was taken up with the military 
display, though we had no music to march to but the drum and 
the fife." 

If Dr. Hooper's memory did not fail him, the march of Gen- 
eral Brown or his oration was in addition to the program of the 
Faculty. The following is the official statement : 

Representatives of the two societies were to deliver orations 
on the 4th of July in honor of the day. These were Green H. 
Campbell, Cadwallader Jones, Wm. B. Meares, David Hay, 
Thomas Davis and John Taylor. 

On the 7th of July, Saturday, ten pupils of the Preparatory 
School were to compete for first honor, they having already 
obtained equal distinction in scholarship. Wm. Hooper is one 
of these. 

On the evening of Monday, the 9th, the members of the 
Senior class in the Preparatory School were to pronounce ora- 
tions. Thomas Hawkins had the first Salutatory in Latin ; 
Alexins Foster, the second Salutatory in English; John Brown, 



I72 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the Valedictory, their scholarship being equal. Lewis Duke 
had the first intermediate oration, William Henderson, the 
second, and John Hooper, the third. 

On Tuesday, the day before Commencement, fourteen stu- 
dents from the Establishment, i. e., the University proper, were 
to pronounce orations. 

On the forenoon of Wednesday, the 12th of July, the day of 
Commencement, the members of the Junior class made their 
speeches. They were eight in number. 

In the afternoon the Senior class delivered their orations. 
Mr. Willie Wm. Jones, "having the greatest pretensions," had 
the Latin Salutatory, which was the prize speech until 1838. 

To Mr. Atlas JOnes, being second, was assigned the Oration 
in History. 

To Mr. Thomas Brown, the Valedictory, he being third in 
order. 

Messrs. Richard Armistead and James Sneed delivered ora- 
tions of their own choice. 

It should be noticed that the prefix "Mr." was only given to 
members of the graduating class. I cannot find when this con- 
traction of Magister descended to the youngest Freshman ; 
about the time perhaps when girls of ten or eleven in boarding 
schools obtained from the teachers the prefix of Miss (contract- 
ed from Mistress or Magisteress) as a handle to their surnames. 
It is now fashionable in the larger universities to substitute Mr. 
for the titles, once prized, of Professor or Dr. The Preparatory 
School was considered an integral part of the institution and 
therefore had a place in the exercises. 

In this year began the practice of assigning special addresses 
to the highest honor men. Moreover it was ordained that the 
Seniors should wear uniforms of neat, plain homespun cloth, 
and the hope was expressed that their example of Patriotism 
and Economy will be imitated hereafter. This was an evidence 
of the deep feelings of resentment against England and France, 
which led to the Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts of Con- 
gress. 




jkt/*d &2fa 



<&£*s^ 



caldwell elected president. 1 73 

Caldwell President — Davie Leaves the State — Univer- 
sity Life. 

It has been mentioned that the Trustees had such an opinion 
of the dignity of the office of President of the University that the 
appointment was postponed from time to time. By 1804 Cald- 
well had shown such zeal and intelligence as Presiding Profes- 
sor that it was evident to all that "the Hour and the Man" had 
come. The following ordinance, prepared by two of the ablest 
members of the Board, Wm. Gaston and Duncan Cameron, was 
adopted unanimously and similarly confirmed at the regular 
December meeting : 

Whereas, experience has manifested the necessity of having a President 
of the University, and it is donbtfnl whether the Trustees have the 
power of making a permanent appointment except at an annual meeting. 

Be it therefore ordained, That a President of the University of North 
Carolina be appointed to hold office until the next annual meeting of the 
Trustees, and that the said President discharge all those duties Avhich 
have heretofore been annexed to the office of Presiding Professor. 

It was declared beneath the dignity of the President to be 
dependent on tuition fees, and a salary of 500 pounds or $1,000 
was voted him. 

A ballot being had Rev. Joseph Caldwell was unanimously 
elected. As a Trustee said at the time the choice was on ac- 
count of his great talents and steady attachment to the Uni- 
versity. 

At the next annual meeting the election was made perma- 
nent. 

The choice was most happy. Caldwell Avas a man of enlarged 
views, a scholar especially in the realm of Mathematics, with 
a mind eager for the acquisition of knowledge in all directions. 
He had the widest sympathy in all enterprises promising to be 
beneficial to the institutions of the State. He was a preacher 
of power. He was utterly fearless, indefatigable in the dis- 
charge of every duty, skillful in the administration of the dis- 
cipline in those days deemed best, and which may have been 
demanded by the prevailing social habits. He inspired respect, 
confidence, and, among the disorderly, fear. He was strong of 
arm and swift of foot, and thought it not undignified to engage 
in a wrestle or race with midnight disturbers. Above all the 



174 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Trustees had such implicit reliance on his wisdom and devotion 
to the interests of the institution that they gradually abandoned 
the pernicious practice of interfering" in the discipline and al- 
lowed the Faculty, under his dominating influence, full freedom 
of action. Henceforth, while the habit of interfering with 
the internal government was not for several years totally eradi- 
cated, yet, whenever he showed decided displeasure, they sur- 
rendered to his will. 

The President was still to fill the Chair of Mathematics. 
Wm. Bingham was Professor of the Ancient Languages. 
Atlas Jones was his Tutor of all work. 

The President was elected a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees. 

It was natural that, invested with as great autocratic power 
as he was willing then to wield, he should assimilate the insti- 
tution under his charge to his alma mater. Steps were taken 
in this direction at once. The Trustees ordained that no de- 
gree should be granted without a knowledge of Greek. No 
student should enter the Junior class without passing an exami- 
nation in 30 Dialogues of Lucian, Xenophen's Cyropedia and 
four books of the Iliad, the Sophomore class of that year being 
allowed to pass on the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, and the 
Senior class of the next year being allowed to substitute French 
for Greek. 

For entrance into the Freshman class thereafter the applicant 
must pass on Greek Grammar, Cornelius Nepos or Selectae de 
Profanis. These were to be taught in the Preparatory School. 
The ordinance for granting degrees for English branches and 
the Sciences was repealed. 

To add dignity to Commencement exercises it was ordained 
that the President should wear a black gown. 

A year after the election of President Caldwell he made an 
unsuccessful effort to induce Rev. Marcus George, of the War- 
renton Academy, to accept the Chair of Ancient Languages. 
He stated that he had heard of the differences between Mr. 
George and his Trustees, arising from their interference with 
his management in presence of the pupils and before the public 
eye. The past struggles of the University were alluded to. They 



LETTER OF CALDWELL. 175 

sometimes threaten to terminate its existence, but "amidst the 
darkest prospects it has always recovered with more certain 
strength." Now it seemed to be almost out of reach of danger. 
Mr. George was the teacher of Chief Justice Ruffin, Weldon 
N. Edwards, and other eminent men. and had their unqualified 
regard. 

Caldwell gives the number of students at seventy, more than 
ever before in the University proper. The salary offered is 
$333.33 from the Treasury and $7.50 from each student, 
amounting to more than $850 a year, paid semi-annually in ad- 
vance. He added that no self-interest prompted his letter, be- 
cause as long as the vacancy should continue two-thirds of the 
$850 would be added to his own salary, which implies that he 
was temporarily teaching the classes studying the classics, as 
well as those in his own department of Mathematics. 

In a letter written to a friend in Connecticut, whose name is 
not known, the President gives a short resume of his life since 
leaving Princeton in 1796. It has a tone of sadness but firm 
resolve. "The difficulties, trials and anxieties" he encountered 
were too numerous to be recorded within a short compass. He 
tells of the recent death of his daughter and wife, adding, 
"Such is the fallacy of human expectations and the transition 
of present happiness." Treasurer Haywood, in a letter written 
at the same period, thus consoles him : "Resignation, Religion 
and Time must be relied on as the best Balm for the Heart 
torn and wounded by privations of the tender and distressing 
kind you experience." 

It was not many months after his elevation to the Presidency 
before Caldwell received a flattering call to the Professorship 
of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the College of South 
Carolina. It was conveyed by a Trustee, Judge Wra. Johnson, 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, a fellow student 
at Princeton, who stated that the salary as Professor was 
$1,500 per annum, and for preaching in the Chapel $500 was 
offered by the citizens of Columbia. The expectation was 
expressed that he would soon become President with a salary 
of $2,500 and a house. 

There was much consternation among the friends of the Uni- 



I76 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

versity of North Carolina at this offer. Treasurer Haywood 
wrote: "I cannot but hope as a North Carolinian, that your 
attachment to the infant institution of which you have the care, 
and other considerations growing out of the remembrance of 
the anxious and fatherly part you have taken in its continuace 
and prosperity for years past and in the days of its greatest 
trials and adversity, will lead you rather to consult your feelings 
than your interest." * * * "Remain with us and go on to 
cherish and strengthen the child of your adoption by a con- 
tinuance of those parental cares and attentions which have so 
greatly contributed to the support of its infancy." The mem- 
bers of the Senior class, Green H. Campbell, John L. Taylor, 
John R. Donnell, John C. Montgomery, Gavin Hogg and 
Stephen Davis, appealed to him in affectionate and laudatory 
terms, certifying to the ability and the fairness of his adminis- 
tration. Among other things they say "you have been the 
director of our youthful pursuits, our guide, our teacher and 
our friend." 

The Board of Trustees unanimously passed resolutions urg- 
ing on him the irreparable loss, which the University would 
sustain by his leaving it. The result was, as he wrote to his 
Connecticut correspondent, that finding his attachment grow 
to the place and disliking changes he declined the appointment. 

Graduates of 1805 were Benjamin Franklin Hawkins, Warren 
County; Joseph Warren Hawkins, Warren County; Spruce 
Macay Osborne, Mecklenburg County. 

Of these, Joseph W. Hawkins was a physician and one of the 
promoters and Directors of the Raleigh & Gaston Railroad : 
Benjamin F. Hawkins was often Senator and Commoner from 
Franklin ; Osborne was a surgeon U. S. A., killed at Fort Minis. 

Of the contemporaneous matriculates. Joseph John Daniel was 
a member of the Legislature, a Presidential Elector, a Judge of 
the Superior and Supreme Courts, a delegate to the Convention 
of 1835 > John H. Hawkins was often a member of the Legis- 
lature from Warren ; William Rufus King, a member of the 
Legislature and of Congress from North Carolina, member of 
the Convention of Alabama of 1819, United States Senator, 
Minister to France, Vice-President V. S. A. 



DAVIE LEAVES THE STATE. 177 

In this year the State and the University lost the valuable 
services of William Richardson Davie. He had a career of 
uninterrupted success until 1802, when he was overwhelmed 
by the wave of Jeffersonian Republicanism which swept over 
the State. He was defeated, as any Federalist would have 
been, by a much inferior man, Philip W. Alston. Ardent as he 
was in his political opinions, the pathway to official or Congres- 
sional usefulness was closed for an indefinite period. Practice 
at the bar, of which he was one of the acknowledged leaders, 
had no attractions to compensate him for the tedious journeys, 
often in fervid heat or piercing cold or dismal rains, in perils 
of high waters, over roads deep in sand or mud or cut up by 
dangerous chasms. An uncle, for whom he was named, who 
supplied the place of a father, dying when he was a child, had 
bequeathed to him a plantation in Lancaster County, South Car- 
olina, on the banks of the Catawba, near the line of the county 
of Mecklenburg, with a proper complement of slaves, and he 
resolved to retire from public life and spend his remaining 
years in the quiet and ease of a country gentleman. We have 
a letter from him June 9, 1805, saddened in spirit, of which I 
give extracts. After mentioning that he had returned from 
South Carolina on the 5th he adds : "I have now again been 
two months on the road and return perfectly worn down. My 
constitution cannot now bear that degree of suffering, privation 
and incessant toil which, when I enjoyed youth and health, gave 
me spirits and pleasure. Everything must yield to Time, and I 
have submitted with as good a grace as possible. My plan of 
life is to be completely changed, and those measures which are 
leading me to a Repose I have long sighed for, and which is 
becoming every day more necessary for me, are to commence 
this fall. The plan involves some painful sacrifices, but they 
are necessary and indispensable. A separation from friends to 
whom my heart has been tenderly attached for many years is 
among the most painful of all these. I anticipate it, I feel it, 
as a prelude to that last separation to which the laws of our 
Nature compel us to submit." 

He was much concerned at the attacks on the University by 
the General Assembly and chagrined at the inferiority of North 

12 



178 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to South Carolina in respect for higher education. He wrote: 
"the friends of science in the other States regard the people of 
North Carolina as a sort of semi-barbarians, among whom 
neither learning, virtue nor men of science possess any estima- 
tion. In South Carolina a professorship is more eagerly can- 
vassed for than the Secretaryship of the government of the 
United States, the consequence of that liberal spirit which has 
been displayed by their assembly. After a handsome and per- 
manent endowment of the offices of the institution they voted 
$10,000 to purchase a library and philosophical apparatus. 
What a contrast ! Poor North Carolina !" We must believe 
that Davie shared in the contempt which Federalist leaders gen- 
erally had for the victorious Republicans, and this feeling 
prompted these bitter words. 

The prosperity of the University was still in his thoughts. 
He advised that the choice of the new Professor of Languages 
should be given to the President, and that as a rule he should 
select all inferior officers, as the whole responsibility rested on 
him. 

After his removal to South Carolina Davie was never induced 
to emerge from the retirement of a country gentleman, except 
to be President of the State Agricultural Society. During 
the War of 1812 he was tendered the position of Major-Gen- 
eral, and the Senate confirmed the nomination. His constitu- 
tion had been too much undermined to allow him to accept it. 
He died November 8, 1820, leaving a reputation as a soldier, 
a statesman, a lawyer and broad-minded citizen, of which the 
University and the State are proud. 

Lt.-Gov. Francis D. Winston sends me a letter written July 
31, 1816, by General Jeremiah Slade, long State Senator from 
Martin County, to his son Alfred, a student in the University, 
containing an eulogy on Davie, which shows the strong hold 
he had on his party friends. After praising the location of the 
University as eminently suitable to study, he says : "This leads 
me to regard with feelings of admiration little short of adora- 
tion the character of the father of the institution, Wm. R. 
Davie, who with a flow of eloquence which did honor to his 
head, and a sympathy which did honor to his heart (for he shed 



RECOLLECTIONS Or DR. HOOPER. 179 

tears at the prospect of a failure of the Bill of Incorporation 
as freely as a father would for the loss of a favorite child), he 
bore down the powerful opposition, which was raised against 
the bill. And altho' we greatly admire the site of his choice, 
yet we still more wonder how he should have discovered it. 
* * * After the Act of Incorporation was granted it was by his 
exertions that the institution went into operation. * * * You 
may be led to inquire why so great and so good a man should 
bury himself in the shades of retirement. It was at the time 
when mad Democracy got the upper hand of the Constitution 
and the Washingtonian administration, he pursued the dictates 
of that sound maxim, "when rogues bare sway the post of 
honor is a private station.' " 

Andrew Rhea, Professor of Ancient Languages from 1806 to 
1814, was a Virginian. He is described by Davie in 1797 as 
'"said to be of middle age with a family, of six years experience 
in teaching, and highly spoken of." He seems to have escaped 
an madversion but has left no traditional reputation as to learn- 
ing or teaching powers. That he was a widower is proved by 
his being required to sleep in the University Building and pre- 
side at the Steward's table. The Raleigh Register says he was 
a very distinguished scholar, but Dr. Hooper describes him as 
"a good-natured, indolent man." I give some reminiscences 
of Dr. Hooper, found in his address at the University in 1859, 
during the visit of President Buchanan. He was a student in 
the Preparatory Department and then entered the University in 
1806. 

"As the only dormitory that had a roof was too crowded for 
study, many students left their rooms as a place of study en- 
tirely, and built cabins in the corners of the unfinished brick 
walls of the South Building, and quite comfortable cabins they 
were. In such a cabin they hibernated and burned their mid- 
night oil. As soon as spring brought back the swallows and 
the leaves, they emerged from their den and chose some shady 
retirement where they made a path and a promenade, and in 
that embowered promenade all diligent students of those days 
bad to follow the steps of science, to wrestle with its difficulties, 
and to treasure up their best equipments : Ye remnants of the 
Peripatetic School ! 



l8o HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

"Ah, ye can tell how hard it is to climb 
The steep where fame's proud temple shines afar!" 

"They lived sub divo, like the birds that caroled over their 
heads. "But how," you will say, "did they manage, in rainy 
weather?" Well, nothing was more common than, on a rainy 
day, to send in a petition to be excused from recitation, which 
petition /an in this stereotype phrase: "The inclemency of the 
weather rendering it impossible to prepare the recitation, the 
Sophomore class respectfully request Mr. Rhea to excuse them 
from recitation this afternoon." The petitions were granted. 

The following relates to studies in the Junior class : "The 
Juniors had their first taste of Geometry, in a little elementary 
treatise, drawn up by Dr. Caldwell, in manuscript, and not 
then printed. Copies were to be had only by transcribing, 
and in process of time they, of course, were swarming with 
errors. But this was a decided advantage to the Junior, who 
stuck to his text, without minding his diagram. For, if he 
happened to say that the angle at A was equal to the angle of 
B, when in fact the diagram showed no angle at B at all, but 
one at C, if Doctor Caldwell corrected him, he had it always 
in his power to say: "Well, that was what I thought myself, 
but it ain't so in the book, and I thought you knew better 
than I." We may well suppose that the Doctor was completely 
silenced by this unexpected application of the argumentum ad 
hominem." 
o "Greek, after its introduction, became the bug-bear of college. 
Having been absent when my class began it, I heard, on my 
return, such a terrific account of it that I no more durst en- 
counter the Greeks than Xerxes when he fled in consternation 
across the Hellespont, after the battle of Salamis. Rather than 
lose my degree, however, after two years I plucked up courage 
and set doggedly and desperately to work, prepared hastily 
thirty Dialogues of Lucian, and on that stock of Greek was per- 
mitted to graduate. As for Chemistry and Differential and 
Integral Calculus and all that, we never heard of such hard 
things. They had not then crossed the Roanoke, nor did they 
appear among us till they were brought inby'the Northern 
barbarians about the vear 1818." The Doctor alludes to the 



CLASS OF 1806. l8l 

coming of Professor Mitchell, who for a time had charge of 
Mathematics. 

Graduates of 1806: John Adams Cameron, Virginia; Durant 
Hatch, Junior, Jones County; James Henderson, Kentucky; 
James Martin, Stokes County. 

The first honor was awarded to Cameron, the second to 
Martin. 

Cameron was a member of the Legislature, a Major in the 
War of 1812, Consul to Vera Cruz; Judge of the United States 
District Court of Florida. He was lost at sea in journeying 
from Savannah to New York. He was a brother of Judge 
Duncan Cameron. 

James Martin was a son of Col. James Martin, of the Revolu- 
tion, who was one of the Commissioners to locate the State Cap- 
ital — hence Martin street. After spending a year at the Univer- 
sity as Tutor, he settled in Salisbury as a lawyer and had a wide 
reputation. He was Superior Court Judge from 1826 to 1835, 
and Senator from Rowan in 1823. He was a Trustee of the 
University from 1823 to 1836, the last year probably being the 
date of his removal to Mobile, Alabama. He became Judge of 
the Circuit Court of his adopted State. 

Of the others, Hatch was a planter, and Henderson a physi- 
cian in Kentucky. 

Of the non-graduating contemporaneous matriculates, Wm. 
Belvidere Meares was a prominent lawyer and member of the 
Legislature; Archibald H. Sneed, a Major U. S. A.; James 
Young, of Granville, a physician ; John Burgess Baker, a 
physician and a member of the Legislature from Gates ; Cullen 
Battle, a prominent physician and planter, first in this State and 
then in Alabama ; James Smith Battle, an influential planter in 
Edgecombe County ; Thomas Burgess, a lawyer of large prac- 
tice in Halifax ; William C. Love, of Chapel Hill, a Represen- 
tative in Congress from the Salisbury District ; William Miller, 
member of the Legislature, Speaker of the House, Attorney- 
General, Governor, Charge d' Affaires to Guatemala. 

In 1807 the honor was conferred on President Caldwell of 
being selected by the Commission as the astronomical expert 
to finish running the boundary line between North Carolina, 



l82 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

South Carolina and Georgia. Governor Nathaniel Alexander 
applied to the Board of Trustees for permission for him to act, 
and General John Steele offered to resign as Commissioner if 
necessary to secure him, saying, "My services may perhaps be 
useful, his, I think, are essential." The Trustees with some 
reluctance for fear that the discipline of the University might 
suffer, granted the request, with the proviso that in his opinion 
Professor Rhea could efficiently act as temporary head of the 
institution. The reputation of President Caldwell was much 
enhanced by his intelligent conduct of the delimitation of this 
boundary. His work was satisfactory to the Commissioners of 
the States interested, namely, John Steele, Montfort Stokes 
and Robert Burton for North Carolina, and Joseph Blythe, 
Henry Middleton and John Blasingame for South Carolina. 
Owing to the uncertainty in the description in the act, the Com- 
missioners recommended to the two States certain changes, 
which the Legislatures adopted. Thomas Love, Montfort 
Stokes and John Patton for North Carolina, and Joseph Blythe, 
John Blassengame (so spelt) and George W. Earle for South 
Carolina, appointed to run the line by the new agreement, found 
that impossible to be literally carried into effect, and reported 
a change, which was adopted by both States in 1815. The line 
between North Carolina and Georgia was confirmed in 1819. 

Graduates of 1807: Duncan Green Campbell, Orange 
County; Stephen Davis, Warrenton ; John Robert Donnell, New 
Bern ; Gavin Hogg, Chapel Hill ; John Carr Montgomery, 
Hertford County ; John Lewis Taylor, Chatham County- 

Donnell was the best scholar. He became a lawyer of large 
practice, a Superior Court Judge and, marrying a daughter of 
Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, was one of the wealthiest 
men of the State. Gavin Hogg was a Tutor of the University 
for a year, then settled in Bertie County as a lawyer, and had 
a large practice and wide reputation. Subsequently he removed 
to Raleigh and was appointed by the General Assembly, in con- 
junction with James Iredell and William H. Battle, to prepare 
the Revised Statutes. He entered on the work with zeal and 
ability, but was forced by ill health to resign and Frederick 
Nash was substituted. By goodly income from his profession 



<Tc 311 toliotn it mav tonttra. 

SfitSltthKJ, TteWILlIAM BOBLHAC, i»'a UernVr of the JfeltOlf &0ftftj ■* 
micd a, the ©ntoXSitp of iiOttf>Cf!roInUl, in the Year of oof Lord one fliomjnd seveo boo- 
rflsed and aincty-fjve, for the coltivatioo oT Virtue, Science and Friendship. And tint we tit FeJW- 
Members, in cansider-uioa of bis Virtue*, Endowments and Qnalittcismns, have granted trim SIM 
SRlTpuaHH, arid lo-ommend hlni as a Young Man, worthy of Confidence andnifrbEsteclB. 

3frl trStimCfrP trtercof, s« bave-caiissd the Seal of our -Society sohc hrtrnnto . affil i rtliin w 
cave jsiirtcribed our several N.ur.e-. j _ 

jSlt&CB »<hc f^aU of -Jit iDialtttit &Catt?, to lie hficaili diy «>' Qclober,CJ£htncs> 
rfomrlrrn inr! jessn. 

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CLASSES' OF 1807, 180S AND 1809. 183 

and by marriage he became the possessor of a\large fortune. 
Davis was a wealthy physician of Warrenton. j Montgomery 
and Taylor were likewise physicians. Campbell Was a teacher, 
lawyer and member of the Legislature of Georgia! 

Of the matriculates four years before, Henry Chambers, of 
Rowan, was a talented physician ; William Green was a member 
of the Legislature from Warren; James M. Henderson was a 
physician; Henry Young Webb, member \pf the Legislature, 
Judge in Alabama Territory ; John Henry Eaton, U. S. Senator, 
Secretary of War, Governor of Florida Territory, U. S. Min- 
ister to Spain, author of "Life of Jackson," husband of the 
beautiful and much talked of "Peggy O'Neil." 

The Graduates of 1808 were : John Bright Brown, Bladen 
County; Robert Campbell, Campbell County, Va. ; John Cole- 
man, Halifax County, Va. ; Win. James Cowan. Wilmington ; 
Wm. Pugh Ferrand, Onslow County ; Alfred Gatlin, New Bern ; 
John B. Giles, Salisbury ; Wm. Green. Warren County ; James 
Auld Harrington, Richmond County : Wm. Henderson, Chapel 
Hill ; Benjamin Dusenbury Rounsaville, Lexington ; Lewis Wil- 
liams, Surry County; Thomas Lanier Williams, Surry County. 

The best scholars were Lewis Williams and Thomas L. Wil- 
liams, the former speaking the Salutatory, the latter the Vale- 
dictory. The others honored were Wm. Green. John B. Giles, 
Alfred Gatlin and John Coleman. 

Of this class, Wm. Henderson, of Chapel Hill, was Tutor for 
one year, beginning in 1811. He was afterwards a physician, 
practicing in Williamston. Martin County, until his death Sep- 
tember 15, 1838. He was born in 1789, the second son of 
Major Pleasant Henderson and his wife Sarah Martin. 

Lewis Williams was Tutor 1810-12. He was a native of 
Surry; served 1813 and 1814 as a representative in the State 
Legislature. In 1815 he was elected a member of Congress and 
served continuously until his death February 12, 1842. He was 
most highly respected and was known as the Father of the 
House; was a Trustee of the University from 1813 to his death. 
His brother, Thomas Lanier Williams, was a Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and also a Chancellor of Tennessee. 

John B. Giles and Alfred Gatlin were both Representatives 



184 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

in Congress, while Giles was also a Trustee of the University, 
a member of the General Assembly and of the Conyention of 
1835. Wm. P. Ferrand, a physician, was a Commoner from 
Onslow ; and James A. Harrington, son of Gen. Henry Wm. 
Harrington, of the Revolution, was a member of the South 
Carolina Legislature and a large planter; Benjamin D. Rounsa- 
ville, a lawyer. John Coleman was a physician. 

There were some prominent matriculates not graduating 
with this class : Daniel M. Forney, of Lincoln County, a Com- 
moner ; Ransom Hinton, a physician in Wake ; John D. Jones, 
Speaker of the House of Commons, a member of the Conven- 
tion of 1835, and a merchant and banker of Wilmington; John 
Neale, a Commoner from Brunswick ; John Owen, a Commoner 
from Bladen, Governor 1828-30 and President of the Harris- 
burg Convention which nominated Harrison. It is said that he 
refused to run as Vice-President, and thus missed the Presi- 
dency. John Neale, a member of the Legislature. 

Class of 1809: John Bobbitt, Franklin County; Maxwell 
Chambers, Salisbury; Abner Wentworth Clopton, Virginia; 
John Gilchrist, Robeson County; Philemon Hawkins, Warren 
County ; William Hooper, Chapel Hill ; John Briggs Mebane, 
Chatham County ; Thomas Gilchrist Polk, Mecklenburg County ; 
John Campbell Williams, Cumberland County. 

With this class Greek was studied in the Freshman year and 
the Iliad in the Sophomore. The best scholar was William 
Hooper, the next Maxwell Chambers, and then John B. Bobbitt 
and John C. Williams. The most eminent was William Hooper 
who became a Baptist preacher, Professor of Languages and 
then of Rhetoric in the University, Professor of Moral Phil- 
osophy in the South Carolina College, President of Wake For- 
est College, and author of printed addresses and sermons of 
rare excellence. 

Chambers became a physician in Salisbury of good reputa- 
tion. He must not be confounded with the merchant of New 
Orleans, a native of North Carolina, of the same name, who 
bequeathed his property to Davidson College — only part of 
which could be taken under its charter. Bobbitt was a classical 
teacher all his life and was hiohlv regarded as such in the coun- 



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CLASS OF 1809. 185 

ties of Nash and Franklin. Many of the students prepared 
by him took a high stand at the University. Williams was a 
member of the Legislature ; Gilchrist, Polk and Mebane, like- 
wise in the General Assembly, and the last a Trustee of the 
University. 

Abner Wentworth Clopton, a native of Virginia, probably 
Chesterfield County. He was a Tutor for one year beginning 
with 1809, when he sent in his resignation, concluded in these 
naive words : "I find it utterly inconvenient to receive no more 
than $250 a year. I am willing to serve for $500 a year, and 
am richly worth it." The Trustees agreed to give him $400 on 
account of his special merits, but he was transferred to the 
headship of the Grammar School, to have all tuition receipts and 
Sioo bonus. The tuition charges were $12 for the first and $8 
for the second term, but during the War of 18 12 he was allowed 
in addition $5 per annum. He was a very efficient teacher and 
the reputation of his school was high under his administration. 
Besides being a teacher, he was a physician and likewise a Bap- 
tist preacher. He was evidently a shrewd trader. He induced 
Rev. Wm. Hooper to agree to give him $2,500 for his resi- 
dence, the four acres now the Battle lot, then having indifferent 
houses, a price generally thought to be $1,000 in excess. 
Hooper soon repented of his bargain but Clopton held him to 
it with a hawk's grip. After leaving Chapel Hill he settled 
in Virginia, near the residence of John Randolph, of Roanoke, 
who highly appreciated him as a preacher. 

Among the members of the class who did not graduate, John 
F. Phifer was a Commoner, Horace B. Satterwhite, a physician 
of Salisbury; Henry H. Watters, an influential planter of 
Brunswick County: Bartlett Yancey, one of the most eminent 
men of the State in his day, Speaker of the State Senate, Rep- 
resentative in Congress, an active Trustee of the University, 
and a Promoter of Public School Education ; Wm. S. Blackmail, 
a Commoner from Sampson ; Abridgeton S. H. Burgess, a phy- 
sician in Virginia. 

Graduates of 1810: Thomas Williamson Jones, Lawrence- 
ville, Ya. ; James Fauntleroy Taylor. Chatham County ; John 
Witherspoon, New Bern. 






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l86 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Jones was a physician; Taylor, Attorney-General and Trus- 
tee of the University; Witherspoon, Presbyterian divine at 
Hillsboro and elsewhere, President of Miami College, Doctor of 
Divinity from his Alma Mater and of Laws from Princeton. 
Mark Alexander, of Virginia, was with this class in the Senior 
year. He became a member of Congress and member of the 
Virginia Convention of i829-'30. 

Of the non-graduating matriculates Samuel P. Ashe, of Hali- 
fax, and Thomas J. Singleton, of Craven County, were mem- 
bers of the Legislature. 

The honorary degrees were as follows : Doctor of Divinity 
to Rev. David Caldwell, eminent teacher and member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1788; Rev. James Hall, the 
preacher-captain in the Revolution, Classical Teacher, Princi- 
pal of Clio's Nursery; James McRee, pastor of Centre church, 
Mecklenburg County. 

Master of Arts to the following : Rev. Samuel Craighead 
Caldwell, pastor and teacher in Mecklenburg County ; Rev. John 
Robinson, pastor of Poplar Tent church ; Rev. William Left- 
wich Turner ; Rev. James Wallis, Principal of Providence 
Academy in Mecklenburg; Rev. John McKamie Wilson, pastor 
at Rocky River and Principal of a Classical School. 

Commencement was ordered to be on the 24th of May, in 
1812, on the first Thursday in June, with a six weeks' vacation 
thereafter, and another four weeks' vacation beginning on the 
second Thursday in December. In the next year the last 
Thursday in June was substituted for the first. 

The evil effects of the secession of 1805 and subsequent 
troubles were especially evident at the Commencement of 181 1, 
there being no graduates, although the honorary degree of A.B. 
was awarded to John Ambrose Ramsey, a former student of 
high rank, who afterwards represented Moore County in the 
General Assembly. Nor were there any matriculates of note 
with the class. 

In order to show the stately dignity of the old times I give 
a copy of a Doctor of Divinity Diploma (D.D.) granted by the 
University in 18 10 to the eminent classical teacher, David Cald- 
well. It is noticeable that the Latin of "Chapel Hill" is "Sac- 



DIPLOMA OF DAVID CALDWFLL. 187 

rarii-Mons," or Mount of the Chapel. Those who worshipped 
in Buffalo church probably did not know it by the name of 
Bubulus, which some authorities say designated a kind of ante- 
lope. Alamance is correctly spelt Allemance, a name brought 
over from Germany by the settlers from that country. It savors 
of pathos to find a document so formidable signed by a Presi- 
dent, one Professor and two Tutors, being the only Socii, i. e., 
Faculty, in charge of the University. 

SENATUS UNIVERSITATIS 
CAROLINAE SEPTEMTRIONALIS. 

Omnibus et singulis ad quos haec peevenebint. 
Salutem in Domino. 

Quo rarior etiam inter doctos est summa peritia literarum, quippe quo 
multis arduisque Iaboribus versatum, eo magis gloria ejus ememinere 
debet, uti inter homines sbudium scientiae et virtutis augeatur, et qui 
attigerint pro merito remunerantur. Omnium quoque maximi refert, 
eos qui in his valde praestant, non ignorari sed ubique designari, ut 
soeietate hominum, quam plurimum proficiant. Quoniam igitur in hac 
nostra republica nobis commissum est artium optimarurn studium fovere, 
et eos in his apprime institutos aequo commendare. notum sit quod nos, 
Praeses et Socii Universitatis Carolinae Septemtrionalis, Davidem Cald- 
well, jam multis annis Pastorem Ecclesiarum Bubuli et Allemanciae 
propter pietatem singularem, eruditionem eximiam, et mores probos, 
Gradu Doetorali in Sacrosancta Theologia condecoravimus, atque ei 
Theologiam Sacrosanctam docendi et profitendi potestatem coneessimua. 
Quorum in testimonium his Uteris patentibus nostra chiographa appo- 
nenius et easdem sigillo communi hujus Universitatis obsignari cura- 
vimus. 

Datum ad Sacrarii Montem in Josephus Caldwell, Praes. 

Aula Personiea tertio kalendas Andreas Rhea, Prof. 

Iulii, Anno Salutis Millesimo Ludovicus Williams, Tutor. 

Oetingesimo decern. Gulielmus Hexdeksox, Tutor. 

As emphasizing the unfortunate interference by the Trustees 
in the discipline of the institution, I give the substance of a 
letter by the Secretary, Adjutant-General Robert Williams, to 
Dr. Caldwell in 1810, communicating officially a resolution of 
the Board, recommending the re-admission of a dismissed stu- 
dent. The Secretary, himself a Trustee, expressed the hope 
that the Faculty will not heed it. "If you will make the stand, 
Sir, it will in preference to all other methods have a tendency 
to bring the Board to a proper sense of their duties. They can- 
not dispense with your services — for you have more friends on 



l88 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 03? NORTH CAROLINA. 

the Hoard than any other man whatever." :;: :;: :|: "Mr. Alves 
and myself made talks against the report but it was carried by 
one majority." This action of the Board is curious as giving 
a good reason for its rejection, yet favoring its adoption. "In 
their opinion Mr. Long did justly and completely forfeit his 
rights as a student * * * through his disorderly behavior, 
rudeness and disobedience. * * * They find a difficulty in 
recommending that course which in consideration of the parents 
of the young man would be most consonant with their feelings." 
The regard for the feelings of the parents weighed down the 
good of the University. Dr. Caldwell endorsed on the letter 
of General Williams, "A new specimen of enforcement of au- 
thority." 

President Caldwell responded with hardly suppressed indig- 
nation in a letter addressed to the Board. "If this College is 
to be maintained the establishment must somehow be altered." 
He offered his resignation of the Presidency, hoping that it 
would be accepted at an early a date as possible, and at the end 
of six months absolutely. He was willing to remain in a subor- 
dinate capacity on a salary of $800 a year, so that $700 and the 
President's house might go towards the salary of the new exec- 
utive. 

General Williams was right ; the Trustees could not manage 
without Caldwell. He was induced by implied, if not expressed, 
promises of a change of policy, to retain his Presidency. 

In 181 1 occurred an outbreak, the facts of which are not 
recorded. It is mentioned in a letter by a Trustee, Dr. Calvin 
Jones, then living in Raleigh, to Dr. Caldwell. Dr. Jones says 
that both inhabitants and strangers think that there never was 
a more clearly marked case to justify the most vigorous exer- 
cise of authority. The students met with reproof from every- 
body, whether gentle or simple. Their crestfeathers Avere com- 
pletely down. Dr. Jones was greatly surprised at the effort of 
Governor Stone to get two of them into the Raleigh Academy ; 
while- he was not surprised that Mr. Sherwood Haywood, a 
"good, polite, clever, worthy man, who never contradicted any- 
one in his life," should have seconded his efforts. From this 
we see that the authorities of the University objected to their 



CLASSES OF l8ll AND l8l2. 189 

dismissed students being' received into preparatory schools, as 
well as colleges. 

The insubordination, whatever it was, caused all the mem- 
bers of the Senior class, except John A. Ramsay, to forfeit their 
diplomas. The others were Mark Alexander, Thomas J. Fad- 
dis, Wm. Gilchrist, Frank Hawkins, Wm. J. Polk and William 
Moore, who passed their November examinations. They were 
all good men. Moore was the best scholar in the class ; Gil- 
christ was next, afterwards a member of the Tennessee Legis- 
lature. Faddis, Hawkins and Polk were physicians of good 
standing", the latter of high reputation in Columbia, Tennessee. 
They obtained their diplomas in 1813 ; the others did not return. 

The Graduates of 1812 were: Daniel Graham, Anson 
County ; James Hogg, late of Chapel Hill ; Thomas Clark 
Hooper, Chapel Hill ; William Johnston, Franklin County ; 
Murdock McLean, Robeson County; Archibald McQueen, 
Robeson County ; Johnson Pinkston, Chowan County ; Joseph 
Blount Gregory Roulhac, Bertie County ; William Edwards 
Webb, Granville County ; Charles Jewkes Wright. Wilmington. 

Of these Graham was Secretary of the State of Tennessee, 
of great service to his Alma Mater in securing her military 
warrants ; Hogg, McLean and Pinkston, physicians ; Hooper, a 
lawyer ; McQueen, a minister ; Roulhac, son-in-law of Chief 
Justice Ruffin, a highly esteemed merchant of Raleigh ; Webb, 
Professor of Ancient Languages in the University in 1799, as 
has been narrated. 

Of the non-graduates, Richard T. Brownrigg, of Chowan, 
was a planter and owner of fisheries, also a member of the 
Legislature. He removed to Columbia, Mississippi. David 
Dancy was a physician of standing, whose life was accidentally 
cut short. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was con- 
ferred on Rev. Ashbel Green. D.D., President of the college of 
Xew Jersey ('Princeton) ; of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) on Rev. 
James Patriot Wilson, a clergyman of Philadelphia, author of 
works on religious subjects: and on Rev. George Addison Bax- 
ter, afterwards President of Washington and of Hampden- 
Sidney Colleges, and Professor of Theology in Union Theologi- 
cal Seminarv, also an author. 



jyo HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The following" shows the compensation of officers, hefore the 
election of Chapman : 

President Caldwell, salary $1000. 

share of tuition 375 . $1375 . 

Prof. Rhea 800. 

Tutor Lewis Williams 300 . 

Tutor William Hooper 300 . 

George Johnston, Master of Grammer School, all tui- 
tion and 100 . 

Robert Williams, Secretary-Treasurer 200. 

Win. Barbee, Supt. of Buildings and Grounds 20. 

Total for salaries $3095 . 

By-Laws. 

From time to time the By-Laws or, as they were called, Or- 
dinances were revised and much enlarged. I give some of the 
changes, deemed of interest. The Faculty consisted of the 
President, Professors and Tutors, the President having two 
votes in case of a tie. 

They must not be members of either of the societies or even 
attend a meeting. 

Each was bound to enforce the laws and report all breaches. 

They must hold monthly meetings and a report of their pro- 
ceedings must be submitted to the Trustees. A history of each 
student must be kept. 

The winter session must begin on the ist of January, if there 
one student to form a class, if not as soon as there shall be. 

Examinations for admission were in the presence of all the 
Faculty. 

Tuition and board at Steward's Hall were payable in advance. 
If the student arrived at the middle of the session or after- 
wards, he paid one-half. 

Each student must buy a copy of the laws for 12 1-2 cents. 
The certificate of membership was endorsed on the copy; and 
each must pledge his truth and honor to obey the laws. 

The Faculty were authorized to dismiss a student for general 
worthlessness, without specifying a particular offence. 

Even when not in study hours students must observe "proper 
silence and respectful deportment." 



CV-LAWS. 191 

Two or three declaimed before the Faculty each afternoon. 
There were no exemptions except for natural impediment. 

On Saturday forenoons all students recited Grammar, or 
passages in Latin or Greek, or read pieces of their own com- 
position. 

The annual examinations, (Commencements), began on the 
22d of June, or on the 23d if that day was Sunday. 

If one was absent he was examined before all the Faculty. 

Habitual indolence, or absences, was punishable according 
to the aggravation. 

Deficient students were either publicly mentioned as bad 
scholars, or admonished privately, or ''de-classed." 

The Faculty assigned duties at Commencement. Refusal to 
perform them was punishable by loss of diplomas. 

Instruction in morals and religion was required. 

Insults to the people of the village and attacks on property 
were forbidden, and the village could not be visited in study 
hours without permission. Students were prohibited to "make 
horse races'' or bets : to keep cocks or fowls of any kind or for 
any purpose ; to keep dogs or firearms, and to use firearm^ with- 
out permission. 

For intoxication the punishment was for the first offence 
admonition before the Faculty : for a repetition public admoni- 
tion or suspension. 

For refusal to inform on a fellow-student the offender was 
admonished or suspended. For combination against a law, or 
to offer disrespect to the Faculty, all offenders, or leaders only, 
could be punished. 

On Sundays all ordinary diversion and exercises must be 
laid aside. Students could not fish, or hunt, or "walk far 
abroad," but what distance should be called "far" was not de- 
fined. Manual or corporal labor could not be without permis- 
sion. 

Adjectives were exhausted in the denunciation of swearing; 
"Profane, blasphemous, impious language" prohibited. Admoni- 
tion awaited all caught lying or using indecent gesture or lan- 
guage. If the falsehood was direct and malicious the punish- 
ment was suspension or expulsion. 



I92 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01? NORTH CAROLINA. 

If a student should refuse or delay opening his door when 
ordered by a member of the Faculty, it could be forced at his 
expense, and the occupant required to pay damages and be 
otherwise punished if found breaking any other law. And so, 
if a student should be sent for and refuse to appear, it was "a 
high contempt of authority." 

Rooms must be kept clean, students must not introduce filth 
of any kind therein, nor throw on the walls, nor within twenty 
yards of the building, any filth or dirt under penalty of being 
censured and forced to remove the same. 

Students were required to appear neat and cleanly, or be ad- 
monished, but they were recommended to be plain in dress. 
After January 1, 1805, they, as well as the Faculty, were or- 
dered to have black gowns and wear the same in Person Hall 
at public meetings, but. students must not wear a hat in the 
buildings. 

No student should build a hut, or retain one already built, 
without permission. This refers to the practice of those seeking 
privacy, having rough shelters in the corners of the partly fin- 
ished South or "Main" Building, or under some umbrageous 
tree. 

Nor could students go out of sight of the buildings, or hear- 
ing of the bell in study hours, or at any other time when the 
bell might call them to duty. 

Rooms were not retained for anyone absent at the beginning 
of the session. At one period the students were allowed to race 
for them, as soon as prayer was finished, on the first morning. 

If the Faculty deemed any house improper for boarders, on 
account of irregular manner of living, or disorderly or per- 
nicious examples, they may report it to the Trustees. 

As a rule there could be no rooming out of the University 
building until there were four in each room, but exceptions could 
be made if necessary for health, a certificate of a physician 
being the only evidence of this necessity. 

At the first ringing of the bell in the morning all should rise. 
At the second all should go to the Chapel. 

Students were forbidden to eat or drink at a tavern without 
permission. By "tavern" is meant places where alcoholic liquors 
were sold for drinks. 



STEWARDS. 193 

Dismission or expulsion was the punishment for associating 
with an expelled student. All universities and colleges were 
to be notified of the fact of expulsion and requested not to re- 
ceive the offender. 

Those suspended must not reside within two miles of Chapel 
Hill. 

The Presiding Professor must notify parents of proper ex- 
penses and request them not to furnish their sons with addi- 
tional funds. 

The Faculty shall have power to forbid dangerous games, 
and it was solemnly provided that no ball or other substitute 
used in licensed plays and pastimes should be composed of 
harder material than wound yarn covered with leather. This 
probably was intended for base-ball, in which it was the practice 
to put out a player by hitting him with a thrown ball while off 
base. 

For settlements of controversies between Faculty and stu- 
dents and officers of the institution, individually and collect- 
ively, six Trustees were annually appointed, who, with the 
President, made a quasi-court, any three of whom were a 
quorum. Their decision stood until reversed by the Board of 
Trustees. 

Stewards. 

After the resignation of John Taylor, usually known as 
Buck Taylor, Pleasant Henderson, a Major of Cavalry under 
Col. Malready in the Revolutionary War, the youngest son of 
Samuel and Elizabeth (Williams) Henderson, brother of Judge 
Richard, who was father of Archibald and Chief Justice Hen- 
derson, was for some years the Steward of the University. Be- 
sides this position, he was during the sessions of the General 
Assembly Reading Clerk of the House of Commons. He mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Col. James Martin, brother of Governor 
Alexander Martin. The late Hamilton C. Jones, Reporter of 
the Supreme Court, married his daughter. He removed to 
Tennessee in 1831. 

The next Steward was Samuel Love, who came to Chapel 
Hill from Virginia. His son, Wm. Caldwell Love, was a stu- 
dent in 1802. but did not graduate, settled in Salisbury as a 
13 



194 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OE NORTH CAROLINA. 

lawyer, served one term in Congress, and was one of our Trus- 
tees from 1814 to 1818. 

Mr. Love was succeeded by Wm. Barbee, son of Christopher 
Barbee, one of the donors of the University site. He lived for 
some time in Chapel Hill and then succeeded to part of his 
father's land, his home being on a conspicuous hill called "the 
Mountain," about two and a half miles east from Piney Pros- 
pect. As the village became more populous boarding at Com- 
mons became less favored, especially among the wealthier stu- 
dents. The compulsory feature was relaxed and finally abol- 
ished. Mr. Barbee was a member of the House of Commons 
in 1819. 

In 181 o it was concluded to create a new office with a salary 
of $20 a year, called Superintendency of Buildings and Lands. 
The first Superintendent was John Taylor, the elder, usually 
called Buck Taylor. He soon gave place to Wm. Barbee, the 
Steward, who held both offices for several years. 

Behavior of Old-Time Students. 

The records show that some of the students were abundantly 
wild in the early sessions of the University. In addition to the 
riots of 1798-99 the Faculty records, though incomplete, show 
that drinking and fights and rowdyism were too frequent. A 
•distinguished statesman, Thomas Hart Benton, figured in a dan- 
gerous fray, drawing a pistol on Archibald Lytle, of Tennes- 
see, the difficulty occasioned by Benton's having struck his ad- 
versary's nephew, a lad in the Grammar School. Lytle excused 
himself for not engaging in a duel with Benton by the plea that 
he had come a long distance at great expense for an education 
and could not afford to be expelled. We have such entries as 
these: "H. M. expelled for gross insolence in the Preparatory 
School. T. N. suspended for six months and recommended for 
expulsion for cutting C. I. over the eye with a stick." The 
Trustees declined to expel him. As to the charge of theft 
brought against one who afterwards became famous in the 
councils of the nation, I conclude that it arose from a mistake, 
distorted by the fierce party spirit of the day. 

A member of the Grammar School, "M. J., severely whipped 
for stabbing O. J. with a pen-knife in the shoulders." "W. R. 



BREACHES OF THE LAWS. 195 

suspended for kindling a fire in the house of the Trustees with 
intent to burn it." "J- G. was suspended for stealing bee- 
hives." Mr. Caldwell reports to the Trustees: "It is no un- 
common thing for the students to go out at night at a very late 
hour and take bee-hives from the inhabitants of the village and 
the country round. They have found safety in the caution they 
practice." 

Other entries are: "W. K. admonished before all the stu- 
dents for exploding powder and refusing to go into recitation 
when ordered." "R. A. carried a keg of whiskey into his room, 
and he, A. J. and R. C. had a spree. He also associated with 
two suspended persons. R. A. was sentenced (offence not 
given) to sign a confession and read it before the students 
assembled for prayers. H. N. was expelled by the Trustees for 
gross insolence in the Preparatory School." 

At a somewhat later period H. B. was expelled for insolence 
to the President while suppressing a disturbance, firing pistols 
in the buildings and breaking a window-glass over the head of 
Tutor Clopton while holding recitation. I do not think that 
the glass came into actual contact with the Tutor's cranium. 

R. S. was expelled for firing pistols and for throwing stones 
at the Faculty. C. W. had the milder punishment of suspension 
for the rest of the session, as he only tried to break open a 
Tutor's door, and helped carry off a carriage and a gate. 

J. R. received a forced vacation of six months for firing a 
pistol in college and helping block up the Chapel door, while 
J. A. and R. B. got four months for firing pistols only. Public 
admonition before Trustees, Faculty and students was meted 
to J. W. for carrying off a carriage and gate and beam of the 
bell. J. P. for rolling stones in the passage of the building, J. L. 
for abstracting the irons of the bell, R. L., S. K. and T. M. 
for carrying off a carriage , and N. B. for threats of violence 
to Mr. Johnston, the teacher of the Academy. 

A brawl, which created great excitement, occurred during 
the Commencement of 1804 between Henry Chambers and a 
son of General Davie, Hvder Ali. bumorouslv described bv Dr. 
Hooper. The annual ball was held in the dining-room of Stew- 
ard's Hall. The non-dancers stood around witnessine the 



I96 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

amusement, and among those in front stood Chambers. While 
dancing Davie trod twice on the toes of Chambers, who de- 
manded an explanation in such threatening manner as to in- 
cense the offender. Whereupon, though there was disclaimer 
of intention to insult, a fight ensued in the yard of the dwelling, 
Davie using a knife on account, he alleged, of the disparity in 
size between himself and antagonist, who was wounded, but not 
dangerously. The Trustees, being in session, tried the case, and 
on each signing a written declaration of regret and admission 
of being in fault, graciously pardoned the combatants. Davie 
expressed himself as especially grieved because he had used a 
weapon when his adversary was unarmed. 

T.J. fired a pistol in college but afterwards helped to put down 
disorder; C. D. C. "mischeviously trimmed'' a horse in Mr. Tay- 
lor's enclosure, but satisfied the owner. The sentences were 
as follows The pistol-firer and horse-trimmer were admon- 
ished before the Faculty and students ; the carriage-taker and 
Chapel-blocker above mentioned, were admonished before the 
Board of Trustees. 

I give these instances in order to show the character of the 
pranks thought to be "smart" and funny. Ther^ were many 
students who attended to their duties faithfully and obeyed the 
rules. For example the idea of Vice-President King or Gover- 
nor Branch sallying out at midnight and stealing bee-hives is 
inconceivable. There were many like them. 

The difficulties of government were greatly increased by the 
existence in the village of one of those fruitful sources of evil, 
a grog-shop, then called tavern. An Ordinance was adopted 
prohibiting the students visiting it, but of course it was brutum 
fulmcn. Public opinion by no means condemned drinking ar- 
dent spirits, and for many years, if the drinking by students did 
not amount to excess, it was not regarded as a serious offence. 
The University law was directed mainly against intoxication. 
To preserve order and detect offenders, the Tutors were charged 
with the combined duties of detectives and constables. They 
must with eager ears listen for sounds of revelry or even inno- 
cent jollity and forthwith disperse the assembly, and report its 
members for punishment. Besides this some Professor was 
ordered to visit the rooms each morning. Of course, in addition 



BREACHES OF THE LAWS. 197 

to constant collision with high-spirited young men, such super- 
vision had the tendency to impair their self-respect, and to make 
them regard the Faculty as their natural enemies. 

In addition to the foregoing I find in Caldwell's handwriting 
a memorandum of what he called "notable transactions," in 
1802 : 

On the 28th of May a calf was placed in the Chapel and the 
benches pushed up against the pulpit. On the 5th of June a 
fence was built around the door of one Nutting and across the 
road. Captain Caldwell's house was stoned. Before these of- 
fences were committed the house of the Steward, Major Hen- 
derson, was stoned, one of his buildings overturned, his gate 
taken from its hinges and placed upon the pulpit. 

On Sunday night the 27th of June a bee-hive was stolen from 
John Taylor, carried to the Preparatory School-house, the 
honey taken out and daubed over the floor. The hive was left 
in the woods. 

Saturday night, 14th of August, Yeargin's corn was cut. A 
great number of toad-frogs and terrapins thrown into Monsieur 
Molie's room. He was also insulted with the utmost license 
in the dining-room and elsewhere ; ''nor was decency or order 
anywhere observed." In the dining-room stamping and out- 
rageous insults ; outside hollowing and extreme disorder. 

Wednesday night, 25th of August, Molie's 100m was burst 
open and a bee-hive placed in it. His bed was filled with a 
vast quantity of hair. The intention was professed to drive him 
from the University. President Caldwell adds the astounding 
information that this method of getting rid of officers by un- 
remitting insult, abuse and violence has grown up with the in- 
stitution. It was to put a stop to outrages like the foregoing 
that the ill-starred monitor experiment, hereafter to be de- 
scribed, was made. 

President Caldwell frequently bewailed the committal of 
secret offences, and the impossibility of procuring evidence 
against the offenders. The students on the other hand evidently 
resented his acquiring information in any manner not known to 
them. On one occasion, in 1810, pistols were fired in the build- 
ing, and stones thrown at the windows of a recitation room 



198 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

while the Professor and his class were at their duties. Some 
of the offenders were suspended and others reprimanded. Forty- 
six students, a majority, including many good, orderly men, 
presented a paper stating that they were "bound by every senti- 
ment of honor and justice to request the names of those who 
had given secret information to the Faculty." They charged 
that injustice had been done to some of those disciplined and 
urged the "impropriety of such information being received as 
evidence." "Falsehoods will be invented and we will be con- 
victed without knowing our accusers, or having an opportunity 
of acquitting ourselves of the charges against us." * * * "We 
anxiously hope that by granting our petition you will put it out 
of the power of envious and malicious informers privately in- 
juring the innocent." The journals of the Faculty are so im- 
perfect that it is not known how this attack on the fair dealing 
of the Faculty was received, but it is certain that the name of the 
informer was not given up. 

In the spring of 1803, for some cause not now apparent, bitter 
quarrels occurred among some of the students, convulsing the 
student body and threatening to result in four or five duels. 
Challenges were given and accepted. There was one meeting, 
as the journal states that Samuel G. Hopkins, of Kentucky, and 
John H. Hawkins, of North Carolina, were expelled ; the one 
for being in a duel and the other for acting as second, but fur- 
ther particulars are not given. Three or four other conflicts 
seemed imminent. Unable to cope with the difficulty Caldwell 
called in the help of the Trustees. The President of the Board, 
a Continental officer of the Revolution, who fought all the w T ay 
from Brandywine to Eutaw, Col. Wm. Polk, famous for his 
chivalric courage and high sense of honor, responded with a 
letter to the students at large, blazing with earnest depreciation 
of their conduct. He is shocked by the report of the disgrace- 
ful and disorderly state of the University. I give a few sen- 
tences of his vigorous letter : "That students, almost grown, 
should at this late and inauspicious day, be guilty of, the deplor- 
able madness and folly of rashly sacrificing their character and 
fame, and laying in dust and ashes the fairest prospects of their 
country, through the destruction of her best anchor and hope, 
her University, is too much. It is folly in its most gigantic 



THREATENED DUELS. 1 99 

and hideous shape; insanity replete with consequences too dire- 
ful and deleterious to be tolerated. In fine a deed of the kind 
meditated would operate as the worst of treason against the 
State." But for the arrival of three students, Searcy, James 
Benton and Nunn, who gave the information that the dangers 
were passed, he would have collected some Trustees and with 
them visited the University "with the fixed determination to 
expel with the most marked ignominy and disgrace any student 
guilty of giving, bearing or accepting a challenge." If the 
thing was not ended he urged Caldwell to send expresses for 
General Davie, Walter Alves, Richard Bennehan and Duncan 
Cameron, and notify him. 

Col. Polk was a stern, determined, strong man, physically 
and mentally, ready to fight any man on provocation, of com- 
manding influence by reason of his war record, unyielding will, 
a mind, not great but strong, vigorous and well-balanced, and 
extensive possessions in North Carolina and Tennessee. The 
would-be duelists probably expected his approbation. His letter, 
therefore, couched in such threatening language, effectually and 
promptly crushed the tendency to deadly conflicts — as it has 
turned out, forever. As showing the evil sentiments on this 
subject once prevailing, I state that two students of the College 
of South Carolina who had been friends, promising young men, 
fought a duel with pistols for slight cause, one being killed and 
the other so wounded that his life was blighted ; and the second 
of one of them was a prominent lawyer, afterwards United 
States Senator Butler. 

At this University there was no one killed or wounded. The 
two students who had been expelled, on the motion by the bye 
of General Davie, applied to have the sentence remitted, but a 
committee of which ex-Governor Martin was chairman reported 
against it and the application was refused. The Board adopted 
a most stringent ordinance, commanding the Faculty to expel 
and then hand over to the civil authorities all engaged in such 
conflicts as principals or as aiders and abetters. 

By the kindness of General Rufus Barringer, we have a letter 
dated February 28, 1804, by a sprightly student, Henry Cham- 
bers, to Adlai Osborne, of Salisbury, a recent graduate, which 
describes a 226. February celebration at the University. There 



2GO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

was prevailing what the physicians called "nervous fever." One 
student, Philips of Edgecombe, uncle of ex-Judge Fred Philips, 
had died from it, and his countryman, Lemuel Sessoms, was 
not expected to live. He goes on, "My dear fellow, amidst all 
our afflictions of sickness, etc., we did not forget the 22d of 
February ; nay we cherished a lively recollection of the char- 
acter to whom that day gave birth and celebrated it in a pleasing 
and splendid manner. . Yes ; on that day we not only gave to 
the world the strongest, most conclusive indications of our love 
for the exalted, the immortal Washington, but showed incon- 
testibly that we were hopeful votaries of Bacchus. About thirty 
of the most respectable students subscribed for a supper to be 
furnished by Mr. Nunn. The recent death of Mr. Philips pre- 
vented our having a dance as was intended, after the Senior 
class had finished speaking. Will you believe it — that out of 
that number there were but four or five sober. I, though strange 
to tell, was one of this number ; but it was almost impossible 
for me to have been otherwise than sober as I was chosen Pres- 
ident, and it was indispensable that I should keep cool. All the 
Faculty attended by special invitation. They gave us some 

good toasts, drank pretty freely, retired (except , whom we 

consider one of ourselves), early and left us to our own enjoy- 
ment. performed noble feats that day. He got intoxi- 
cated twice. He, some others and myself, commenced drinking 
wine at ii o'clock in the forenoon and continued drinking until 
one. By this time all found it necessary to go to bed to get 

sober enough to attend the supper. This we did. and got 

'all seas over' again. College exhibited a pretty scene next 
morning. I am unable to describe it." 

It is impossible to imagine such a debauch in our day. Cham- 
bers was in the Senior class, a man of talent, afterwards* a 
leader in the anti-monitor dispute with the Trustees. He was a 
physician of strength. 

A Disastrous Experiment in College Government. — The 
Great Rebellion. 

The indignation aroused by such offences, especially the duel- 
ing episode, prompted the Trustees in 1805 to adopt laws of 
such inquisitorial severity as outraged the sense of justice among 



THE GREAT SECESSION. 201 

the students. In the first place the President and Faculty were 
required to take an oath before a Justice of the Peace or Judge 
to execute the laws of the institution. Having thus quickened 
the sense of responsibility of the governors the next move was 
on the students. There was already, (as I have heretofore 
shown), a by-law of the institution that the President should 
appoint a monitor for each class "to mark absentees from Pray- 
ers and Public Worship on Sunday, to note all profane swear- 
ing" or gross or vulgar language, and report at Prayers on each 
Sunday morning." 

They were notified that if they failed they would "betray the 
trust confided to them." Naturally this duty was neglected, as 
the monitors were not willing to incur the odium of being "com- 
mon informers." It was determined by the Trustees to strengthen 
this ordinance. Mr. A. D. Murphey, the young lawyer who 
had recently been Professor of Ancient Languages, moved for L 
a committee to report amendments to the by-laws. Mr. Dun- 
can Cameron, who then at the age of 28 was a lawyer of large 
practice, afterwards also a Judge and President of the great 
State Bank of North Carolina, with Murphey as chairman, con- 
stituted the committee. Their report was unanimously adopted, 
but there was only a bare quorum of the Board. 

The ordinance required two monitors to be appointed by lot 
from the twelve senior students of each class to serve one month. 
They were to take an oath before some officer authorized to 
administer an oath as follows : 

"I, A. B... Monitor of the class, on the establishment of the 

University of North Carolina, do solemnly swear that I will faithfully 
execute the duties of a monitor of the class, during my con- 
tinuance in office, without fear, favor or affection, to the best of my 
understanding, so help me, God." 

1. The duties were to preserve order among the students in the College, 
the dining-room and elsewhere, with power to suppress every species of 
irregularity. Opposition by a student to a monitor engaged in preserv- 
ing the good order of the institution, was a misdemeanor, to be punished 
by private or public admonition, by suspension, or otherwise, as the 
offence might deserve. 

2. The classes were to sit together in the dining-room, the monitors 
presiding. They were invested with full power, and it was their duty to 
preserve proper decency and decorum among the students at their respec- 
tive tables, to permit no loud talking, laughing or other improper be- 



202 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

havior, to suffer no waste of the provisions, nor suffer the same to be 
abused at the table, nor allow any to be taken away, without the Stew- 
ard's consent. In case of misbehavior they were directed to order the 
offender away from the table. All students were bound to take their 
meals at Commons unless excused on the plea of ill health. 

3. They were strictly to watch over the conduct of the students at all 
times during their continuance in office, and make report of every irregu- 
larity and impropriety of behavior to the Faculty at the end of each 
week. They were also to report all injuries to public buildings and 
property with the names of the offenders. 

4. At the ringing of the bell for meals the students were ordered to 
repair to the dining-room, arrange themselves according to the order of 
their classes on each side of the door, with their Monitors at the head, 
and thus follow the Tutor into the room. 

5. Each class must sit by itself in the Public Hall with the Monitors 
at their head. The Tutors and Monitors were enjoined to have these 
formalities strictly complied with, "and in no instance permit the same 
to be departed from." 

6. The Monitors of the Junior and Sophomore classes were to be the 
marshals at Commencement and make all necessary arrangements there- 
for. 

Those present when this astounding law was passed were the 
President of the Board, Col. Wm. Polk, Duncan Cameron, A. 
D. Murphey, Col. Edward Jones, Robert Montgomery, Adlai 
Osborne and Wm. H. Hill. 

They were among the best men of the State. Cameron and 
Murphey were among the leaders in professional life and in leg- 
islative halls. Public school teachers owe Murphey a peculiar 
debt of gratitude. Jones was the able Solicitor-General. Mont- 
gomery and Hill were members of Congress. Osborne was a 
lawyer of large practice, as indeed were all the others except 
Col. Polk, who was president of a bank and a wealthy planter. 
Not one, except Murphey, had been a teacher. 

Murphey must be held principally responsible for this ill- 
judged measure. Public opinion deemed it the suggestion of 
President Caldwell, but he denied it and appealed to the Board 
of Trustees to confirm his statement. The ordinance was writ- 
ten by a lawyer evidently. I can only account for the mon- 
strous blunder on the part of men of such reputation for sagac- 
ity by the following explanation. President Caldwell said that 
in the great rebellion of 1799, when Gillaspie, the Principal, was 
beaten, he and Murphey were threatened. It may be that re- 



THE GREAT SECESSION. 203 

sentment for such outrages unsettled his judgment, and Cam- 
eron, a busy lawyer acquiesced because his friend, having lived 
among the students, was supposed to have peculiar knowledge 
of the subject. So clear to Murphey seemed the propriety of 
governing the institution by the machinery of the criminal law, 
just as are governed in large measure the German universities, 
that he proposed to the Trustees to ask the General Assembly 
to make the head of the University a Justice of the Peace. This 
motion met with slender support. It is justice to him to state 
that he soon changed his notions about the discipline of stu- 
dents. 

As the spirit of the proposed ordinance was the treatment of 
the students like soldiers in service, it was naturally approved 
by Col. Polk, who had been President of the Board for two 
years. He was a man of autocratic temper, and had served 
under the iron discipline of Baron Von Steuben of the school 
of the great Frederick. 

If our students had been a colony of wax-dolls they might 
have submitted to this law without a murmur. If cruel tyranny 
had crushed out all their instinctive sense of right and wrong 
and made them a colony of liars and sneaks, they would have 
cringed, promised obedience and straightway systematically 
fawned upon and deceived the professors ; but, being American 
boys with independence of thought and abundance of pluck, 
they received the ordinance with angry disgust and determina- 
tion not to submit. Four Seniors out of seven, eleven Juniors 
out of sixteen, twenty-four Sophomores and six Freshmen, in 
all forty-five, being a majority of all the students in attendance, 
and a very large majority of the ablest and most mature, pre- 
sented a remonstrance to the Faculty and Trustees, at the same 
time binding themselves to leave the institution if one of their 
number should be punished. And to use their own language, 
"If any signer should withdraw from the league he should be 
considered unworthy the attention of a gentleman," an ostra- 
cism more terrible to the average student than death or expul- 
sion. 

President Caldwell had not then learned the management of 
North Carolina students. He made the singular mistake of 



2G4 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

supposing that the requirement of an oath was the only cause 
of the indignation. At his request a "pledge of honor" was 
substituted for the oath, but the promise in other respects being- 
more stringent. The change was unanimously rejected by the 
recalcitrants. After this, in December, 1805, the ordinance 
was unanimously repealed. 

As this was a disastrous experiment in college government, I 
give in detail the substance of the ordinance substituted for 
that requiring the oath, adopted about six weeks later at a 
called meeting of the Board. 

The Trustees sought to sustain their authority by "suspend- 
ing for unlimited time" the obnoxious requirement. 

By the amendment the Monitors were required to repeat and 
subscribe, in presence of the Faculty and students, the follow- 
ing promise, to be engrossed in large characters in a book, to 
be kept for that purpose: "I, A. B., Monitor of the. . . .class, 

do promise and pledge myself that I will endeavor by a 

faithful and impartial discharge of the duties of my appoint- 
ment to prove my respect and veneration for a moral and re- 
ligious conduct, my patriotism and love of honor, my attach- 
ment to the interests of literature and science, and my filial re- 
gard for the reputation and happiness of this University." 
These fine words by no means buttered the parsnips of the stu- 
dents, for there followed additional duties and requirements even 
more exacting and odious than were in the previous ordinance. 

The first gave power to the Monitors only over their own 
classes. The second charged them with the duty of watching 
the conduct and language of all students, as well as of their 
own classes. They must forbid immoral and irreligious con- 
duct and breaches of the laws ; and not only those but every 
species of irregularity and indecency, words so general as 
necessarily to lead to frequent disputes. Like the Tribunes of 
Rome their persons were made in a manner sacrosancti, it being 
a misdemeanor to disobey or insult one. The same strict table 
laws were re-enacted. 

The Monitors must make weekly written reports, minutely 
stating all breaches of the laws, all immoralities, irregularities 
or instances of indecent behavior by any student, naming the 
offender, especially reporting injuries to University property. 



THE GREAT SECESSION. 2C>5 

Any student appointed Monitor, wilfully failing or neglect- 
ing to discharge his duties, was to be punished by admonition, 
or suspension not exceeding three months, and for second of- 
fences suspended indefinitely, and reported to the Trustees for 
expulsion. 

It was further ordered that the Tutors of the Preparatory 
School should visit the rooms of the students three nights. in the 
week, and anyone not in his room was liable to be reprimanded 
by the aforesaid Tutor and punished by the President of the 
University. And any Preparatory student under sixteen years 
of age wilfully injuring the college buildings was to be pub- 
licly whipped with not less than five or more than ten stripes. 
If over sixteen years of age the punishment was public admoni- 
tion and suspension for the first offence, and expulsion for the 
second offence, "by the President without reporting to the Trus- 
tees." 

The foregoing summary shows that the objections of Cham- 
bers hereafter mentioned were not without weight, and were 
not founded on a distorted view of the letter and spirit of the 
substituted ordinance. 

Contemporaneous letters show vividly the consternation 
caused by the great secession, as great in proportion to the 
numbers of the community as was the march of the Plebians 
of Rome to the summit of Mons Sacer. The Steward, Major 
Pleasant Henderson, wrote to a Trustee, Walter Alves, "The 
crisis is awful. Communicate this fateful intelligence to Mr. 
Bennehan. I know how much it will affect him." Mr. Benne- 
han, whose christian name was Richard, was the grandfather 
of Mr. Paul C. Cameron, long one of our ablest and most effi- 
cient Trustees. He had resigned his Trusteeship the year be- 
fore on account of bodily infirmity. 

The President of the Board, Col. Polk, wrote to President 
Caldwell : "The situation into which the imprudence and ill- 
directed conduct of the seceding students has thrown the insti- 
tution is truly distressing." He announced that the Trustees 
had agreed that those who had not left the Hill and are willing 
to submit, may do so on terms, but those who have deserted 



206 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01 f NORTH CAROLINA. 

without leave must apply to the Trustees. If the classes have 
been so depleted as to make it impracticable to carry out the 
system, it may be dispensed with; but, he added with the old 
Von Steuben instinct of discipline, "when the classes grow the 
ordinance must be enforced." 

In another letter he says: "I. W. applies for re-admission. 
The Trustees decline to act in individual cases, but will publish 
general terms. They must promise to conform to the laws." 

President Caldwell was of course deeply stirred. While not 
originally responsible for the ordinance he endeavored with 
zeal to carry it into effect, and he denounced the conduct of the 
rebellious students to the Trustees with bitterness. In a letter 
to Richard Henderson, urging him to accept the Professorship 
of Languages, he predicted that one-half or two-thirds of "the 
conspirators" will ask leave to return. He adds pathetically, 
"If so many of the youth of our country can so easily sacrifice 
the opportunity of science and aim with so little reluctance a 
fatal blow at the very existence of the University, it is for those 
who know by greater experience the value of such an institu- 
tion to baffle the waves of adversity and steer the bark safely 
from the storm which assails it." He then declares though 
tempted by the offer of higher salary and a more congenial 
chair, he had "foregone all temptations with the view of still 
sustaining our tottering institution, assailed as it is by outward 
foes and rent as it has been lately by an explosion of inward 
insubordination, rashness and profligacy." 

I find an allegorical paper among Dr. Caldwell's manuscripts 
entirely in his handwriting, where and how published, or 
whether published at all, I have been unable to ascertain, giving 
a picture of the morals and manners of the students, which we 
must hope, is far too highly colored. It is entitled "An Attempt 
at a Foul and Unnatural Murder." Some parts of it are worth 
quoting — "A respectable matron who has a large family of 
children became an object of odium and conspiracy among them 
on account of the strict restraint she imposed upon their vices 
and disorders. She had with infinite regret observed in them 
for a long time a strong tendency to the practise of getting 
drunk and then engaging in the acts of theft, lewdness and riot, 



CALDWKLT.' ALLEGORY. 20J 

which naturally incurred the necessity of much lying, equivo- 
cation and duplicity." Those not participating, refusing to in- 
form, "were involved in equal disgrace with the guilty." Also 
many "engaged in the practise of gaming, profane swearing, 
and insulting the people they met with," and when resistance 
was encountered, "by threats of secret mischief or imposing- 
blustering attempt to ward off punishment." Also they fre- 
quently played tricks, entered associations for making noise, 
tumult, vociferation and confusion, to the interruption of the 
family and the disgrace of their mother's house. 

She fell upon the expedient of appointing some of the number, 
if they could not prevent, "to make report to her of those who 
misbehaved. As she knew the more perfect the restraint could 
be made, the better it would be for her offspring, she required 
the inspectors to be under oath to be faithful to their duty. The 
reason of this particular was that their depravity had ripened 
so far as it lay it down as a maxim, that mere promises were 
of no force." — "Only those promises which bound them to their 
duty were pronounced to be of no force, but such as they made 
to one another, binding them to faithfulness in their combina- 
tion against the laws and rules of the family, as to conceal the 
author of every immorality, and disorder, were deemed as sacred 
and kept as inviolate as promises to do good among the general- 
ity of mankind." 

"After six weeks trial, they remonstrated against the oath. 
That was withdrawn and a promise of honor substituted. Then 
many grew outrageous and clearly evinced that it was not the 
oath that had excited their aversion, but the necessity of giving 
up their beloved habits of licentiousness." "They suddenly and 
impetuously flew at her in a body, grasped her by the throat 
and made a promiscuous outcry that they would rather die than 
submit to such tyranny, that the laws of morality were not made 
for young people. That God Almighty himself could not abide 
by such laws and that as for religion they cared not half so 
much for the privilege of an orison to the Supreme Being, as 
they did for the liberty of taking his name in vain, abusing him 
habitually to his face, and damning all his progeny into eternal 
perdition. It was enough to bring tears into the eyes of any 



208 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

person of common feeling to see how unrelenting the exaspera- 
tion was which the love of their vices had infused in them." — 
"So blinded were they to the real nature of their habits, that 
they acted as if they were doing no more than vidicating by a 
desperate struggle their proper rights, while nothing could be 
plainer, than that an indissoluble attachment to disorder and 
libertinism had brought their feelings to so irritated a state." — 
"Exerting every nerve they long kept their mother gasping and 
half-expiring, till they gtew weary of their efforts, and she extri- 
cated herself from their clutches. Thus setting herself at lib- 
erty they fled from the home, leaving a dread upon the mind of 
the astonished and suffering parent lest they should ever become 
troublesome by solicitation to be re-admitted.- — If such appli- 
cation be made we hope that she will always remember, that if 
she is not out of existence, it is neither for the want of a wish 
nor of the utmost effort they could make to destroy her." 

The records show that those applying for re-admission were 
few, notwithstanding the repeal of the ordinance. 

I have discovered among the papers of General John 
Steele, a letter written to him by Henry Chambers, who was, 
as I have said, a chief leader of the insurgents, showing the 
students' side of the controversy. He begins by saying, "Every 
friend to science must lament the injudicious conduct of the 
Trustees in passing so odious a law. It was very objection- 
able in theory but much more so in practice. It banished all 
harmony. The consequence of every return of the Monitor 
was a contention between the students and the teacher and the 
students and the Monitors. Frequently have I heard the return 
of the Monitor contradicted in the public Hall, though he was 
acting under oath. What young man of feeling would be will- 
ing to place himself in such a situation as this ? Who would 
suffer himself publicly to be called a perjured villain? And 
the Monitor does this when he permits the correctness of his 
returns to be questioned. When our Remonstrance was pre- 
sented to the Trustees, they consented to take off the oath but 
substituted a promise no less binding, and introduced some pro- 
visions into the law which made it much more objectionable 
than it was originally. Upon examination it will be found that 



THE GREAT SECESSION. 200, 

the Monitors have cognizance now, not only of the conduct of 
their particular classes but of the whole school. Thus a mem- 
ber of the lower class can admonish and return a member of the 
Senior or Junior classes. And is it not degrading to put a 
young man of the first stand in College under the absolute con- 
trol of a little Boy; a Boy that may be incapable of discriminat- 
ing between proper and improper conduct? It certainly is." — 
"Perhaps an apology is due you for troubling you with this 
letter. I beg that you will ascribe it to the uncommon solici- 
tude I feel to satisfy my friends as to the part I have acted. If 
they condemn me it is my misfortune to be condemned for doing 
what I conceive to be right and proper." 

Chambers was one of the best students in his class and very 
near to receiving his diploma. It must have been a profound 
conviction that made him become the leader in the movement 
of resistance and ultimately of secession. 

A letter dated September 23, 1805, published by Dr. S. B. 
Weeks in the University Magazine of April and May, 1894, 
from John L. Conner to his brother, giA r es also the views of the 
students as to the Monitor Ordinances. He called them op- 
pressive and tyrannical. "A remonstrance, signed by forty-five 
students, was handed to the Faculty and Trustees, a fortnight 
before the expiration of the monitorial office. The Trustees 
did not repeal the laws but modified them, and in that modifica- 
tion they also magnified them, being still more severe (the oath 
excepted) than before." For the oath was substituted a solemn 
promise. Those who signed the remonstrance were desired to 
meet in order to decide : 1st, Is the promise binding? This was 
affirmed by a large majority. 2d, Is the law modified? The vote 
on this was 22 in the negative against 19. "Of course, according 
to the remonstrance and 'private obligation,' we were obliged to 
leave College." Mr. Conner goes on to express his admiration 
of the speakers among the students. "The legislature of Xorth 
Carolina cannot produce men of such accurate judgment, reas- 
oning and fluent language as was displayed in the debates of our 
honorable body. * * * Those who signed (with some excep- 
tions) are the most respectable, both in their class and char- 
acter." 

14 



2IO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Conner gives his reason for joining the insurrection. "When 
I was first asked to sign, I refused, alleging that I could agree 
to be governed by the laws but not to be one that should en- 
force them, that the law would not affect me as I boarded out of 
College: that I should not be made a monitor for the same rea-" 
son, and that I was seldom among the monitors." He found 
however that he was not only liable to be monitor but to be 
forced to live in the College building. He had recently a severe 
attack of rheumatism and if he should be sick in College he 
would have very little attendance and stand in need of every 
necessity. "The fare also in College is miserable, for it is com- 
mon to see skippers in beef, which is the only flesh diet they 
have. In this case they must fast, for by a later ordinance they 
are debarred from getting a dinner elsewhere." 

"Only four students, who signed the remonstrance, now re- 
main in the village. The rest have returned home to their 
parents and friends, who highly approve of their conduct. 
They have no idea of their sons being perjured by an extorted 
oath. The trustees have exhibited the affair in as bad a point of 
view as possible, nothing more than what was to be expected. 
However, they have since had the generosity to acknowledge 
an error in judgment." 

Conner concluded to remain in Chapel Hill and pursue his 
studies privately. He adds naively, "I assure you that I should 
not have signed, had I not thought myself justifiable in so do- 
ing. But I had not the least idea in its terminating in such 
disagreeable consequences." He subsequently accepted the 
offer of the Trustees that the seceders might return on sub- 
scribing a promise to obey the laws of the institution. 

John Lancaster Conner was evidently a young man of parts. 
He was a lineal descendant of the Quaker Lord Proprietor, and 
Governor of Carolina, John Archdale, and grandson of Em- 
manuel Love, Secretary of the Province. He left the University 
without graduating, probably on account of his rheumatism, 
and died early. 

It must be admitted that the seceders adopted the wrong 
remedy for the evil of which they complained. They injured 
themselves and injured the University. They inflicted severe 



DAVIE S OPINION OF THE SECESSION. 211 

pain on those who loved them best, their parents and relatives. 
They would undoubtedly have procured the repeal of the ordi- 
nance at an early date by continued strong, yet courteous, peti- 
tions. It was passed by a thin Board, a bare quorum. The 
Trustees were judicious and well-meaning, and it was repealed 
after only a few months operation. The secession and violent 
language were a hindrance to early repeal, because the Trustees 
could not yield to denunciation and threats. 

That I am correct in this criticism of the action of the stu- 
dents is sustained by a letter from General Davie to Treasurer 
Haywood, of the date of September 22, 1805. His opinion had 
commanding weight with the Trustees, and that was decidedly 
against the ordinance. He wrote : "The late unfortunate occur- 
rence at the University is much to be lamented on many ac- 
counts, but most of all for the ill-advised measure which gave 
birth to the conduct and feeling of the students. An ordinance 
of the same kind was rejected several years ago on a full consid- 
eration by the Board on the ground that the principle was im- 
proper. These Monitors under the ordinance are not a species 
of Magistrates but real spies, and human nature revolts from 
the principle of espionage in every shape. The corruption and 
depravity of London, Paris, and other large cities, render its 
adoption necessary to the police, but the most degraded wretch 
in the sinks of depravity could not be induced to accept it as a 
public office, and always stipulates for the most profound 
secrecy with regard to his employment. I do not believe that 
the duty of Monitor or Censor has ever been carried further in 
any literary Institution than to note absences from prescribed 
duties such as attendance on recitation, prayers, Church, etc." 
He counselled absolute repeal of the ordinance. 

He was, however, far from approving the violent conduct of 
the students. He advised that the ring leaders should not be 
re-admitted. He added: "I have reflected much and seriously 
since this event on the cause of this spirit of insubordination, 
and the means of preventing it. It has always existed in a 
considerable degree ; the ordinance may be considered as onlv 
an accidental cause. I think the real causes may be found in 
the deficits of domestic education in the Southern States, the 



212 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

weakness of parental authority, the spirit of the Times, the 
arrangement as to vacation, and some errors by the Board which 
I will notice hereafter." 

"Every man of discernment who has lived forty or fifty years 
must have observed and lamented the general decay of parental 
authority and the consequent presumption and loose manners of 
our young men. Boys of 16 or ly years, without judgment, 
without experience as to almost any knowledge of any kind, 
arrogantly affect to judge for themselves, the trustees and even 
their parents in matters of morality, of government, of educa- 
tion, in fact of everything. The effect of the other general 
cause is visible throughout the whole of their remonstrance. 
Nothing can be more ridiculous than Boys at school talking of 
'sacred regard for their rights,' 'the high and imposing duty of 
resistance/ and of 'denouncing laws,' etc., etc., the genuine 
slang of the times, culled from the columns of newspapers ; yet 
these very sounds are attended with the most mischievous con- 
sequences. Over these causes however the Board has no power 
or influence, but they must be considered to be counteracted as 
far as practicable." 

General Davie then states that he has observed that these 
disturbances take place in the Fall of the year. This he at- 
tributes to the great length of time the students have been con- 
fined at College. "They become tired and disgusted with study, 
their minds generally acquire a sour, gloomy and restive tem- 
perament, producing a general predisposition to any measure 
that may break up the session, or interrupt business and distress 
the Faculty." — To remedy this he recommended having the two 
vacations on the same footing, i. e. of the same length. 

"The difficulty we have continually experienced in the man- 
agement of youth at this institution, has obliged me to reflect 
on the means we have used, and the nature of the Government 
of such institutions. I am now perfectly convinced that the 
best governed Colleges are those which have the most respecta- 
ble Faculties, and the fewest written laws, and that we have 
committed a serious error in making an ordinance for every- 
thing, in other words legislating too much. It is now my opin- 
ion that after describing the kind of punishment to be used in 
the Establishment, and reserving in all cases the punishment of 



DAVIE S OPINION OF THE SECESSION. 213 

Expulsion to be confirmed by the Board,. the rest should be left 
to the discretion of the Faculty." 

"It may require some reflection to see the justness of this 
remark, owing to certain habits among us of acting and think- 
ing, and I will only add that the principles of parental govern- 
ment are the true models for that of literary institutions for the 
youth of all kinds from the University down to the common 
schools. The parental government has no written laws, and I 
would observe that no mortal man could govern his family if he 
adopted that mode. If he did his whole household would be- 
come, like these students, lawyers and legislators, discussing 
his ordinances, chattering about "their rights,' 'despotism/ 
'duty of resistance.' etc., etc. They would form themselves into 
revolutionary committees and be always deliberating, remon- 
strating and revolting." 

He doubted the propriety of publishing in the newspapers all 
the distinctions made. The motive is good, but "it has the 
effect of filling the young men with presumption, and a vain 
imaginary consequence. Perhaps it is better to notice in the 
papers the Commencement honors only." 

' 'It is dangerous to depart from the paths of Experience,' is 
a truth I am more and more convinced of every day I live." 

General Davie left Halifax for his plantation in South Caro- 
lina about the first of November, and this letter contains the 
last counsels he gave to the institution which he so long cher- 
ished. With the exception of his recommendation of two vaca- 
tions of equal length, the management of the institution has been 
for many years on the line he advocated. During President 
Caldwell's administration the Trustees ceased to interfere in the 
discipline, and in 1876 the By-Laws were quietly laid aside and 
the requirement that students behave as gentlemen was adopted 
as the general rule of conduct. 

The repeal of the obnoxious ordinance did not bring back the 
seceders. In 1805 there were only three graduates and in 1806 
only four. In 1807 they rose to six and in 1808 to thirteen. 

The following list shows the names of the seceders : 

Of the Senior Class : Henry Y. Webb, of Hillsboro ; Henry 
Chambers, of Rowan ; John Owen, of Bladen ; Ransom Hinton, 
of Wake — 4. 



214 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Juniors: Alfred M. Burton, Granville; Daniel Forney, Lin- 
coln ; Wm. B. Meares, New Hanover ; Wm. Campbell, Cumber- 
land ; Green H. Campbell, North Carolina ; James Young, Gran- 
ville ; Henry G. Williams, Northampton ; John C. Montgomery, 
Hertford ; James A. Cain, Orange ; James A. Harrington, Rich- 
mond ; John S. Young, North Carolina — n. 

Sophomores, then spelt Sophimores: John B. Brown, Bladen 
County ; Wm. Cowan, New Hanover County ; Alexander Gil- 
mour; Wm. Pegues, Cabarrus County; Benj. B. Hunter, Tar- 
boro; Samuel Spencer, Anson County; Lewis Duke, Warren 
County; James Tignor; Thomas Goode, Virginia; John B. Jas- 
per, New Bern ; Haley I. Inge, Louisiana ; Horace B. Satter- 
white, Salisbury ; Wm. Gilmour, Halifax ; Wm. Maclin, Vir- 
ginia ; Wm. W. Williams, Martin County ; Wm. Ferrand, 
Rowan County (probably), Wm. Hayes, Pittsboro; Wm. Green, 
Warren County; Levi Whirled, Orange County (probably); 
John Jones, New Hanover County (probably) ; Palmer Mosely, 
Lenoir County ; John L. Conner, Pasquotank County ; Wm. 
Roulhac, Martin County — 23. 

Freshman Class : Philemon Hawkins, Warren County ; Rob- 
ert Collier, Chapel Hill; Joseph H. Pugh, Bertie County (prob- 
ably) ; Henry Watters, Orange County ; Wm. Hinton, Bertie 
County; John Williams, Warren County (probably) ; Wm. Wil- 
liams, Martin County — 7. 

Some of these attained prominence in after life : John Owen, 
was Governor; Henry Y. Webb, a Judge; Wm. B. Meares, a 
State Senator ; John Jones, Speaker of the House. Some 
others attained the dignity of representing their counties in the 
General Assembly. A few returned after a year's absence and 
graduated. The majority settled down into the steady useful 
life of North Carolina citizens. 

The Trustees were evidently sore at their defeat. Probably 
some of the seceding students obtained admission into other in- 
stitutions. In 1807 a letter was sent to the Presidents of all the 
Colleges in the Union, transmitting copies of "An Ordinance to 
Prevent the Admission into the University of North Carolina of 
Improper Persons as Students." It was signed by Governor 
Benjamin Williams, as President of the Board. Accompanying 



NOTICES TO OTHER COLLEGES. 21 5 

it was a letter by him, stating that it was adopted because of 
recent acts of hostility to authority and the laws, committed in 
several American Colleges, and asking for a regular report of 
expulsions and desertions. 

The scope of the ordinance was — 

1. Refusal to admit into the University of North Carolina 
any student expelled from any University or College, or who 
has deserted therefrom to avoid trial for offences. 

2. Requiring of all applicants for admission a declaration that 
they have not been expelled and have not so deserted another 
institution. 

3. That the names, ages and residences of all such expelled 
students and deserters shall be transmitted to all other institu- 
tions, and also recorded in the journals of the Faculty and of 
the Board. Similar lists transmitted from other institutions 
shall be similarly recorded. 

This document, apparently vindictive in its intent, by the use 
of the word "deserters," as applicable to students leaving the 
institution pending charges, coupled with the inquisitorial char- 
acter of the ordinance appointing Monitors, intimates that the 
authorities regarded them as subject to control similar to that 
used in the army over soldiers. The experiment is interesting 
as a step in the transition from the old-time severity of Colleges, 
as well as family government, to the more free, and, as results 
here proved, more satisfactory modern methods. 

A difficulty which occurred in 1808 shows strongly the sensi- 
tiveness of the Faculty in regard to their authority and that they 
had not lost their pluck in consequence of the "great Rebellion." 
Because of dissatisfaction in regard to fare in Steward's Hall 
thirty-eight students, among them eight Seniors and nine 
Juniors, in the list being such men as John Branch, afterwards 
Governor and Secretary of the Navy, James F. Taylor, Solici- 
tor for the State, Mark Alexander, a member of Congress, 
signed a petition to the Faculty, stating their grievances in 
strong language. Among other things they said : "Having 
borne with patience for a considerable time a failure of the 
Steward to comply with the bill of fare, and having observed 
the inefficiency of individual complaints to produce an amend- 



2l6 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ment, and seeing that our rights are infringed upon, we have 
thought proper to petition the Faculty, in whom is vested the 
power to enforce a compliance. Our grievances are daily ac- 
cumulated, and they are such whose importance demands im- 
mediate redress. We have long observed an insufficiency of 
butter. — The beef has been such as to shock every sentiment of 
decency- — frequently unsound and covered with vermin. — The 
frequency of this shows that it proceeds from carelessness in 
the Steward, and as such we require an alteration." 

The paper was drawn evidently by Maxwell Chambers, of 
Salisbury, afterwards a physician of that place, a relative of 
Dr. Henry Chambers, leader of the great Secession. It was 
considered by the Faculty to be offensive, the use of the word 
"require" and the like savoring of rebellion. At their sugges- 
tion another was substituted, stating that, "on reflection we have 
discovered the inconsistency of our former petition, and there- 
fore, conformable to your opinion and also to our own view, we 
now offer one, in which is contained a plain statement of every 
article, on which our complaints are founded." After enumera- 
ting the charges in regard to the deficiencies of the table, they 
"entreat the interposition of your authority for a redress of our 
grievances." 

I wish I could add, as old children stories concluded, "and so 
they lived happily together," but the journal shows that two 
students, one Senior John R. Stokes, and one Junior, Elias 
Foord, refused to sign the amended paper and were suspended 
from the institution. Afterwards Stokes petitioned the Trus- 
tees for restoration, alleging that he meant no disrespect to the 
Faculty by his conduct and promising obedience to the laws. 
This was approved by the Faculty and the Trustees, after a 
long preamble avowing their determination to sustain the au- 
thority of the Faculty. They agreed to the request, "as an 
offering of kindness and favor." Stokes returned and took his 
diploma, but Foord remained at home. 

As the Faculty, when satisfied of the guilt of one accused, 
often declined to accept his denial, it sometimes probably hap- 
pened that injustice was done. In 1811 I find a paper signed by 
six students, some of whom undoubtedly were during their adult 



FACUI/TY VI^WS OF INSUBORDINATION. 21J 

lives good citizens, "attest upon their truth that they heard a 
certain person avow in such manner as to convince them of his 
unaffected sincerity that he performed the self-same act for the 
supposed commission of which J. Pinkston had been suspend- 
ed." Pinkston was reinstated. 

The indignation of the friends of this student and another 
was so great that when President Caldwell rose in the Chapel to 
announce their suspension, twenty-three of their friends osten- 
tatiously marched out in disgust. Among them were such men 
as Charles L. Hinton, a State Treasurer ; John G. B. Roulhac, 
prominent merchant ; and Arthur Hopkins, a Chief Justice. 
They miscalculated the firmness of the President and his Fac- 
ulty, who promptly suspended them all. A strong and well- 
written letter of apology and regrets, almost too fulsome, was 
promptly sent in by the humbled insurgents. Hear them. "You, 
Revd. and respected Sir, are conversant with the history of man 
from infancy to maturity. You have taught the young idea 
how to shoot. You have poured the fresh instruction over the 
mind. You have fixed the worthy purpose in the glowing 
breast." 

"We have acted improperly. — It proceeded from the tempo- 
rary absence of reason and reflection. — We acknowledge our 
error with contrition. — We ardently solicit and respectfully 
hope for forgiveness for this our late offence and particularly 
for the conduct of those of tender age who may have been led 
into error by our example." 

"With that respect. Reverend and Revered Sir, that your 
character and conduct universally command, and of which you 
are so highly deserving, we presume to add that of our esteem 
and individual affection, let the fate of this letter be what it 
may." 

To this eloquent letter, which likewise contained disclaimer 
of intentional disrespect and promise of future good conduct, 
the cold answer was returned by the President, that after their 
return to their homes the petition might be taken up and con- 
sidered. Most of them were reinstated and took their degrees. 

In one case an extraordinary amount of contrition was de- 
manded. The sentence was that the offender should be indefi- 



2l8 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OE NORTH CAROLINA. 

nitely suspended unless he should acknowledge to the Faculty in 
the presence of all the students that he had done wrong, secondly 
that he should crave the indulgence and good will of the Faculty 
and particularly of the President, thirdly that he should assure 
the Faculty that he would obey the laws in the future. 

Sometimes the good President wrote out the letters of contri- 
tion to be signed by the offenders. One of them is made to say, 
when summoned to answer the Professors for neglect of duty, 
"It is with shame and confusion I confess the low and vulgar 
expressions in which I suffered my obstinate and indecent pas- 
sions to vent themselves in return for their solicitude for my 
welfare, * * * and I will never again be guilty of such lan- 
guage, or of any voluntary infraction of the laws of this institu- 
tion which is so sacredly devoted to the production and ad- 
vancement of good morals and science in the hearts and under- 
standings of the young." The student who signed the above- 
mentioned paper — what is often called in the country a "lie- 
bill," was so agitated that he forgot to clot his i's in William ; a 
grammatical neglect of atrocious magnitude in those days. 

Notwithstanding these occasional outbreaks it is refreshing to 
find periods of tranquillity. A sentimental observer writing in 
February, 1803, praises students and Faculty in glowing lan- 
guage. He says "voluntary acquiescence stamps a reverence 
on the minds of all. Contentment extends its influence through 
every department and beams with placid serenity on every 
brow." 

Sayings and Incidents oe a Comicae Nature. 

Comical incidents and sayings form so large part of Uni- 
versity life that I record some as specimens of what in the old 
days were considered amusing. I begin with two pictures of 
incorrigible boys. 

For a short while during this period little descriptive notes 
were kept in a book, of which the following are specimens of 
the worst. For the most part they are favorable. 

"R. B. is very indolent, seldom or ever recites his lessons 
well ; and absents himself from the class at recitations, and for 
his absences seldom produces but frivolous excuses. He has 
made very little improvement and the repeated admonitions of 



AMUSING INCIDENTS. 219 

his teachers are insufficient to rouse him to industry and to 
induce him to apply himself to study." 

"J. V., who reads nothing but Virgil, neither construes or 
parses very correctly. He is possessed of only moderate genius 
and is much inclined to be indolent. He takes little pains to 
improve and seldom remembers on one day what he has been 
told on the preceding. He is nearly grown and though he has 
been much at school, he has made but little progress and cer- 
tainly will never be proficient in the languages." 

Of the anecdotes some are true, some mythical. 

A letter written February 8, 1809, from Henry H. Watters 
to his mother, who lived near Wilmington, shows that, while 
the spirit of insubordination had not entirely died out, the buoy- 
ancy of youth had caused the students to turn their attention to 
other matters than resisting the Faculty, even using intensive 
culture to promote the growth of sprouting beard. 

"The young men have for some time been very irregular in 
their conduct, and yesterday one received a public admonition 
and six or seven a private one. None have merited suspension 
or expulsion. A little mischief now and then is expected from 
young men and only serves to remind teachers of their duty. I 
have not spent but one quarter uselessly and that was in buying 
cider. I have purchased other things, but they are necessaries. 
I have received the articles which I purchased last fall at a 
vendue ; A. Reaves, a noted gambler, was my security, so you 
see I have not lost my credit. I had a pair of shorts made of 
the cotton cassimere and am resolved to shine here, if not with 
you. My beard and whiskers are sprouting finely. I shave 
them once a week and grease them every night with tallow. I 
am told by some of my fellow students that greasing is a fine 
thing to make them grow, and I have no doubt that warm 
weather will accelerate the growth very much. You have again 
attacked me about my cough. I can tell you for the hundredth 
time that I have none. Next time you write to me about it you 
shall hear that I incessantly spit hogsheads of blood every day, 
eat nothing, and am nothing but skin and bone." 

"As politics are so often the topics of conversation I have 
written to Mr. Boylan to send me his paper and apply to Papa 



220 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

for the money. Mr. Caldwell is more fond of conversing on 
that than on any other subject, and without some information 
on the subject I will be unable to converse with him." 

When Paul C. Cameron matriculated in 1824 he had a letter 
of introduction from his father to a senior, James M. Wright, 
son of Judge Wright of Memphis, who lived in the South Build- 
ing. Young Paul was a typical Highland Scotchman in ap- 
pearance. His hair was red, his face was red, and he wore a 
suit of clothes of the color called turkey-red, made at home by 
his loving mother. As he walked up alone from the hotel he 
passed a group of students sitting on the steps of the north en- 
trance of the Old East Building. One of them, attracted by 
the passing flash of rubicund light, called out, "Red Bird I" 
The Freshman's blood was as red as his face, hair and gar- 
ments. He stopped and offered battle. "I can't whip you all 
at once," he savagely said, "but if you will come out one at a 
time, I will whip every one of you." No one felt inclined to 
accept the challenge. Young AVright took him in as his room- 
mate and he never was hazed. 

The following incident illustrates Dr. Caldwell in his gentler 
mood. He descried a student fastening a goose to the ridge of 
the roof of the East Building. "Ah, Joseph, Joseph," said he, 
"I suppose thou art fixing up that poor bird there as an emblem 
of thyself." This was the eminent editor of the National In- 
telligencer, Joseph Gales. Dr. Hooper adds, "Perhaps that 
severe cut from his teacher may have goaded the youthful tru- 
ant to throw away the goose forever afterwards, reserving only 
a quill to write himself into renown." 

Among the mythical, I class that which tells of a plot to steal 
Dr. Caldwell's carriage and haul it to the foot of the hill on the 
Pittsboro road, a mile off, and leave it there. The Doctor, ever 
watchful, not averse to what was not considered dishonorable 
in that day, eavesdropping, heard of the scheme. When night 
came he hid in the vehicle and was transported by the jovial 
draught boys to what is now Purefoy's Mill, once Merritt's. 
As they were about to return to their rooms, he poked his head 
out of the window and blandly said, "Now, young gentlemen ! 
will you please haul me back to my residence?" As the ascent 



AMUSING INCIDENTS. 221 

was 250 feet towards the skies the chap fallen students were 
nearly exhausted, so much so that no further punishment was 
inflicted. I class this as mythical, although firmly credited in 
the old University circles, because the same story is told of an 
English pedagogue. 

The next incident is probably true. The Doctor's nickname 
was Bolus, abbreviated from Diabolus. He got wind of a pro- 
ject to steal his turkeys, which he was fattening for some festi- 
val dinner. Hiding near the coop, he heard one fowl searcher 
stealthily creep therein and seizing the gobbler remark to his 
confederates, "Here, boys, is old Bolus !" Then grabbing the 
hen, "And here is Mrs. Bolus." The Doctor then rushed for- 
ward so rapidly that in order to escape, the turkeys were drop- 
ped. He had them killed next day and invited the marauders 
and others to the dining at which they were served. After 
carving he looked significantly at the ringleader and asked, 

"Mr. , will you have a slice of old Bolus, or do you prefer 

a slice of Mrs. Bolus?" He then gave the same option to the 
other delinquents successively. It is said that there was never 
a more severe punishment. 

At one time it was the rule to require written excuses for 

delinquencies. Dr. Caldwell said, "Mr. , you have offered 

seven excuses to four absences." "All right, Doctor ! let the 
surplus three go on the absences of next week." 

After graduation, Matthew Troy was a Tutor in the Prepara- 
tory Department — the hero of a story recorded by Dr. Hooper 
in his "Fifty Years Since." "I told you," he says, "that I re- 
membered Mr. Troy with gratitude ; but I believe nothing he 
ever taught me imprinted itself so deeply on my memory, as the 
burst of eloquence which the boys told me he had made, when 
he was a student, upon the charms of Miss Hay, afterwards the 
first Mrs. Gaston. Troy was given to the grandiloquent style, 
and on that occasion Miss Hay, who was the belle of the day, 
with a small party came to visit the Dialectic library. It was 
then kept in one of the common rooms inhabited by four stu- 
dents; and you may judge of the tumult that was excited by 
such visitation and how much sweeping and fixing up was re- 
quired, and how many frightened boys ran to the neighboring 



222 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

rooms, and shut the doors, all but a small crack to peep through. 
On this memorable occasion, Troy had fixed himself in a corner 
of the room, whence he could contemplate the beautiful appari- 
tion in silent ecstacy. After she was gone the librarian called 
him out of his trance, and said : "Well, Troy, what do you think 
of her?" "Oh! sir, she's enough to melt the frigidity of a stoic, 
and excite rapture in the breast of a hermit"' ; to which he might 
have added : 'And like another Helen, fire another Troy.' A 
man that could talk in that way, appeared to me, in those days, 
to have reached the top of Parnassus."' 

The following story was told me by Dr. Johnston B. Jones, of 
Chapel Hill and Charlotte. 

There came a long, lank student from a region where literary 
culture was not abundant. The members of the Faculty were 
generally preachers and attendance on Prayers in the Chapel 
twice a day was rigorously enforced. At the end of the first 
week the neophyte was reported habitually absent. He was 
sent for in hot haste "to appear before the Awful Tribunal," 

as the students called Faculty meetings. "Mr. !" said 

President Caldwell in his severest tones, "the Faculty have 
learned with deep regret that you have been in the last week ab- 
sent from Prayers fourteen times. What have you to say, Sir?" 
With bland and innocent tones the culprit made the shocking 
answer, "I don't hold with Prars. Sir !" Without deigning to 
discuss the constitutional provision that every man has the 
right to worship God according to the dictates of his own con- 
science, he was sternly informed that if he could not hold with 
Prayers, the University could not hold with him. 

The late Judge William H. Battle, of the Graduating class 
of 1820, is authority for the happening on our University ros- 
trum of an incident, which is sometimes credited elsewhere. 
A Freshman, who had a face of portentous gravity, had a coat 
of Revolutionary pattern, blue, with brass buttons, with short 
waist and tail reaching nearly to his heels. It was the rule that 
the students in turn should declaim a short extract of prose or 
poetry before the Faculty after evening Prayers. When our 
Freshman's time came he mounted the rostrum and in a pecu- 
liarly lugubrious and sing-song tone began Addison's Evening 
Hvmn. He made no gfesture until he reached the lines : 



AMUSING INCIDENTS. 223 

"Soon as the evening shades prevail, 
The Moon takes up the wondrous tale/' 

and then he reached for the tail of his Revolutionary coat, and 
gently waved it in the air. 

Some years later I witnessed a ludicrous scene something like 
that. A Senior of 1853, Wm. B. Dusenbury, was usually so 
droll that every one expected from him a humorous speech, 
called "a Funny." Senior speaking came on, when every mem- 
ber of the class delivered an original oration. To the disgust 
of his audience, whose risible muscles were ready, expecting to 
be called into action by Dusenbury's wit, his speech was as dry 
as' that of the average orator. But fortunately for our fun a 
fly happened to alight on his nose. Pausing in his utterance he 
gazed at the annoying animal in a cross-eyed way, and deliber- 
ately proceeded to catch him. After opening his hand to ascer- 
tain whether he had succeeded, he proceed with his speech. 
It was inexpressibly ludicrous. There was a wild burst of ap- 
plause and inextinguishable laughter. Dr. Mitchell was sit- 
ting several yards in front of me and it added to our amuse- 
ment to see how his bald head and huge frame, rocking for 
several minutes, gave evidence of his appreciation of the com- 
icalness of the situation. 

Dr. William Hooper says, "Our geographical recitations 
were enlivened by some rare scenes, one or two of which I will 
venture to relate. 

" 'Mr. Sawney,' says the Professor, 'can you tell me anything 
about the animals of Greenland ?' 'Yes, sir ; there's one called 
the seal.' 'What kind of animal is it ?' 'I don't remember ex- 
actly, Sir, but I believe he says it is a very amphib — a very am- 
phibibobus kind of animal. Sir.' The boys plagued him about 
this new kind of animal until he became as irritable as a nest of 
wasps by the way-side. Another student whom we will dis- 
guise under the name of Riggie, used to amuse various com- 
panions by telling the story upon Sawney. Now Riggie was the 
last man that ought to have made people merry over the blun- 
ders of others, for he had got his own nickname by his ludicrous 
pronunciation of Riga, a Russian town on the Baltic. He was 
asked where were the chief towns in Russia. He mentioned 



224 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

several, and among them Riggie on the Baltic, pronouncing the 
first syllable of the last word as it is heard in balance. The 
name Riggie stuck to him forever afterwards. But it often 
happens that he who smarts under a joke is most ready to avert 
pursuit by throwing ridicule upon others. Sawney, goaded by 
Riggie's persecution, determined to avenge himself; so he laid 
a trap for him. He got a friend to invite a company including 
Riggie into his room, and to call for the story, while in the 
meantime, Sawney concealed himself under the bed. Riggie, 
alas! unconscious of the Trojan horse within the walls, was 
going on with his story, full sail, the audience convulsed with 
the enjoyment and the anticipation of the paulo-post future; 
when in the very fifth act of the drama, out popped Sawney 
from his ambush, and pitched into the dismayed comedian. I 
shall not attempt to describe the battle ; but it may well be sup- 
posed that Sawney, with wounded pride and bursting with long 
imprisoned rage, fought with more desperation, and that his ad- 
versary startled by a foe emerging suddenly from ambush, 
must have fought at a disadvantage." 

Here is Dr. Hooper's description of Steward's Hall. "Do 
you wish to know the ordinary bill of fare fifty years ago ? As 
well as I recollect board per annum was thirty-five dollars ! 
This, as ypu may suppose, would not support a very luxurious 
table, but the first body of Trustees were men who had seen the 
Revolution and they thought that that sum would furnish as 
good rations as those lived on who won our liberties. Coarse 
corn bread was the staple food. At dinner the only meat was 
a fat middling of bacon, surmounting a pile of coleworts ; and 
the first thing after grace was said, (and sometimes before), 
was for one man, by a single horizontal sweep of his knife, to 
separate the ribs and lean from the fat, monopolize all the first 
to himself, and leave the remainder for his fellows. At break- 
fast we had wheat bread and butter and coffee. Our supper 
was coffee and the corn bread left at dinner, without butter. I 
remember the shouts of rejoicing when we had assembled at 
the door, and some one jumping up and looking in at the win- 
dow, made proclamation — 'Wheat bread for supper, boys !' And 
that wheat bread, over which such rejoicings were made, be- 



STEWARD S HALL. 225 

lieve me, gentlemen and ladies, was manufactured out of wheat 
we call seconds, or, as some term it, grudgeons. You will not 
wonder, if, after such a supper, most of the students welcomed 
the approach of night, that as beasts of prey, they might go a 
prowling, and seize upon everything eatable within the compass 
of one or two miles ; for, as I told you, our boys were followers 
of the laws of Lycurgus. Nothing was secure from the devour- 
ing torrent. Beehives though guarded by a thousand stings — all 
feathered tenants of the roost — watermelon and potato patches, 
roasting ears, etc., in fine everything that could appease hunger, 
was found missing in the morning. Those marauding parties 
at night were often wound up with setting the village to rights." 

A letter from State Treasurer Haywood in 1803 to Dr. Cald- 
well shows that according to modern ideas complaint of Stew- 
ard's Hall fare may have been well founded. "In re matter of 
having Mr. and Mrs. Love furnish butter at supper, we think 
with you that a supper of Tea and Bread, or Coffee and Bread, 
without either butter or meat, has few charms, and can be but 
illy fitted to gratify palates accustomed to better fare, but the 
contract has been made and published and cannot be changed." 
He adds with apparent naivete that there would be "no objec- 
tion to students adding Butter out of their private Purse, but 
not to be charged to parents or guardians." He means that 
the University should not include such self-furnished luxury in 
its official rendering of expenditures. 

"Dr. Caldwell," adds Dr. Hooper, "seems to have made it a 
part of his fixed policy, that no evil-doer should hope to escape 
by the swiftness of his heels. He was in the habit of rambling 
about at night, in search of adventures, and whenever he came 
across an unlucky wight engaged in taking off a gate, building a 
fence across the street, driving a brother calf or goat into the 
Chapel, or any similar exploit of genius, he no sooner hove in 
sight than he gave chase." 

"I will relate," said Dr. Hooper, one of these nocturnal ad- 
ventures, and it was only 'unum e pluribus/ 

"Dr. Caldwell was the podas okus Achilles of Chapel Hill, 
and he had more occasion for powers of pursuit than of con- 
test, for his antagonists uniformly took to flight. You call this 

15 



226 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

a 'fast age/ gentlemen, and so it is, but I don't know a man of 
this generation who is faster than was Dr. Caldwell. He was 
not satisfied to take two days in getting to Raleigh. He and I 
have set out for the metropolis in the morning, and stopped the 
first night at Pride's, ten miles this side, such was the state of 
the roads. Who knows but such snail-like progress as this 
suggested to him the first idea of the present railroad from 
Beaufort to the mountains, the honor of which, I believe, is now 
conceded to him ? Now, O ! muse, that didst inspire Homer 
to describe Achilles' pursuit of Hector, three times round the 
walls of Troy ; or thou, gentle muse, who didst breathe thy soft 
afflatus upon Ovid when he described the race between Apollo 
and fair Daphne ; or thou, Caledonian muse, who didst preside 
over Walter Scott, when he sung the race of Fitz James after 
Murdock of Alpine, or over Robert Burns, when he made im- 
mortal the flight of Tarn O'Shanter from the witches, — either 
of you or all of the nine at once, assist me to describe the race 
between President Caldwell and Sophomore Faulkner (James 

T. Falconer), on the night of the. . . .day of 18.... The 

President lived at that time where the President's new residence 
is being erected, and was returning about bed-time "from walk- 
ing up and down the earth," 1 to see if any of the students were 
where they ought not to be. As he was mounting the stile which 
stood where Dr. Wheat's (now Dr. Alexander's) southeast 
corner now stands, he spied two young men, busily engaged 
in building a fence from that corner across the street to the 
opposite corner. The lads had just before his appearance heard 
that portentous snapping of the ankles, which was a remarkable 
peculiarity of his locomotion. As soon as they heard this pre- 
monitory crepitation, (a providential warning of danger, like 
the rattle of the rattlesnake), one of the fence-makers, whose 
nom de guerre was Dog, skulked into a corner and was passed 
by. Faulkner sprang forward. But I forgot that Homer al- 
ways spends a line or two in describing his heroes, before he 
brings them into action. So I must suspend the race, till I have 
given my audience some idea of Faulkner's person and char- 
acter. He was a tall, bony, gaunt and grim looking fellow, with 



J Tbe appropriateness of this sentence is evident, as his nickname was 
Diabolus, or Bolus. 



AMUSING INCIDENTS. 227 

shaggy threatening eyebrow — had been at Norfolk during the 
war of 1813-14, as a soldier or officer, and had contracted a 
soldier's love of adventure and frolic, and, like Macbeth, would 
have run from nothing born of mortal, if he had been engaged 
in a good cause. But building a fence across the street at night, 
hio conscience set down as a deed of darkness. His conscience 
made him a coward, but perhaps it enabled him to run the 
faster, and he might have escaped had any but "the swift-footed 
Achilles" given chase. But fate had doomed him to lose this 

race: 

Forth at full speed the fence-man flew — 

Faulkner of Norfolk prove thy speed; 

For ne'er had sophomore such need; 

With heart of fire, and foot of wind, 

The fierce avenger is behind; 

Fate judges of the rapid strife, 

The forfeit death, the prize is life. 

***** 
Jove lifts the golden balances that show 
The fates of mortal men and things below; 
Here each contending hero"s lot he tries, 
And weighs with equal hand their destinies. 
Low sinks the scale surcharged with Faulkner's fate — 
Thus heaven's high powers the strife did arbitrate: 
Just then the Fauldner tripped, and prostrate fell, 
And on the sprawling body pitched — Caldwell! 

"Having thus disposed of one of the fence-makers, the vic- 
torious President went back in quest of the other. After beat- 
ing the bush awhile, he returned to the college, where in the 
meantime, Faulkner, with clipped wings and fallen crest, had 
gathered a part)' in one of the rooms, and was telling the for- 
tunes of the night. Little did he dream that his exulting con- 
queror was standing close by, in the dark, listening to every 
word. "And what became of Dog?" inquired one of the party. 
"Oh ! Dog, he took to the woods, and I dare say he is running 
yet." When the court met, the next day, to try the delinquents, 
it appeared in evidence from the Tutor, that Dog was the sobri- 
quet of Junius Moore. He was accordingly startled by a sum- 
mons served upon him by old Daniel Bradley, the college con- 
stable, to appear before the Faculty as particeps criminis with 
Faulkner. Gentlemen, you have read Cicero's graphic descrip- 



228 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

tion of the confusion of face and dumbfoundedness of Cata- 
line's accomplices when the consul confronted them with all the 
damning evidence of their guilt, you can conceive and none but 
you, the looks and behavior of the two fence-makers, when Dog 
was thus unexpectedly arraigned at the bar." 

"As for Dog, he deserved a better name, for he was a native 
born poet, and he and Philip Alston (a graduate of 1829), are 
among the few of our alumni on whose birth Melpomene did 
smile. Had Moore lived he might have written something to 
justify these praises. Alston lived long enough to leave some 
memorial of his genius, but, alas ! not long enough for our fame 
or for his own. 

"For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime — 
Young Lycidas— and hath not left his peer!" 

I cannot trace the Faulcon of the story — James F. Faulcon, 
of Granville. Junius Alexander Moore was a son of James, and 
grandson of General James Moore, of Revolutionary fame, 
whose father, Colonel Maurice Moore, was second son of 
Governor James Moore, of South Carolina. His mother was 
Rebecca Davis, aunt of the late eminent George Davis, of 
Wilmington, and Bishop Thomas F. Davis, of South Carolina. 
Junius was a lawyer, removed to Alabama and died in early 
manhood, leaving daughters but no son. The following elegy 
by him on a famous Chapel Hill horse has come down to us. It 
certainly has merit. 

1816. On tiie Death of "Spread Eagle." 
Soft be the turf where rests thy honored head, 
And sweet thy slumbers, much lamented "Spread." 
May Spring's first dews thy sacred hillock lave, 
And flowers perennial deck thy lonely grave. 
Oft shall the pensive student, musing near 
Thy home of rest, bestow the pitying tear — 
Think on thy former worth — thy pristine grace ; 
Thy fair proportions and delightful pace, 
Say to himself, while memory arrays 
Full to his view thy feats of other days — 
"Rest, honored Gray! above the ills of life- 
Fatigue, starvation and incessant strife. 
No more with blows thy honor shall be stain'd; 
No more with oaths thy honest nature pain'd; 



ELEGY BY MOORE. 229 

No more unshod shall flinty rocks assail 
Thy tender feet — or flies, thy graceful tail; 
No more unpitied bend beneath thy load, 
Or trace, with wearied steps, the tedious road," 
Thus shall he say — and with assiduous care, 
Off from thy stone the covering bramble clear; 
Carve with his knife the letters of thy praise, 
And sing the Veteran Champion of the Chase. 



CHAPTER III. 

Chapman President — His Administration. 

In 1812 we find in the Raleigh Register an enumeration of 
the improvements and advantages at the University. "In six 
months the Principal (South) Building will be ready for the 
reception of inhabitants. There will then be accommodations 
for eighty students. There will be separate halls for the Dia- 
lectic and Philanthropic Societies, one for the Library, and a 
Public Hall for Prayers. Each of the Society libraries contains 
800 to 1,000 volumes, that of the University 1,500, a total of 
3,100 to 3,500 volumes. A society has been recently formed 
for the study of sacred music. An organ ordered to be built 
in New York is already finished. Public worship is held every 
Sunday in Person Hall, which the students are bound to attend. 
The Faculty consists of a President, three Professors and one 
Tutor. The Academy for boys, under the charge of Rev. Abner 
W. Clopton, is subject to the supervision of the President. In 
it there are four classes. Every possible attention is paid to 
improvement in reading, writing, spelling and the English 
Grammar. Wm. Mimerall is now a resident of Chapel Hill for 
the purpose of teaching the French language, and is well quali- 
fied. The sessions run as follows: The first from 1st of Janu- 
ary to 24th of May. The second from the 20th June to the 15th 
of November. The expenses are for the first session in the 
dining-room and College, Diet, $30; Tuition, $10; Room-rent, 
$1 ; Servant hire, $1.50; Library, 50 cents ; Washing, $8; candles 
and wood, $4; Bed, $3.50; Total, $58.50. For the second ses- 
sion, the same. Plainness of dress and manners will be the rule." 

It is noticeable that "every possible attention" was not prom- 
ised for Arithmetic. Whether Rev. Clopton was weak in that 
branch, or that he left it to be taught in the University classes 
we are not informed. 

Dr. Caldwell, although his masterly temperament indicated 
that his proper place in the University world was that of Chief 
Executive officer, was also a devotee of Mathematics. At this 
period love of his chosen science predominated over his sense 



PRESIDENT CHAPMAN. 23 1 

of duty for being chief ruler in the University world. He 
longed for time in which he could complete his work on Geom- 
etry and perfect himself in the knowledge of Astronomy and 
use of astronomical instruments. He accordingly proposed to 
the trustees to appoint a President in his place, and to give him 
the chair of Mathematics. They graciously adopted the plan 
and elected to the first place Rev. Robert Hett Chapman, D.D., 
a Presbyterian minister. 

Rev. Dr. Chapman was a son of a Presbyterian minister of 
New York, who was a warm Whig in Revolutionary days, Rev. 
Jedediah Chapman. Robert was born in Orange, New Jersey, 
and graduated at Princeton in 1789. He was then Instructor in 
Queen's College, New Brunswick, until licensed to preach in 
1793. For a year or two he was a Missionary in the Southern 
States and was then pastor at Rah way, installed in 1796, and 
afterwards took charge of a church in Cambridge, New York. 
To Dr. Caldwell's letter asking him to allow the use of his name 
for the Presidency of this University, he complied reluctantly 
with the request, saying, "in doing this I conceive that I should 
be called to relinquish the dearest object of my heart, the ad- 
vancement of the cause of our Glorious Redeemer, but I would 
hope that my usefulness in this respect would be enlarged." 
He adds, "I am in the midst of usefulness and reputation in 
this part of the world, but my salary, which the people have 
refused to increase, is utterly inadequate to the expense of a 
growing family." The letter is dated February 12, 181 2. 

The Committee on Nominations in their report to the Board 
December 12, 18 12, feelingly state that they accepted the resig- 
nation of Dr. Caldwell, but "the unpleasant forebodings at the 
resignation of an officer so distinguished for his zeal, usefulness 
and talents is in some sort dissipated by his willingness to ac- 
cept the Professorship of Mathematics." The Board unani- 
mously elected Dr. Chapman President, with a salary of $1,200, 
and Dr. Caldwell, Professor, with $1,000. The Trustees present 
were : Governor Wm. Hawkins, Chairman ex-officio ; Rev. 
Joseph Caldwell, John Haywood, Archibald D. Murphey, Dun- 
can Cameron, Calvin Jones, David Stone, Atlas Jones, Henry 
Potter, Montfort Stokes and Robert Williams, the Treasurer. 



232 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The latter must not be confounded with Robert Williams, M.D., 
of Pitt, also a Trustee. The General Assembly promptly elected 
the new President a member of the Board of Trustees. 

The administration of Dr. Chapman is generally thought to 
have been a failure, but his defects seem to have been somewhat 
exaggerated, and some of the troubles proceeded evidently from 
the hot party spirit engendered by the war. He was a man of 
sincere piety, of strong principles, zealous in the spread of re- 
ligion. He was a preacher, according to the testimony of Chief 
Justice Nash and Dr. James E. Morrison, very earnest, inter- 
esting and effective. Judge Nash said : "He was more highly 
gifted with power on his knees than any man I know. His 
public prayers warmed the hearts of all who heard them." His 
manner in preaching was earnest- and tender and he was suc- 
cessful beyond what is common in securing attention. 

There was to his management of the University, however, a 
fatal obstacle. He was a Peace Federalist and his students 
were in favor of the war. It is difficult for us at this day to 
realize the keen disappointment and even rage felt by our 
people at the disasters on land, such as the surrender of Hull, 
the failure of the Canadian Invasion, and the capture of the 
Capital, and on the other hand the wild exultation over our 
naval victories. The one conspicuous land victory, gained after 
the signing of the treaty of peace, that of New Orleans, carried 
the American commander into the Presidential chair. 

The Republican leaders had the address to turn the dissatis- 
faction arising from the imbecile conduct of the war from them- 
selves to their opponents. They claimed the credit of all the 
victories and placed the discredit of defeats on the odious Fed- 
eralists, who, they, alleged, gave blue-light signals to British 
ships on our coast, intrigued at Hartford to join New England 
with Old England, encouraged Great Britain and discouraged 
Americans by denouncing the war as unjust and inexpedient. 
In the minds of most people Federalist was synonymous with 
Traitor. 

Dr. Chapman was too honest to conceal or to tone down his 
views. The friction which the strict and irritative methods of 
discipline made inevitable at all times, was considered more 



OUTRAGES'. 233 

harsh in the days of unreasoning partisan hatreds. If the good 
Doctor after peace was declared had continued unwaveringly 
in his executive position he might have lived down the memory 
of the outbreaks, which are connected so unpleasantly with his 
name. Dr. Caldwell had experiences quite as disastrous to his 
reputation as an administrator, but he continued so long and 
bravely in his position that his failures were forgotten in the 
light of his subsequent successes. Dr. Chapman preferred to 
go back to his more congenial work as a pastor and left his 
reputation as a University President to the mercy of adverse 
critics. 

I give sketches of two outbreaks, which occurred during his 
administration, which illustrate the peculiar difficulties under 
which he labored, as well as the spirit of the times in Chapel 
Hill. 

About twleve months after his inauguration in January, 1814, 
a series of outrages at night was perpetrated on his property. 
Dr. Caldwell, who could not resist the impulse to take the place 
of leader, determined to ferret out the offenders by process of 
law. Accordingly he applied to a Justice of the Peace, Major 
Pleasant Henderson, for a warrant against the unknown per- 
petrators, intending to call up all the students and examine 
them on oath. He was unaware that such precepts, called "gen- 
eral warrants," had been resisted successfully in England by 
John Wilkes, had been decided to be illegal by Chief Justice 
Camden, that our people were so much interested in the contro- 
versy as to name one county Wilkes and another Camden, and 
had prohibited such warrants in our fundamental law, the Dec- 
laration of Rights. He forgot in his zeal that similar warrants, 
called Writs of Assistance to enforce the Navigation Acts, had 
led to armed resistance in New England and other commercial 
sections. The Justice refused the application, being rightly in- 
structed as to the unlawfulness of general warrants ; but the 
fiery doctor, who could be no more easily diverted from his pur- 
pose than a well-trained blood-hound from the track of a fleeing 
criminal, amended the precept by inserting the names of five 
students. A solemn court was held. The panic in this little 
community cannot be imagined. There were "great searchings 



234 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01? NORTH CAROLINA. 

of spirit." The charges were, 1st, breaking into and entering 
the stable of President Chapman, and cutting the hair from the 
tail of a horse of the said Chapman; 2d., "for taking away and 
secreting a cart, the property of said Chapman ;" 3d., "entering 
said Chapman's premises and turning over or throwing down 
a house; 4th., taking from its hinges and carrying away one 
of said Chapman's gates." 

It is interesting to note the behavior of the students under 
this trying ordeal. It is rather surprising that there was no 
combination for the purpose of refusing to answer. Possibly 
the Federalists among the students sympathized with the Presi- 
dent. Some declared emphatically that they knew nothing 
about the matter. Among these were Aaron V. Brown, Bryan 
Grimes, father of the gallant General of the same name, and 
John Y. Mason. Others said that they knew nothing them- 
selves, but gave the names of suspected persons, some of whom 
were undoubtedly not guilty. A few gave direct evidence tend- 
ing to criminate Chambers. Thornton, Peebles, Knox and Hay- 
wood, the men charged by Dr. Caldwell, and as these refused 
to exculpate themselves, they were probably dismissed from 
the University, though the record has been lost. I knew Fran- 
cis A. Thornton nearly half a century afterwards, when he was 
a member of the Secession Convention of 1861, a neighbor of 
Nat. Macon, a mild-mannered, gentlemanly, venerable man, 
with no suspicion of tar on his hands, tho' he was a fire-eating 
Secessionist. Thomas J. Haywood lived to be a Supreme Court 
Judge of Tennessee. All were probably good men moved by 
party feelings. The justice's examination violated all the rules 
of evidence. Leading questions were asked, the witnesses were 
required to give their suspicions, and hearsay evidence was even 
admitted as to what suspicions were entertained by others, and 
as to what students knew of any of the perpetrators. Among 
the innocent men whose names were mentioned as suspected 
was the eminent divine, Dr. Francis L. Hawks. A few, among 
them Bedford Brown and Edmund Wilkins, lawyer of Virginia, 
refused to answer these illegal questions, but strong men, such 
as David F. Caldwell, George C. Dromgoole, Charles L. Hin- 
ton, Charles Manly, Willie P. Mangum, appear to have made a 



OUTRAGES. 235 

clean breast of the facts they knew as well as the imaginations 
of their hearts. This is strong evidence that there were not a 
few who sympathized with the insulted President in his views. 
There was a strong anti-war party in the State, probably in the 
University, but they were of the modest and silent order. 

Dr. Chapman was likewise insulted by receiving an anony- 
mous letter which is quite unique, showing another outrage on 
his property, not included in the warrant. It was superscribed 
"Chapel Hill," and is as follows : 

"Dear Sir : — Having been informed that you are anxious to know why 
your gate-post was decorated with tar and feathers, this is to inform you 
that it was intended by the patriotic students to deride Toryism, and as 
a monument to the memory of the inspired politician and designing 
traitor. 

In a balmage, Sir, of delicious tar you will be as secure as Pharoah 
and, in a hieroglyphic of feathers, rival in finery all the mummies of 
Egypt. " 

I am yours, etc., Friend to Religion, 

but an Enemy to Hypocrisy. ' 

This precious morceau of literature proves that the persecu- 
tion was distinctly in resentment for the supposed leaning to 
Federalism of the clerical President. The insult is the more 
pointed because in the direction he is dignified only as "Mr. 
Robt. Chapman," ignoring his official and ministerial character. 

In November following the Faculty report that, though dur- 
ing this year they have passed through troublesome times, they 
have been enabled to stand at their post and maintain the au- 
thority of the institution. Some of the persons suspended last 
session have returned, and, with scarcely an exception, have 
been orderly. This session has been characterized by order and 
attention to business, with the exception of some irregularities 
originating in Steward's Hall, and for which one student was 
suspended. It is essential to the growing prosperity of the Uni- 
versity that further suitable provision be made on this subject 
(i. e., management of Stewards Hall). With the expectation 
that the Board will make such provision the Faculty consider 
the Seminary as in a truly flourishing condition. 

The other outbreak was on September 18, 1816. It injured 
the reputation of the President still more because the sympathy 



236 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

of the public was strongly with the students rather than the 
Faculty. The following account is substantially correct: 

Wm. Biddle Shepard, a very able member of the Senior 
class, belonging to an influential family of New Bern, connected 
with the Donnells, the Blounts, the Bryans, the Pettigrews and 
others, had some sentences in his oration submitted for correc- 
tion, of a strong political character favorable to the Republican 
party. These sentences, the President, exercising a discretion 
vested in him, cut out and ordered Shepard not to deliver them. 
This order, when the speech was delivered in public, was dis- 
obeyed, whereupon the President promptly commanded him 
to take his seat. The orator insisted on proceeding with his 
address. Numbers of the students shouted, "Go on ! go on !" 
The prompter, Wm. Plummer, continued to perform the duty 
which he had undertaken. Shepard finished his speech in defi- 
ance of the President, being vociferously encouraged and ap- 
plauded. The next day the students had a meeting in the 
Chapel and passed resolutions upholding the rightfulness of 
his and their conduct. 

The Faculty acted promptly and sternly. Forty-six of the 
participants were summoned before them. Shepard was sus- 
pended for six months, and also George C. Dromgoole, for 
being the leader in upholding him. It was a material part of 
the charge against them, that they declared they were justifiable. 
The Trustees added the severer sentence of expulsion, declar- 
ing that the interest of the University required that the diso- 
bedience of which they were guilty should be punished in the 
most exemplary way. Thomas N. Mann was suspended for 
six months for participating in the riot, and "refusing to admit 
his guilt." Plummer for prompting, applauding and afterwards 
justifying his conduct, was suspended for four months. 

The punishment of those, who in a public meeting disap- 
proved the action of the Faculty and upheld the conduct of 
Shepard and his aiders and abettor, was conditional. All who 
would in writing acknowledge, 1st, that those who applauded 
Shepard were guilty of gross disorder and disrespect of au- 
thority; 2d., that on the next morning they transgressed their 
duty as students and as good members of society, by proceed- 



the; shepard riot. 237 

ing with tumultuous noise and riotous behavior to the Public 
Hall, and uniting in an unlawful and disorderly assembly for 
the purpose of opposing the Faculty and violating the laws ; 
3d., that they hoped for forgiveness and solemnly promised 
faithfully to submit to the laws of the University and deport 
themselves as orderly members of society. A few refused to 
sign the paper and were suspended. Among the signers were 
such orderly students as Wm. M. Green, Wm. D. Moseley, 
Hugh Waddell, and -Hamilton C. Jones. 

Notices of the suspensions were sent to all other colleges. 

In talking with the students of that day after they had be- 
come elderly men I derived the impression clearly that the 
President was generally blamed for his conduct in this matter. 
It was thought that, even if he concluded that Shepard's act 
was worthy of severe punishment, he should have allowed him 
to finish and prosecuted him afterwards. I happen to know 
that Plummer's father, Kemp Plummer, next year a Trustee, 
sustained his son. The criticism appears to be just, but cer- 
tainly the President is not censurable for enforcing a law of 
the Trustees forbidding political speeches. 

All the actors in this riot achieved success in life. The prin- 
cipal, Shepard, was afterwards a leading lawyer, and member 
of the State and national Legislatures. Plummer stood high 
as a lawyer and business man, as Chairman of the County Court 
of Warren, conducting its business with ability. Mann, after a 
brilliant beginning as a lawyer, member of the General As- 
sembly and Charge d' Affaires to Guatemala, which position he 
obtained in the hope of curing the pulmonary consumption, 
under which he was suffering, passed away in early manhood. 
The fact has come down to us that Plummer, while unable to 
see the impropriety of his conduct, was desirous of returning 
and obtaining his diploma. His father, thinking he had been 
treated unjustly, refused to allow it. Mosely, Dromgoole, Wad- 
dell, Jones, Leak and Green are mentioned hereafter. 

In October, 181 6, in revenge doubtless for the action of the 
Faculty, a forerunner of the modern dynamiters perpetrated 
a dastardly outrage on one of the Tutors, John Patterson. Wm. 
M. Green, in a letter to one of the suspended, Martin Arm- 



238 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

strong, told the story. "While sitting alone a few nights since 
I was startled hy a tremendous report, when on inquiry I found 
that a brass knob from one of the doors had been filled with 
powder and placed before Patterson's door with a lighted match 
at the end of it. While in this state Glascock discovered as he 
thought a piece of fire dropped by accident and picked up this 
affair, but immediately dropped it. He had proceeded only a 
few steps when it exploded, but without injuring him." It is 
easy to see that his life, or his eyesight was-m imminent danger. 

So far as the discipline extended the Faculty were victorious. 
Peter O. Picot, of Plymouth, writes to his cousin, Alfred M. 
Slade, who had been sent home for some fault, in doleful jere- 
miads : "All quiet here ; the students seem to have lost their 
energy and yield implicitly to the yoke. The storm has blown 
over, but it has made impressions not easily to be eradicated, 
for this place looks like some half-deserted village, where you 
may see its inhabitants collected in small groups, talking over 
the news of the day, some commiserating your unjust fate, and 
others pouring out invectives against the Faculty for their pal- 
pably erroneous decision and rash suspensions." * * * The 
suspension of Shepard, Plummer and Mann * * * was as un- 
just and unfounded as disgraceful to its authors, who seem 
to be callous to equity and justice." In a letter written three 
weeks afterwards he says : "Never was a place so much altered 
as this. The Chapel looks destitute. No crowds to hear the 
news are seen running before a member of the Faculty. All 
is still ! All is quiet ! With implicit obedience they bend to the 
yoke, and undergo with patience the bondage of supercilious 
domination." * * * "The poor Philanthropic members are to 
be pitied for they have but thirteen members." 

Wm. Mercer Green, from boyhood a model of correct be- 
havior, wrote to his friend, Martin A. B. Armstrong, one of the 
victims : "All again is quiet ; the countenances of our most 
noble and impartial Faculty are unclouded, and those of the 
boys marked with contempt. The thought of the near approach 
of the examination has dispelled all others, and the absence of 
the suspended, we are only able to call to mind when we look 
into the vacant rooms." Then follows an evidence of the tact 



CHAPMAN RESIGNS. 239 

for which Bishop Green was distinguished through life. "I 
speak of others, my friend ; rest assured you are not forgotten." 

While the first impulse of the students was to take sides 
against the Faculty there was a partial reaction. Hamilton C. 
Jones wrote in the February following the disturbance that 
"Shepard and Dromgoole are very much censured by all the 
sober part of the community. Shepard's speech has lost its 
popularity, and notwithstanding the great puffing of the New 
Bern editor has been stigmatized by every judge of literary 
merit as a flowery piece of nonsense." It should be noted, how- 
ever, that Jones and Shepard belonged to different societies and 
feeling between the two was then bitter. In the letter in which 
the above criticism occurs is found the following: "The Dia- 
lectic Society is still in a very flourishing condition. The other 
(Philanthropic), though increasing in numbers, degenerates in 
point of talent." The writer too. though the Federalist party 
was practically extinct, sympathized with its principles, and 
afterwards followed Clay into the wigwam of the Whigs, while 
Shepard continued to be a warm Republican and became a Dem- 
ocratic leader. 

It is altogether probable that this unfortunate trouble led to 
Dr. Chapman's leaving the institution, for at the meeting of the 
Board of Trustees next after its occurrence, November 23, 1816, 
he "in solemn form resigned his office as President of the Uni- 
versity." The words "in solemn form" have an ominous sound. 
His resignation was certainly associated in the public mind 
with the disturbance, which political partisans and advocates of 
free speech declared to be evidence of his incapacity. The let- 
ter of resignation dated three days before asserts that his duties 
had been performed "faithfully and successfully," and that he 
was desirous to be more fully devoted to the gospel ministry. 
He gave notice that his place would be vacant at the close of 
the year 181 7, but the Board accepted the resignation to take 
effect immediately, agreeing, however, unanimously to pay him 
one-half year's salary ($800), and to allow him to retain the 
President's house until the end of the next session. There is a 
notable absence of praises of his past services and regrets at his 
departure. Judge Cameron wrote to Judge Murphey on No- 



24O HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

vember 27, 1816, that he was glad Dr. Chapman had resigned — 
that he wished he had done so twelve months ago. "It would 
have been much better for himself and the University." He 
presumed that Mr. Caldwell and the Committee of Appoint- 
ments would open an official correspondence with Dr. Neil on 
the subject of the Presidency, but he sincerely wished that Mr. 
Caldwell will resume the office himself. Dr. Neil was not again 
mentioned; probably Dr. Wm. Neill, a Presbyterian clergyman 
of Philadelphia, President of Dickinson College in i824-'2C), 
an author. 

The number of students, however, did not indicate any fail- 
ure in Dr. Chapman's administration. For his term of four 
years the aggregate was 352, averaging 88 yearly, while for the 
four preceding years under Caldwell the numbers were 209, 
averaging 52 per annum. There were 63 graduates of Chap- 
man's term, averaging about sixteen, while for the four pre- 
ceding years there were 24, averaging six per annum. Of 
course most of the improvement was due to the spread of the 
desire and the means for attaining higher education. The 
war evidently stirred up the people. Taking the four years 
after Chapman left and Caldwell resumed the reins we have 
465 students, averaging 116, and 50 graduates, averaging 12 1-2 
per annum. The next four years showed still better with 640 
matriculates, averaging 160, and 119 graduates, averaging 30. 
The reason for this rapid increase of prosperity will appear 
hereafter. 

Doubtless, however, Dr. Chapman must have had unpleasant 
recollections of Chapel Hill. He had a grievous private afflic- 
tion in the death of a daughter. In the village graveyard is a 
marble slab, which records that Margaretta Blanch, daughter of 
Rev. Robert H. and Hannah Chapman, died November 25, 
1814, in the sixteenth year of her age. 

We have the testimony of Rev. Dr. James E. Morrison, a 
Tutor under Chapman, that he "introduced a most salutary 
moral change." He required the study of the Bible, as a text- 
book, and was the chief factor in organizing the Presbyterian 
church at Chapel Hill. 

The teaching of the Bible probably had a flavor of Calvinism. 
In 1814 we find one class of the University Grammar School 



HISTORY OF CHAPMAN. 24I 

charged with 20 questions on the Catechism and 21 chapters in 
a book entitled, "Beauties of the Bible." Another class had 39, 
a third 38, and the fourth jy questions in the Catechism. The 
Senior class of the same school for entrance into the University 
were examined on four books of the Aeneid, ten chapters of St. 
John's Gospel in Greek, and 37 questions in the larger Cate- 
chism, well known as that used in the Presbyterian church, is- 
sued by the Westminister Assembly. 

Dr. Chapman's degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
by Williams' College, Mass., in 1815. After leaving the Uni- 
versity he became pastor of Bethel church in the Shenandoah 
Valley. In 1823 he had a church near Winchester, Virginia, 
and then labored for a year or two as a Missionary in the hill 
country of North Carolina. His next and last charge was at 
Covington, Kentucky, in 1830. He was chosen to be a member 
of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church in 1833, 
and died at Winchester on his return, June 18, 1833, and is 
there buried. In 1797 he married Hannah Arnette, of Elizabeth- 
town, New Jersey, who died at St. Louis, July 7, 1845. They 
left seven children, one of whom was Rev. Robert Hett Chap- 
man, D.D., who is buried in the cemetery of the Presbyterian 
church at Asheville, N. C. 

Of the teachers of the University during his term I have al- 
ready mentioned Professor Rhea. A sketch of Tutor Hooper 
will be hereafter given. I find no further mention of John 
Harper Hinton than that he was Principal of Caswell Academy 
at Yanceyville in 1818, and probably afterwards. He was a 
native of Wake County. 

James Morrison, who was Tutor from 1814 to 1817, studied 
divinity under Dr. Chapman and was ordained by the Orange 
Presbytery in 181 7. He was for a while a teacher in the Ra- 
leigh Academy. He was pastor of New Providence church, 
Rockbridge County, Virginia, from 1819 to 1857. He was 
born in 1795 and died in 1870. Dr. Charles W. Dabney, once 
Director of the Experiment Station of North Carolina and State 
Chemist, then President of the University of Knoxville, and 
now of the University of Cincinnati, is a grandson of Dr. James 
Morrison. 

Abner Wentworth Clopton, the Principal of the Grammar 
16 



242 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

School, has been heretofore described. He died March 21, 
1831, praised in a newspaper of the day as an "eminent and 
devoted member of the Baptist church, and one of the earliest 
and most efficient promoters of the temperance cause, and was 
equally attentive to the duties of the society of which he was a 
member." 

The University bells of the early period were very inferior. 
A second was bought in 181 3. We are told that this was 
bought in Fayetteville ; it, however, was so inferior that seven 
years afterwards another was procured. This latter on the 
procurement of the new was hung in the back yard of Dr. 
Mitchell's lot to be used when the clapper of the other was 
stolen or in hiding. About the same time the Trustees gave 
$50 for the transportation of the organ procured for the Uni- 
versity by private contributions. This effort to make worship 
in the Chapel more attractive was supplemented by authorizing 
Tutor Hooper to procure shutters and a chandelier for the 
same. 

On the resignation of Professor Rhea in 1814 the experiment 
was tried of a "Senior Tutor," with a salary of $500, authorized 
to live out of the college buildings and to pay his own board, 
instead of eating without charge with the students at Commons. 
At the same time the Committee of Appointments were author- 
ized to abolish Commons and rent out the building if they 
thought best. The dissatisfaction implied in this resolution re- 
sulted doubtless from the rise of prices in consequence of the 
war. The Committee concluded to add improvements to the 
building, paying Bennett Parton $456, and to allow an increase 
of 10 per cent (to $33) in price of board. The Senior Tutor 
was William Hooper, whose health, always delicate, probably 
required the superior diet of his mother's table. There were 
other Tutors, James E. Morrison and Abner Stith, and for part 
of the time John Harper Hinton. In 181 5 the Committee on 
Salaries reported the salaries to be : 

President $1,200 

Professor of Mathematics 1,000 

Senior Tutor 500 

Two Tutors, $300 each 600 

Board of two Tutors . 150 

Treasurer 200 

$3,650 



SALARIES. 243 

To meet the expenses the University owned 314 shares 

of bank stock, paying 8 per cent $2,512 

Eighty students paying tuition 1,600 



$4,112 

The Committee were impressed with the policy, as well as 
the justice of increasing .the salaries of the highest officers by 
contingent perquisites, depending on their industry, activity and 
zeal. On their recommendation, therefore, the Board appro- 
priated the dividends from the bank stock and one-half of tui- 
tion receipts to be paid to all the officers and the other half to 
increasing the salaries of the President and Professors only, 
"in acknowledgement of their ability, industry and unwearied 
diligence, by which it is hoped and expected they will acquit 
themselves." This explains why the half of Dr. Chapman's 
salary was stated on the acceptance of his resignation as $800. 
The President was authorized also to cut firewood near the field 
set apart for his use, out of sight of the village. This field was 
west of the Pittsboro road. In the course of time it was found 
unprofitable for agricultural purposes, and the Public School 
Committee was authorized to build a cabin on it for a school 
house. 

In the following year a singular and ambitious plan was de- 
vised, under the appearance of improving the institution, of 
indirectly increasing the salaries to meet the high prices of the 
war. The Faculty were authorized to clear out the land to the 
east of the campus on the roads leading to Raleigh, "so as to 
command a full view of the distant horizon over Point Prospect 
(now Piney) to the east." As there were two roads, one on the 
summit of the ridge and the other about a hundred yards to the 
north, this permission included at least twenty acres of good oak 
and hickory. 

The reply made by the Board to Treasurer Williams' request 
for a clerk to ascertain balances due prior to his term, shows 
that they were not indiscriminately generous. They voted that 
the Treasurer "from long experience and knowledge of the 
fiscal affairs of the University must be much better qualified to 
unravel anything mysterious than a clerk." They thought it his 
duty to make the investigation and recommended that he "de- 



244 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

vote such portion of his time as will enable him to effect an 
eclaircisement of the accounts." 

The Board showed their caution in another ruling. They de- 
clined to warrant the title to escheated land sold by them be- 
cause if the title is good it will not enhance the price as the 
purchaser is sure to investigate for himself. If the title is 
doubtful they ought not to warrant. 

One of the old-time "blue laws" was abolished at this meet- 
ing. The by-law forbidding students to wear hats in the build- 
ings was repealed, but with the provision that "they shall not 
wear hats while addressing a member of the Faculty." An 
oidinance was likewise adopted that applicants for admission 
delaying to report more than twenty-four hours after reaching 
Chapel Hill shall be in danger of being refused. 

During this regime the excuses for absences from Morning 
Prayers were noted in a book. I copy some of them to show 
that our grandfathers acted as we do. The answers were 
"Sick," "Unwell," "Was not waked," "Tardy," "Indisposed," 
"Did not hear the bell," "Weather bad," "Asleep." There is 
no record of any punishments for non-attendance. 

In 1815 a tardy sale was made of part of the Gerrard lands. 
The statement shows the trouble experienced in the location 
and the sale of land warrants in Tennessee, caused partly by 
carelessness and partly by fraud. Judge Potter and Treasurer 
Haywood, a 'majority of the committee, reported that Gerrard's 
will mentioned 13,000 acres. A memorandum found among his 
papers shows only 11,364 acres, so it is evident that he sold 
some after making the will. He gave 640 acres for locating his 
lands, leaving only 10,724. He requested that his "service 
right," 2,560 acres, should not be sold, so deducting these they 
had 8,164. Of these McKenzie's 640 tract was "land lost," i. 
e., could not be found and this must be subtracted, leaving 7,524. 
The following were also "land lost :" 

On Mound Lick Creek 1,000 acres. 

On Lumsd en's fork 228 acres. 

Blooming Grove tract 640 acres. 

Part of three, but of these a small part was saved 
and sold for $200 1,304 acres. 

3,172 



CALDWELL AGAIN PRESIDENT. 245 

Taking off these there were left 4,352 acres. Appraisers ap- 
pointed by the agent of the Board valued these at $6,363.50. 
Col. Wra. Polk bought at $6,400, payable one-half cash and the 
rest when needed to pay for bank stock, which the Board had 
resolved to buy. As a still further irritation it was discovered 
after the sale that 428 acres had been leased for several years, 
so the price of this tract was held up until this matter could be 
adjusted. 

The General Assembly had made provision for issuing other 
warrants in the place of "lost lands," but it took time, trouble 
and expense to recover them, and in the meantime prices fell and 
sales were still further delayed. 

It is certain that Dr. Caldwell was sincerely desirous of con- 
tinuing in his Professorship of Mathematics. He endeavored 
vigorously to find a successor to Chapman, of sufficient learning 
and administrative gifts, but in vain. In addition to Dr. Neill, 
already mentioned, the office was tendered to Rev. Lewis von 
Schweinitz, D.D., LL.D., of the Moravian church, who in addi- 
tion to his theological attainments was eminent as a Botanist. 
Both nominees decline^ and the strong pressure on Caldwell 
prevailed. 

Caldwell Again President — Graduates— 1813-1819. 

Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell was a second time elected President 
of the University on December 14, 181 6. According to the 
stateliness of the old school a regular commission was issued 
to him : 

The President and Trustees of the 

University of North Carolina — 

To the President. Doctor Joseph Caldwell : 
Reposing confidence in your integrity, learning and ability, we do 
hereby nominate and appoint you President of the University of North 
Carolina, with all the powers, immunities, compensations and endow- 
ments thereto belonging, to commence the first day of January, 1817. 

(Signed) John Haywood. 

H. Potter. 
Will Polk. 

The answer of the old school President was likewise in writ- 
ing. He said, "with diffidence I will accept it. and if I shall 
ever be found to have gone wrong in discharge of the duties, 



246 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

I hope that the members of the Committee and of the Board 
in general will be ready to make allowances for defects, which 
may easily in me proceed from frailty and error without the 
intention of evil." 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him 
by the University in the same year. 

The Trustees, who accepted Dr. Chapman's resignation, were 
Wm. Miller, Governor and Chairman ; Judge Henry Potter, 
John Winslow, James Iredell, Calvin Jones, Atlas Jones, Rob- 
ert Williams (of Raleigh) ; Henry Seawell, Robert H. Jones, 
Wm. Polk, Lewis Williams, Simmons J. Baker and A. D. Mur- 
phey. Dr. Chapman is also mentioned as present. Most of 
these were present at the election of Dr. Caldwell on December 
17, 1816. 

The Faculty records are singularly deficient during Chap- 
man's administration and for 181 7. The following, although 
incomplete, is accurate, I think : 

The Graduates of 181 3 were in number 14. The report of 
the class standing of the members has been lost. The following 
attained distinction. William E. Bailey was a Professor of An- 
cient Languages in the College of Charleston ; William S. 
Blackledge was a Representative in Congress ; John H. Hinton 
and Abner Stith, Tutors in the University of North Carolina 
and afterwards Classical teachers. William J. .Polk was a 
prominent physician. 

Of the matriculates with the class not graduating, Elijah 
Graves was a Presbyterian preacher and a teacher of repute; 
Alexander Long, a very popular physician, and Romulus M. 
Saunders, a Judge, Congressman and Minister to Spain ; Rob- 
ert Williams, State Adjutant-General and Secretary and Treas- 
urer of the University. 

To Rev. Jeremiah Atwater was given the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity (D. D.) 

The Senior class of 1814, in numbers 16, was of a high grade. 
Aaron V. Brown was a member of the Tennessee Legislature, 
Governor, Representative in Congress and Postmaster-General; 
Charles L. Hinton, a planter. Trustee, Secretary and Treasurer 
of the University, and State Treasurer ; Charles Manly, a Trus- 



CLASSES OF l8l4 AND 1815. 247 

tee of the University 42 years, and Secretary and Treasurer 46 
years, Governor of the State ; Samuel Pickens, Comptroller of 
Alabama ; James Morrison, a Tutor in this institution and a 
Presbyterian preacher. 

Of the Graduates of 181 5, in numbers 18, some became 
famous. 

John H. Bryan was elected to Congress and the State Senate 
at the same time, and chose the first. He was a Trustee of the 
University 45 years. Robert R. King" was a Tutor and then a 
preacher. Francis L. Hawks, D.D.. LL.D.. an eminent preacher 
and author, in early life Reporter of the Supreme Court of N. 
C. ; Edward Hall, Judge of the Superior Court ; Willie P. Man- 
gum was a Judge, Senator of the United States and President 
of the Senate ; Mitchell was Clerk of the General Assembly and 
President of the Bank of Tennessee ; Richard Dobbs Spaight 
was the last Governor elected by the General Assembly. 

The honors are not mentioned in the reports, but tradition 
gives the highest to Croom, Bryan, Hawks and Spaight. . 

We have the exercises of the class of 181 5. The Latin Salu- 
tatory was spoken by Isaac Croom, the Mathematical Oration 
by Richard Dobbs Spaight. There was a "Forensic Dispute," 
anticipatory of the Know Nothing Party, "Whether Civil Offi- 
ces should be open to Foreigners?" Matthew McClung opened 
as "Respondent," Henrv L. Plummer, called the Opponent, re- 
plied, and Hugh M. Stokes closed as Replicator. Another For- 
ensic Dispute was "Whether Theatrical Amusements are Benefi- 
cial?" between Robert Hinton, Respondent, Semuel D. Hatch, 
Opponent, and Robert King, Replicator. A third dispute was 
between Priestly Mangum, Stephen Sneed and Edward Hill, 
the subject being "Should a Penitentiary be immediately 
erected ?" This was followed by an oration on Natural Phil- 
osophy, by Stokely D. Mitchell, of Tennessee. In the afternoon 
there was the English Salutatory by John H. Bryan, followed 
by a three-handed dispute as to whether students should be 
subject to Military Duty, a theme which became very acute 
during our Civil War. The Respondent was Matthew Moore, 
the Opponent James Hooper, the Replicator George F. Graham. 
Francis L. Hawks closed with the Valedictory. His oratorical 
gifts were even then widely known and warmlv admired. 



248 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The other speakers at this Commencement were : 

"Should the United States assist the South American Re- 
publics against Spain and the Holy Alliance ?", by Broomfield L. 
Ridley. 

"The Character of the North American Indians," by James 
H. Norwood. 

"Will Greece emancipated attain the Eminence of Ancient 
Greece?", Daniel B. Baker. 

"Perpetuity of the United States," Harry E. Coleman. 

"The Effects of the French Revolution on Liberty," Benja- 
min B. Blume. 

"The Effects of the Invention of Printing," Augustus Moore. 

"Should a Professorship of Law be established at the Uni- 
versity ?", James W. Bryan. 

"The Mahometan Religion," Thomas Bond. 

"American Literature," John W. Norwood. 

"Should the American Colonization Society receive the pa- 
tronage of the Public," Robert H. Booth. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on Rev. Levi 
Holbrook. 

Mr. Francis L. Hawks, who had received the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts from Yale College, was awarded the ad eundem 
degree from this University. 

Of the 16 Graduates of the class of 1816, those most notable 
were : William Julius Alexander, a Trustee, member of the Leg- 
islature, Speaker of the House and Solicitor of his district; 
Thomas J. Haywood, Judge in Tennessee ; John DeRosset, phy- 
sician of great promise, dying young ; Charles Applewhite Hill, 
who left the University in 1804, Principal of Classical schools, 
preacher and State Senator; John Patterson, Tutor U. N. C. 
and preacher; James W. McClung, Speaker of the House of 
Tennessee ; John Y. Mason, LL.D., Attorney-General of the 
United States, a Judge in Virginia, Secretary of the Navy and 
Minister to France. 

It was at this Commencement that the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred on Rev. Joseph Caldwell, the newly 
elected President. 

There were eleven of the Graduates of 181 7. The most emi- 
nent was John M. Morehead, a strong lawyer, Governor of the 



CLASSES OF 1817 AND l8l8. 249 

State, President and chief promoter of the North Carolina and 
other railroads, a chief factor in the industrial development of 
the State, an active Trustee of the University for 38 years, mem- 
ber of the Confederate Congress. Holt was a physician, but 
especially distinguished as the pioneer in the introduction of 
blooded stock. He was the first President of the State Agricul- 
tural Society. 

Of the non-graduates, Bedford Brown was a member of the 
Conventions of 1835 and 1861, President of the State Senate, 
United States Senator ; David F. Caldwell, Speaker of the State 
Senate, Judge and President of a bank; William B. Shepard, 
member of the State Senate and of Congress ; John G. A. Wil- 
liamson, member of the Legislature, Consul to Venezuela, 
Charge' d' affairs at Caraccas. 

For the term ending in June, the second half of the session, 
the strange spectacle was presented of a University without a 
Professor, Dr. Caldwell and his Tutors caring for the institu- 
tion. They were William Hooper, Principal Tutor, William 
D. Moseley and Robert Rufus King, followed in the autumn 
by John Motley Morehead and Priestly H. Mangum. Moseley 
some years afterwards obtained double compensation on the 
ground that King was forced to resign on account of his un- 
popularity with the students in the fall of 18 17, and double 
duties were devolved on him. He and President Caldwell were 
the entire Faculty until Professor Mitchell began work in Feb- 
ruary, 1818. 

The Trustees concluded that the Principal Tutor, Wm. 
Hooper, whose learning and teaching power were admitted, 
should be elevated to the Chair of Ancient Languages. This 
was done and the office of Principal Tutor was abolished never 
to be restored. The salary of the Professor of Ancient Lan- 
guages was fixed at $800 per annum. At the same time tuition 
was raised to $30 per annum. 

The Tutors of this period were men of power. Morehead and 
Moseley are described elsewhere. Priestly Mangum, brother 
of the more eminent Willie P. Mangum, was a useful citizen 
and a safe lawyer, for years Solicitor of the county of Orange, 
and also a Commoner in the Legislature. Robert Rufus King 



25O HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

was a Presbyterian minister of promise, called by death from 
his work in 1822. But it was impossible for young men, how- 
ever able, to have proper restraining influence among 108 
youths, unaccustomed to discipline. We have glimpses of wild 
deeds in this year. So incensed were the Trustees that they 
instructed the President to invoke the aid of the criminal law 
to punish the perpetrators of outrages on the buildings and 
grove in the fall of 181 7. 

MlTCHEIX, OlvMSTEAD AND KOLLOCK, PROFESSORS. 

The Committee of Appointments reported to the Board in 
November that they had selected for the Chair of Chemistry 
Denison Olmstead, a graduate of Yale, and had allowed him a 
year's study there before coming to the University. For the 
Chair of Mathematics, made vacant by the elevation of Dr. 
Caldwell, they had searched in vain in many directions for a 
suitable man, but, not discouraged, they had at length found Mr. 
Elisha Mitchell, of Connecticut, who had accepted their offer. 

The choice was exceedingly fortunate as the newcomer was 
not only accomplished and able, but was resolved, like his 
President, to live and die among us. He was born August 19, 
1793, and was, therefore, 24 years old. His native place was 
Washington, Litchfield County, Connecticut. His father was 
a farmer, Abner by name; his mother Phoebe Eliot, a lineal 
descendant of John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians, whose 
Bible translated into their language is one of the famous books 
of the world. From her grandfather, Rev. Jared Eliot, M.D. 
and D.D., one of the most noted American savants of his day, 
he inherited his fondness for Natural Philosophy, Botany and 
Mineralogy. He was prepared for Yale College by Rev. Azel 
Bachus, a noted teacher, afterwards President of Hamilton 
College. 

At Yale he graduated in 181 3, one of the best scholars in his 
class. Among his class-mates were Denison Olmsted, destined 
to be his colleague ; James Longstreet, author of Georgia 
Scenes and President of the University of Mississippi ; Rev. 
George Singletary, an influential Episcopal clergyman ; Thomas 
P. Devereux, an able lawyer and Reporter of our Supreme 



E. MITCHELL, PROFESSOR. 25 1 

Court; and George E. Badger, an eminent Senator and Secre- 
tary of the Navy, who did not graduate. 

After leaving Yale young Mitchell taught in the academy of 
Dr. Eigenbrodt at Jamaica, on Long Island. In 181 5 we find 
him in charge of a school for girls in Xew London. The next 
year he was appointed a Tutor in his college, where he dis- 
charged his duties so faithfully and well that the Chaplain of 
the Senate of the United States, a son of President Dwight, of 
Yale, recommended him to Wra. Gaston, then a Representative 
in Congress from North Carolina and a Trustee of its Univer- 
sity, as learned in Mathematics, as a cultured man of letters 
generally and as skillful in teaching. 

On notification of his appointment Mr. Mitchell spent a few 
weeks at the Theological Seminary in Andover, Massachu- 
setts, receiving a license to preach as a Congregational min- 
ister. He reached Chapel Hill on the 31st of January, 1818, 
and at once entered on his nearly forty years' service, with the 
intelligence, zeal and success for which he was distinguished. 
He was ordained a minister in the Presbyterian church in 1821. 

In the fall of 18 19 young Mitchell went hack to Connecticut 
in order to take to himself a wife. His bride was handsome, 
intellectual and well educated, Maria S. Xorth, daughter of a 
physician of Xew London. Mrs. Spencer in the Lniversity 
Magazine of October, 1884, gives extracts from letters from 
her after her arrival at Chapel Hill. The first is dated January 
1, 1820. I abridge the narrative. It shows vividly the discom- 
forts of old-time traveling. They started from Xew York Mon- 
day before Christmas, 1819, and journeyed by boat to Elizabeth- 
town, thence by stage to Trenton ; thence by stage to Philadel- 
phia, stopping a day to visit Peale's Museum. West's picture 
and the Academy of Fine Arts. Thence they took boat down 
the Delaware to Xew Castle ; thence traveled by stage to 
Frenchtown, where they again took a steamer, and after a moon- 
light trip reached Baltimore by sunrise on Thursday. There 
they had time to visit the Roman Catholic Cathedral and other 
places. After breakfast they boarded the steamer. United 
States, for Norfolk, starting at 9 o'clock. They had a delight- 
ful trip, the day being pleasant. One of their traveling com- 



252 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

panions was Dr. Simmons J. Baker, whom they describe as a 
man of liberal education, very lively and intelligent in his con- 
versation — a Trustee of the University. "He sets a higher 
value on the amor patriae than any man I've ever known." 
They reached Norfolk at I o'clock on Friday. As the stage was 
waiting they missed their dinner and speeded to the head of 
Dismal Swamp, eleven miles. Here they entered a canal boat 
20 feet in length. " 'Twas sunset of a rainy Christmas eve 
when we entered this boat and were drawn along for 22 miles 
at the rate of four miles an hour." It was suggested that as 
Christmas was a holiday for slaves and many runaways were 
living in the swamp, firearms might be needed; so the gentle- 
men prepared their pistols, three in number for possible rob- 
bers. The five locks and three bridges impeded their progress 
so that they did not get through the swamp until 10 o'clock at 
night. The driver of the stage for passengers had been restive 
and gone off, so a one-horse gig and a one-horse cart for bag- 
gage were procured, and they made their way to a country 
tavern not far off, where they spent the night, sending to Eliza- 
beth City for the stage to return for them. They ate breakfast 
in that town and dined in Edenton Saturday afternoon. As the 
steamboat for Plymouth was gone, in an open boat rowed by 
four men, over a rough sea, one of the passengers bailing out 
the water which poured through the gaping seams, the travelers 
in seven hours reached Plymouth. Here their first care was to 
unpack their trunks and dry their soaked clothes. They then 
proceeded by stage by way of Williamston and Tarboro to 
Raleigh, only to find that the stage to Chapel Hill had departed. 
They hired a special conveyance, whose driver was suspected 
of being a murderer, and the Professor thought it wise to hint 
that he was provided with firearms. After a day's ride through 
a country almost uninhabited the bride reached her new home 
December 29th, and her husband preached his first sermon on 
the following Sunday in the old Chapel or Person Hall. 

For a while they boarded with Prof. Olmsted at the house 
built for the President, that nearest to the University buildings 
on the west, paying $288 a year for board, lodging and wash- 
ing. Their host kept four servants besides the washerwoman. 



OBSERVATIONS OF A BRIDE. 253 

He had a wife and a son and, although a Connecticut man, 
paid $350 for a slave girl as a nurse to the youngster. Their 
household expenses were $1,000 a year. 

Mrs. Mitchell expressed much admiration for the Doctor 
and Mrs. Caldwell. She spoke of the lady as being sociable 
and friendly. They gave a dinner party in honor of the new- 
comers, a handsome dinner, handsomely served. The bride had 
the honor of drinking the first glass of wine with Dr. Caldwell, 
the sentiment being, "To Absent Friends." Womanlike she 
tells her mother of what a Carolina dinner consisted : "Roast 
turkey with duck, roast beef and broiled, broiled chicken, Irish 
and sweet potatoes, turnips, rice, carrots, parsnips, cabbage, 
stewed apples, boiled pudding, baked potato pudding, damson 
tarts, current tarts, apple pies and whips." 

She was pleased with her new surroundings, notwithstanding 
the two hundred curious eyes of the students when she was in 
the Chapel. She praises particularly the fine apples and abun- 
dance of them. Thirty years afterwards the neighborhood was 
equally distinguished for peaches. The orchards have been 
allowed to go to decay. She whiles away the hours when her 
husband is absent, by study, reciting to him at night. She asks 
her mother to send her some fine thread, worsted yarn and 
some needles, the package to be forwarded to New York in 
order to come in the next box of books. Fine materials for 
ladies work were not procurable at Chapel Hill in those days. 
It was not long before Dr. Olmsted bought himself a residence 
and the young couple started housekeeping in the home he 
vacated, which they occupied for thirty-seven years. 

At the same session the Committee on Buildings were author- 
ized to erect a building embracing recitation rooms whenever 
the funds would allow. 

The vision of golden streams to flow from the escheated war- 
rants of Tennessee emboldened the Trustees in 1818, with only- 
one dissenting voice, to add the Professorship of Rhetoric and 
Logic and adjunct Professorship of Moral Philosophy. Rev. 
Shepard Kosciusko Kollock was chosen to fill the chair of 
Rhetoric and began at the same term with Olmsted, the fall term 
of 1819. His salary was $1,240. The President held the Chair 



254 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics. The Tutors were King 
and Simon Jordan. The number of students during the year 
was 118. 

Dr. Kollock was born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, June 
2 5> 1 795- His father, Shepard Kollock, was an officer in the 
Revolutionary Army, and hence delighted to honor the Polish 
patriot. The son graduated with high honors at Princeton at 
the age of sixteen. He began the study of Theology under his 
brother-in-law, Rev. John McDowell, D.D., and finished his 
course under his brother, Rev. Henry Kollock, D.D., whose min- 
isterial work was at Savannah, Georgia. His first charge after 
ordination was that of the Presbyterian church at Oxford, 
North Carolina, marrying during his first year, 1818, Miss 
Sarah Blount Littlejohn, daughter of Thomas Blount Little- 
john. Coming to the University in 1819, he remained until 
1825, when he accepted a call to the Presbyterian church of 
Norfolk, Virginia, where he remained about ten years. He 
then removed to New Jersey, and was for three years the suc- 
cessful agent of the Board of Missions, after which he was 
pastor successively in Burlington and Greenwich, both in New 
Jersey. In i860 his health failed and he accepted light work 
in connection with a charitable institution in Philadelphia. He 
died April 7, 1865. 

Dr. Kollock married a second time — Miss Sarah Harris, of 
Norfolk. Several children and more grandchildren of this mar- 
riage survive. A child, Sarah, of the first marriage, was one 
of the highly esteemed principals of the excellent School for 
Females of the Misses Nash and Miss Kollock. The Misses 
Nash are daughters of a sister of Professor Kollock, wife of 
Chief Justice Frederick Nash. 

The election of Prof. Kollock caused an outcry against Presi- 
dent Caldwell for filling the Faculty with Presbyterian preach- 
ers. This he emphatically denied in a letter to Treasurer Hay- 
wood, calling attention to the fact that Prof. Hooper was an 
Episcopalian, and making the rather odd statement that he 
would have been nominated to the Chair of Rhetoric and Logic 
if he had been ordained as a preacher and could have rendered 
to him as much relief in the pulpit as Mr. Kollock. Moreover, 



ENLARGED CURRICULUM. 255 

he contended that the best man should be selected regardless of 
denominational bias. It should be noticed too that Olmsted, 
howbeit a Presbyterian, although he studied Theology, was not 
licensed to preach. A letter from Treasurer Haywood to Judge 
Murphey of the date of April 26, 18 19, shows that the President 
was so chagrined at the postponement by the Board of his nomi- 
nation, that he hinted at accepting a Professorship in the South 
Carolina College. It is stated that the hesitation arose from 
the fear that this placing the religious instruction in the charge 
of two Presbyterian ministers might be against the Constitu- 
tion, as exalting one denomination over the others. It is notable 
that Treasurer Haywood stated that he and Colonel Wm. Polk, 
adherents of the Protestant Episcopal church, were of the opin- 
ion that it was imprudent to elect one of their own faith, for 
fear of giving offence to other denominations. As Professor 
Hooper was then an Episcopalian, one other of the same faith 
would have been a too heavy weight to be carried by the strug- 
gling institution. This seems to prove that the prejudice from 
the old hostility to the Church of England, allied with the odious 
Colonial government, still lingered among our people. After 
Kollock's election the Faculty stood, Caldwell, Mitchell, Olm- 
sted, Kollock, four to one Episcopalian, tottering towards the 
Baptists. As the Tutors changed almost yearly, I have not in- 
quired into their religious proclivities. 

The Enlarged Curriculum. 

The scheme of studies was of course considerably changed by 
the addition of the two new Professorships. For admission into 
the Freshman class the following was prescribed : 

In Latin — The Grammar ; Prosody ; Corderius ; 25 of Aesop's 
Fables ; Selects Vetera?, or Sacra Historia ; Cornelius Nepos 
or Viri Romae ; Mair's Introduction ; Seven Books of Czesar's 
Commentaries ; Ovidi Editio Expurgata ; The Bucolics and 
Six Books of Aeneid in Virgil. 

In Greek — Greek Grammar ; St. John's Gospel and The Acts 
of the Apostles ; Graeca Minora to Lucian's Dialogues. 

It is remarkable that neither Arithmetic nor Algebra is in 
this list. 

The Plan of Education in the University was as follows : 



256 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

For the Freshman Class — 

In Latin — The whole of Sallust ; Roman Antiquities ; the 
Georgics of Virgil ; Cicero's Orations ; Ancient Geography. 

In Greek — Graeca Minora continued ; first volume of Graeca 
Majora; Antiquities. (The last included other ancient nations 
besides Greece.) Ancient Geography. 

In Mathematics — Arithmetic ; Algebra. 

In English, etc., Modern Geography; English Grammar, 
Composition ; Declamations ; Theses. 
For the Sophomore Class — 

In Latin — Horace entire. 

In Greek — Graeca Majora continued, First Volume; four 
books of Homer's Iliad. 

In Mathematics — Algebra concluded ; Geometry. 

In English — Geography, Theses, Composition, Declamation. 
For the Junior Class, then called Junior Sop hist ers — 

Latin and Greek were both dropped. 

In Mathematics — Logarithms; Plane Trigonometry; Men- 
suration of Heights and Distances ; Surveying ; Spherical Trig- 
onometry; Navigation; Conic Sections, Fluxions. 

Natural Philosophy. 

In English — Classics, Composition, Declamation. 

It is observable that in the catalogue Conies is spelled 
Conicks, and means of course Analytical Geometry. Fluxions 
is now called Calculus; Natural Philosophy is called Physics; 
Classics (spelled Classicks), meant the writings of great Eng- 
lish authors, principally of Queen Anne's time. 
For the Senior Class, then called Senior Sophist ers — 

No Latin, Greek or Pure Mathematics. 

In Natural Science — Chemistry; Mineralogy; Geology; Phil- 
osophy of Natural History. 

In Applied Mathematics — Natural Philosophy; Progress of 
the Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Astronomy; Chro- 
nology. 

In Philosophy — Moral Philosophy; Progress of Metaphysi- 
cal, Ethical and Political Philosophy: Metaphysics. 

In English — Logic ; Rhetoric ; Classics ; Composition ; Decla- 
mation. 



PLAN OF JUDGE MURPHEY. 257 

The students had no laboratory work, but the Professor per- 
formed experiments in Chemistry and Physics in the presence of 
the class. Much attention was paid to composition and declam- 
ation, which was supplemented by similar work, enforced by 
fines, in the two literary societies. The Alumni of the Univer- 
sity were therefore easily among" the leaders in political life, 
and had a good start in the professions of law and theology. 

Judge Murphey's Plan. 

It is interesting to compare the foregoing scheme of studies 
with the plan of Judge Archibald Murphey, who distinguished 
himself about this time by a very able report on Public Educa- 
tion, and was a man of large experience at the bar, on the bench, 
and in the General Assembly, and had professional experience 
in the University. He moved for a committee to report ''a re- 
vised plan of Education, - ' embodying "changes suited to the 
present improved state of science and general knowledge;" also 
to report a plan of new buildings. The following is the scheme, 
recommended but not adopted. It is analogous to our modern 
system of "Schools" or "Colleges," the term classes, however, 
being used : 

1. Class of Languages, embracing Greek and Latin ; Murray's 
English Grammar ; Elements of Chronology ; Millot's Elements 
of History; Blair's Lectures. 

2. Class of Mathematics. — Pure Mathematics up to Fluxions ; 
Mensuration up to Astronomy; Geography. 

3. Physical Sciences. — Embracing Chemistry, Mineralogy, 
Geology, Philosophy of Natural History ; History of the Pro- 
gress of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. 

4. Class of the Moral and Political Sciences, embracing 
Philosophy of the Human Mind ; Ethics and Practical Moralitv ; 
Elements of Theology ; History of the Progress of Ethical and 
Moral Sciences ; Political Philosophy by Paley ; Constitution of 
the United States by Publius ; Political Economy by Genith. 

It is very notable that the distinguished Judge did not include 
in his programme the study of the great sciences. Electricity or 
Magnetism ; nor is there mention of Mechanics, Biology and 
similar branches now so much cultivated. 

17 



258 history university oe north carolina. 

President Polk's Class. 

The class of 1818 numbered 14. 

The highest honor was conferred on James Knox Polk, after- 
wards President of the United States, having previously passed 
through the offices of Governor of Tennessee and Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. 

The second honor was won by William Mercer Green, after- 
wards a Professor in our University, Bishop of Mississippi 
and Chancellor of the University of the South, Doctor of Divin- 
ity and of Laws. The third honor devolved on Robert Hall 
Morrison, afterwards a Doctor of Divinity in the Presbyterian 
church and President of Davidson College. The fourth honor 
fell to Hamilton C. Jones, a prominent editor and lawyer of 
Salisbury and Reporter of the Supreme Court. Besides these, 
were Hugh Waddell, able lawyer and President of the State 
Senate, Edward Jones Mallett, Paymaster-General U. S. A. and 
Consul-General to Italy, and William Dunn Moseley, Speaker 
of the State Senate and Governor of Florida. The Faculty 
reported that the class was especially approved on account of 
the regular, moral and exemplary deportment of its members. 
Polk never missed a duty while in the institution. 

Associated with these, but not remaining to take degrees, were 
George C. Dromgoole, Speaker of the Virginia Senate and 
Representative in Congress, a noted stump speaker. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was granted to Rev. John 
McDowell, of Virginia, and that of Master of Arts to Thomas 
Pollock Devereux, of North Carolina. Dr. McDowell was of 
New Jersey, for fifty years Trustee of Princeton College, and 
was efficient as agent in collecting funds for its advancement. 
Mr. Devereux, a descendant of Jonathan Edwards, was a Trus- 
tee of the University of North Carolina, and Reporter of the 
Supreme Court. 

For the Commencement of 18 19 the representatives from the 
Dialectic Society were Wm. Hill Jordan, of Bertie, Thomas H. 
Wright, of Wilmington, and Lucius C. Polk, of Raleigh, after- 
wards of Tennessee. On the part of the Philanthropic Society 
were Wm. H. Hardin, of Rockingham, afterwards of Fayette- 
ville, Tucker Carrington, of Virginia, and Matthias B. D. 



CLASS OF 1819 — LETTERS OF STUDENTS. 259 

Palmer, of Northampton County. The Debaters were Thomas 
B. Slade and Anderson W. Mitchell. The question was "Ought 
foreigners to be admitted to public offices in the United States ?" 
Three men attained the first distinction, being declared equal. 
They were Walker Anderson, Clement Carrington Read and 
Wm. Henry Haywood. Anderson had the Latin Salutatory, 
Read the English Salutatory, and Haywood the Valedictory. 

Besides the above, Thomas B. Slade, John M. Starke and 
Paul A. Haralson were appointed by the Faculty to speak a 
humorous dialogue. 

The success in after-life of the honored men corresponded to 
their college careers. Anderson, who was slightly superior to 
Haywood was a Professor in the University and Chief Justice 
of Florida. Haywood was a leader of the bar and United 
States Senator. Read was a banker of very high standing. Of 
the. others, Simon P. Jordan was a Tutor in this institution and 
then a physician ; James Turner Morehead, a sound lawyer and 
member of Congress. 

Contemporaries, not graduating, were John Lancaster Bailey, 
of the Convention of 1835, and Judge of the Superior Courts; 
W. F. Leak, Presidential Elector and member of the Conven- 
tions of 1835 an d 1861. Thomas N. Mann, heretofore men- 
tioned ; Alfred M. Slade, Consul to Buenos Ayres ; and Mason 
L. Wiggins, State Senator. Rev. Wm. McPheeters, who had 
gained fame as a preacher and head of the Raleigh Academy, a 
Trustee of the University, was made Doctor of Divinity. 

University Life, i8i3-'2o — Letters of Students. 

I am fortunately able to give information of interest with 
respect to this decade of University history, derived from letters 
by students. Bryan Grimes writes to his mother in January and 
April, 181 3, regretting his inability to visit her during the ap- 
proaching vacation because of the impossibility of hiring a 
horse. He requests one or two waistcoats to be sent him at the 
next session. He is inconvenienced by having only three pair 
of summer stockings, because the washerwoman brings in 
clothes weekly and, therefore, he must every alternate week 
wear a pair for seven days without change. All things seem 






260 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to proceed in harmony in college. The students are exerting 
themselves for examinations, having no time for sport. He 
reminds his mother that she had promised to write every month, 
and he begs her to continue this frequency. He asks her to 
excuse his penmanship because he has no knife wherewith to 
mend his bad pen. 

He testifies that he was received with great politeness, which 
indicates that the evil practice of hazing did not then afflict the 
institution. Before applying for admission into the Junior class 
he spent several days in assiduously reviewing Arithmetic, his 
passing on the Freshman and Sophomore studies not dispensing 
with this branch. Mr. Grimes proved to be a good student, but 
did not remain to graduate. He was in after-life a very influ- 
ential and wealthy planter — a most worthy citizen. 

In October, 1816, Peter C. Picot gives the history of a fight 
in which two students were involved. James R. Chalmers and 
Thomas G. Coleman were among those suspended for the 
Shepard riot. They concluded to sojourn at Hillsboro. A citi- 
zen of that town volunteered to reflect severely on the conduct 
of the students, for which Chalmers kicked him out of doors. 
In the progress of the fight Coleman, whose nickname was 
Cub, was severely choked. The offenders were about to be 
consigned to prison when Judge Thomas Ruffin, a Trustee of 
the University, appeared and settled the whole matter by a 
compromise. The adversary of Chalmers declined to prosecute 
him, on condition that the student, Coleman, should let the 
choker go free, a curious example of the doctrine of set-off. 

Picot gives a pathetic story of Chapel Hill life. "The beau- 
tiful and accomplished Miss P.'s father is no more. Though 
the world will not grieve, nor has society to lament, for he was 
to the former a burden and to the latter a disgrace, yet a help- 
less girl, in the dawn of youth, has to mourn a disgraced father, 
for he died in jail and laid there some time, until they sent to 
the Governor to obtain leave to take him out. Oh ! if you could 
have heard her shrieks and witnessed her lamentations it would 
have pierced your heart and rent your soul. But she has got 
pacified, and I had the inexpressible pleasure of accompanying 
her last Thursday evening to preaching." The subsequent his- 



LETTERS OF STUDENTS. 261 

tory of this consoled inconsolable damsel I have not been able 
to trace. 

Martin W. B. Armstrong writes on January 31, 18 18, for 
money on account of unexpected expenses. He was one of a 
committee selected to choose toasts for a dinner to be given on 
the "birthday of our political father," and was bound therefore 
to subscribe for the dinner. "According to custom the Com- 
mittee had to treat those from whom they received the distinc- 
tion." He was also with five others chosen as a manager of the 
ball to be given to the graduates at Commencement. For this 
honor he was "again forced to be at the expense of making 
college drunk." He estimates the cost at two or three dollars. 
He regrets the expense for suitable clothes, which according to 
an account sent his father cost $56. He presses for more cloth- 
ing for daily use. Cambric shirts are soon gone when they be- 
come crazy and old, and he requests that his mother will make 
him others. His cassimere pantaloons are worn through on 
the seat and are thin on the knees, and his only other pair re- 
quires washing after one week's wearing. "It will not be im- 
proper," he adds, "to provide for another supply." 

Hamilton C. Jones wrote in the same year to Major Abraham 
Staples that the business of the Dialectic Society had been con- 
ducted with order since the repeal of the law compelling mem- 
bers to attend prayers, which had caused great disturbance. He 
praises in the highest terms the President. Samuel T. Hauser, 
of Stokes. The next question for debate was "Do we experi- 
ence more pleasure in contemplating the works of Nature or 
of Art?" Jones was to advocate the claims of Nature, saying 
among other arguments "because ro pa'rter nor no sculpturer 
can produce in the mind of man the exquisite sensation pro- 
duced in the mind of the lover from contemplating the fasci- 
nating charms of It's Dulcinea." He has many other arguments 
but this preponderates. We must presume that his adversary 
contended stoutly that the modern fine lady is in a laree degree 
the work of Art and made some allusion to the known fact that 
Jones was desperately in love w'th a fair one in the village, 
whom he afterwards married. Miss Eliza Henderson. 

As the notion was lodged in the public mind that Dr. Chap- 
man failed as a disciplinarian, the disorders of September, 1818, 



262 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

must have been of some consolation to his friends. They heard 
of three students, after loading up with corn whiskey, tumultu- 
ously shouting on the streets of the village, breaking into a 
kitchen, beating a negro, and insulting his owner and family 
with loud vociferations. On the same day another threw stones 
at a dwelling. On the same day, being God's holy day, two 
others were drunken and noisy in the street. All but the stone- 
thrower were suspended for four months, though they might 
have escaped as the stone-hurler did by submitting to public 
admonition in the Chapel. At the time of these rowdy occur- 
rences S. H. was admonished for being deficient in scholarship, 
often absent from his room and strongly suspected of partici- 
pation in frequent explosions of gunpowder, and A. W. "after 
repeated warnings was dismissed for negligence of studies." 

We learn from a letter of James R. Chalmers, written in 1818 
to Alfred M. Slade, that besides being suspended for partici- 
pation in the street riots, one J. B. was charged with assisting 
in transporting to the third story of the South Building a large 
stone or other hard substance, with the intent to injure said 
building. President Caldwell swore out a warrant against him 
and he was keeping in hiding, attempting to collect evidence 
of his innocence. Slade was urged to write a letter avowing 
J. B.'s guiltlessness that "he may clear himself in the eyes of 
the Faculty, the Trustees and the world." 

In the next month a too lively Virginian was charged with 
the following offences : 

1st. Torturing animals with spirits of turpentine. Doubtless 
this was the primeval joke of attaching rags saturated with the 
flaming fluid to the tail of an innocent canine, not with Samp- 
son's motive of revenge on the hereditary enemies of his coun- 
try, but for cruel delight over the antics of a frightened and 
tortured beast. 

2d. With lying. 

3d. With slandering the Faculty. 

4th. With threatening physical violence to a member of the 
Faculty. 

5th. With writing scurrilous and abusive stuff on the Chapel 
walls about the same. 

6th. With drawing a dirk on a student. 



22D OF FEBRUARY DINNER — FIGHTS. 263 

The Faculty gravely came to the conclusion that the offender 
was "not of a proper disposition to be an orderly student," and 
sent him home. 

Three months afterwards, on the glorious 22d of February, 
Walker Anderson delivered an oration, after which a dinner was 
given in honor of the stately and dignified George Washington, 
with whom temperance and decorum were life-long habits. The 
chronicle says that many were intoxicated. Deadly weapons, 
dirks and pistols were drawn. Tu. C. and Th. C. had a furious 
fight. Tu. C. drew a dirk. A. I., a peace-maker, in parting 
them was stabbed in the arm. M. H. used a pistol in a danger- 
ous manner in the crowd and J. S. took it from him. 

There seems to have been no punishment of these offences 
other than signing pledges. The students were called on to 
surrender their deadly weapons, to be retained while they were 
members of the University. Six pistols and two dirks were 
obtained. 

The trials of the eventful year were not yet over. The whole 
"establishment," as the University was often called, was con- 
vulsed by a conflict between a student and a member of the 
Faculty. We have a vivid description of it by Thomas B. Slade, 
in a letter to his brother. I condense his story. The member 
of the Faculty was Tutor Simon Jordan, and the student Win. 
Anthony, of Virginia. 

There was "a woman in it." "Both escorted Miss Betsy 
Puckett one Sunday to Mount Carmel, four miles from town, 
on the road to Pittsboro. Anthony alleged that Jordan insulted 
him repeatedly on the journey. Vowing revenge he tendered 
his resignation as a student, which the Faculty declined to ac- 
cept. Claiming to be of age, and therefore that he had the 
right to withdraw, he armed himself with three pistols, a dirk 
and a club, and attacked Jordan, who was walking with R. R. 
King, the other Tutor. A crowd collecting, they were separated 
without damage. Anthony was summoned before the Faculty, 
where it was proved that he had called the President a liar. He 
again afterwards armed as before, attacked Jordan, who had a 
small walking cane. A few blows with the sticks were ex- 
changed, when Jordan, finding his weapon too light in compari- 



264 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF. NORTH CAROLINA. 

son with his adversary's, dropped it and caught Anthony in 
such manner as to render his club useless." I give the conclu- 
sion in the words of Slade, who was a witness, as they throw 
light on the frame of mind of the students generally. "They 
now commenced a fight which created much interest among the 
students, for the 'Dis' were warm for Simon Jordan, Anthony 
being a member of the 'Phi' Society. It was held with equal 
success by both parties for a few moments, when King called 
upon me, as I was nearest, to part them. With his assistance 
we parted them. I leaped for joy on its termination, for the 
victory, as far as the fight was carried, was given to Simon, 
both by his enemies and friends. Of the two combatants An- 
thony is much the larger, but Simon much the more active." 
Anthony still vowed revenge, but a warrant was sworn out for 
his arrest and he deemed it prudent to leave the county. 

About the same time James R. Chalmers, heretofore men- 
tioned, gave a student who had left the University and returned 
to attend to some business, a most unmerciful whipping. The 
cause of the exasperation of the castigator is unknown. 

We have several letters written by Thomas B. Slade while at 
the University. He tells of a marriage between Richard 
Thompson and Miss Nancy King, of the engagement between 
Miss Eliza Henderson and Hamilton C. Jones, of the 22d of 
February speech by Walker Anderson, which was very much 
admired ; that Anderson and William H. Haywood are strug- 
gling hard for the Latin speech, and that it is difficult to say 
who will get it. 

Afterwards, Slade gives a description of some of the students, 
which shows that he had a good judgment of character. Wm. 
H. Haywood, fully sustains the high reputation he had at the 
Raleigh Academy, as a young man of the first talents. Clement 
Read is also struggling for the Latin Salutatory. In the 
Junior class Owen Holmes and Martin Armstrong strive with 
him, but he has left them far behind, and their envy has led to 
disputes, which have injured the Dialectic Society. Slade and 
Anderson live together at the President's house (since burnt) 
as lovingly as brothers, which is "unusual between persons of 
different societies." 



LETTERS OF STUDENTS. 265 

James R. Chalmers is the same independent young man — 
is a warm friend and advocate of Haywood, "and consequently 
ranks high." He has become more studious in his habits. He 
is thought to be of all his class-mates the most brilliant. "His 
compositions are excellent, display all the fire of imagination and 
originality of genius." 

John M. Starke, of South Carolina, since coming to the Uni- 
versity has had a continued struggle for life, but his health is 
greatly re-established. His mind and vivacity are unimpaired. 
In conversation he excels. 

James T. Morehead is the same blunt, plain old fellow, re- 
spected by all and loves to hunt and fish as well as ever. 

Ethelred Phillips, has returned after his sickness and will join 
the next Junior class. He is most assiduous and attentive. A 
book is his delight and his talents are adequate to his applica- 
tion. 

David Williams has a most noble genius. Nature has be- 
stowed talents lavishly upon him, but it is feared, for want of 
industry, they will lie dormant. 

David W. Stone is a fine young man and in mathematical tal- 
ents is equal to any in the class. He has concluded to graduate. 

The subsequent careers of these youths fulfilled the promise 
of their student life. 

Besides those I have elsewhere mentioned, Martin W. B. Arm- 
strong became a physician of repute in Greensboro, New Salem 
and Salisbury. He was for a short while acting Clerk of the 
Court of Stokes, and probably emigrated to Tennessee, where 
his father had much land. He lost his diploma for striking 
down Haywood with a club, in consequence of words spoken at 
a convivial banquet. James R. Chalmers settled as a lawyer 
in Knoxville, Tennessee, and reached the dignity of Attorney- 
General. James T. Morehead was a prominent lawver of 
Greensboro and a worthy member of Congress and of the State 
Legislature. He was a brother of Governor Morehead. Ethel- 
red Phillips, uncle of Judge Fred Phillips, was a physician of 
fame in North Carolina and Florida. He cured himself of 
pulmonary consumption by extreme care as to clothing and diet, 
to the extent of changing clothing on the slightest change of 
temperature, certainly every morning, noon and night through- 



266 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

out the year. David W. Stone was a son of Governor Stone, 
was first a lawyer and then the esteemed President of the 
Branch of the Bank of Cape Fear at Raleigh. 

In 1820 occurred a furious conflict between two students 
named Martin, but of no kinship. Robert was from Granville, 
tall, orderly and high-spirited, a grandson of Nathaniel Macon. 
The other was Henry Martin, of Stokes County, strong and 
pugnacious, a son of Colonel James Martin, of the Revolution, 
by his second wife, the mother of Hamilton C. Jones. Robert 
was a member of the Philanthropic Society, and while the So- 
ciety was in session Henry Martin made his way into the attic 
room above its Hall, and in leaping over the rafters fell through 
the ceiling. As he was a member of the rival society this was 
deemed an intentional insult and was resented by Robert Mar- 
tin. The quarrel resulted in a fight, which came very near 
causing a pitched battle between the members of the two so- 
cieties. Governor Graham shortly before his death stated that 
he witnessed the conflict. Henry, being the stouter, endeavored 
to close with his antagonist, which Robert prevented by warding 
off and returning his blows, slowly backing towards the well. 
By these tactics they fought from the door of Gerrard Hall to 
the well before they were parted. According to the Governor's 
recollection, Robert was not thrown, but there is a contrary tra- 
dition among his relatives to the effect that the Dialectic cham- 
pion jumped on his prostrate breast, causing such internal in- 
juries that he died soon after his graduation in 1822. Dr. 
Hooper in his "Fifty Years Since" sustains in part at least this 
tradition. He states that the Di "got his antagonist down and 
beat him most dreadfully." My conclusion is that there were 
two fights. President Caldwell thought best to prosecute the 
victor before the Superior Court then in session at Hillsboro. 
Dr. Hooper was one of the guard and tells the story of the pro- 
ceedings : "It was a rainy night, the prisoner purposely kept 
his horse in a walk, that we might not bring him into town at 
night as a guarded criminal. So we rode up at breakfast time, 
like a party of travelers to the hotel, where the Judge and prose- 
cuting officer and a crowd of people were standing. Our mitti- 
mus was examined, when lo and behold ! the Justice of the Peace 



FIGHT OF THE TWO MARTINS. 267 

who issued it had left out of the writ the initials of his office 
'J. P.,' and without those magic letters it was as harmless as a 
lion with his head cut off. So the whole proceeding - was 
quashed, the prisoner discharged, the expedition covered with 
ridicule, and the escort went home pretty well sick of Sheriff's 
business." 

The feud did not, however, end here. The Di champion be- 
came incensed at language reported as having been used by the 
Phi while at Hillsboro, and seeking the latter in his room re- 
newed the fight. We have no details of its result. The Faculty 
dismissed the aggressor at once, and the wrathful feeling among 
the students soon died down and gave place to other excite- 
ments. 

About the same time four other students, convicted of 
"quarreling and fighting in their rooms," were called up and 
made to sign a pledge to keep the peace. 

An epidemic of explosions of gunpowder prevailed about this 
time which gave the Faculty great annoyance. In the language 
of the grave Secretary, Joseph H. Saunders, there could be no 
object other than "to disturb society in a very violent manner, 
except the additional one of sporting with the injury done the 
order of the institution ; it must ever be considered an offence 
of much aggravation." The punishment was dismission or 
suspension according to the previous record of the student. 
There was ingenuity expended in securing loud explosives. In 
one case a hollow brass knob was covered over with lead and 
filled with the powder. The noise made was pleasing to the 
ears of the festive youths. 

There is extant a contemporary printed letter from an un- 
known traveler, who urged upon the students in the kindest 
terms more civil behavior at public exhibitions. He deprecated 
"expressions of contempt towards a decent stranger, who was 
entertaining them with delightful music." "If a stranger enters 
their room he is treated with marked politeness. Why not carry 
into public conduct the same character of genteel breeding?" 
"Surely the bloom and gaiety of youth would receive embellish- 
ment from gentleness, grace and dignity of behavior." He 
warns them that their boisterous conduct is becoming: an insult 



268 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to the officers of the University and even to the fair sex, and 
asks, "Is the enjoyment of wit and pleasantry impossible with- 
out noise? Is it necessary to be boisterous in order to be 
happy ?" There is no record as to whether this appeal had any 
effect in mitigating the evil sought to be remedied. It is notice- 
able that a French traveler in England in the fifteenth century 
was amazed to find that people seemed to be unable to express 
joy except by loud shouting, bell ringing, explosions of gun- 
powder, and other "unharmonious noises." 

While most of the students dressed plainly, those who held 
the post of Marshall and Ball Manager, and the Commencement 
speakers, had more costly apparel. We have a bill for one suit 
of clothes. Black broadcloth coat, cost $34; Cassimere panta- 
loons $14, and British florentine waistcoat $8;- Total, $56. The 
late Judge Battle remembered that the University servant, a 
worthy negro, known as Brad, kept a pair of boots for hire 
to students only. They were in special request for visit's to the 
belles of Raleigh, Hillsboro and Pittsboro, who were famous 
throughout the State for physical and intellectual attractions. 

At the Commencement of 1881 we had an eloquent and in- 
structive address by a class-mate of President Polk, an excellent 
specimen of the old school, an octogenarian, Gen. Edward J. 
Mallett, of New York, lately called to his final home. He was 
introduced as having received his diploma sixty-three years be- 
fore that day, and it was stated that for seventy years he had 
never taken a glass of ardent spirits, and, therefore, that he had 
still the inestimable blessing of mens sana in corpore sano, and 
that other still greater blessing mens sibi conscia recti. In his 
autobiography, printed only for his relatives, a copy being do- 
nated to our Historical Society, we find an account of the ball 
given in compliment to his class, when graduating. The follow- 
ing description of his dress is interesting. 

"The style of costume," said Gen. Mallett, "and even the 
manners of the present generation are not, in my opinion, an 
improvement on a half century ago. The managers would not 
then admit a gentleman into the ball-room with boots, or even 
a frock coat ; and to dance without gloves was simply vulgar. 
At the Commencement Ball (when I graduated, 1818), my 



DRESS OF STUDENTS. 269 

coat was broadcloth, of sea-green color, high velvet collar to 
match, swallow-tail, pockets outside with lapels, and large 
silver-plated buttons ; white satin damask vest, showing the edge 
of a blue under-vest ; a wide opening for bosom ruffles, and no 
shirt collar. The neck was dressed with a layer of four or five 
three-cornered cravats, artistically laid and surmounted with a 
cambric stock, pleated and buckled behind. Mv pantaloons were 
white canton crape, lined with pink muslin, and showed a peach- 
blossom tint. They were rather short in order to display flesh- 
colored silk stockings, and this exposure was increased by very 
low cut pumps with shiny buckles. My hair was very black, 
very long and queued. I should be taken for a lunatic or a 
harlequin in such costume now." 

In 1827 the Trustees prescribed a uniform of dark gray in 
summer and blue in winter, but six months afterwards changed 
the winter color to a dark gray, so that it is probable that our 
boys were the first in the State to wear the dress which is so 
intimately associated in Southern minds with the tenderness, 
pathos and heroism of the Lost Cause. A solemn ordinance 
was adopted at the same time, which sounds strange in our 
ears, "The wearing of boots by the students is positively pro- 
hibited." This law was passed doubtless on account of the fi- 
nancial panic of 1825, but, like all sumptuary laws, was regu- 
larly circumvented. The Seniors during the Commencement 
at which they graduated were exempt from the prohibitory boot 
law by special exception to the ordinance, and it was not long 
before ambitious Juniors, Sophomores and Freshmen obtained 
the distinguished privilege. 

In a letter from his father, Joel Battle, a student in 1798-99, 
to his son, William, the late Judge Battle, is some homely advice 
of value at this day. He cautions his son against jumping into 
cold water when hot. "I caught dysentery when at Chapel Hill 
by that." He sends 2 3-4 yards of broadcloth for a coat and 
vest for his son's Commencement suit. As the Judge was a 
small man that was doubtless sufficient. On his graduation a 
horse and gig would be sent for him. The driver will lead an 
extra horse for him to ride home, from which it appears that 
the gig had only one seat. 



270 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Information is given of the financial condition of the farmers 
of Edgecombe in February, 1820. The writer had sold pork 
in Virginia at $6 per hundred — -one-half cash, the other half in 
four months. He started 152 hogs in the drove and got 143 
to market. The other nine all returned home except one or 
two. Those sold averaged 149 1-2 pounds, so that the drove 
brought nearly $1,300. There was great distress for money 
in the county. Thirty negroes had been recently sold in Tarboro 
for debt. There were Sheriff's sales almost every day or two. 
Wm. Ross bought a woman at $581 ; A. J. Thorp, at $300. 
These doubtless have been "on account of those dangerous and 
fatal rocks, imprudence and extravagance." 

These extracts are given because "hard times" were a serious 
obstacle in the path of the University then, and at other periods. 
Six cents a pound — half on credit — for hogs driven over 100 
miles, shows that money was hard to get. 

The; Village oe Chapel Hill. 

The government of the village of Chapel Hill was primitive. 
All white males between 21 and 50 years of age were distributed 
into classes and in turn patrolled the streets at night. Slaves 
were liable to a whipping of ten lashes, or a fine of one dollar, 
for being absent from home without a written permit from the 
owner. Nor could a slave hire his own time. 

Shooting firearms in the village "in sport, wantonness or li- 
centiousness" was forbidden under a penalty of one dollar. But 
firing on public occasions or musters was not only not pro- 
hibited but encouraged. Two dollars was the penalty for work- 
ing on Sundays in one's ordinary avocation, unless in case of 
necessity or mercy. Nor, with like exception, could any person 
buy or sell any article under penalty of five dollars, doubled 
in case of sales by merchants. 

The streets were to be worked by male white persons between 
18 and 45, and black males between 16 and 50. Fines for whites 
were inflicted for absences. Whipping for slaves was the rule, 
but owners could save them from punishment by paying a fine. 
The Commissioners were to pay one dollar for absence from 
meetings without excuse. 



/ 



LETTER OF GOVERNOR MOSELEY. 2JI 

We are fortunate in having a description of the village in a 
letter from Wra. D. Moseley, written in 1853. At the beginning 
of 1818 Dr. Caldwell had almost as meagre a Faculty as he 
commanded when he was presiding Professor in 1797. Wra. 
Hooper, Professor of Ancient Languages, was on a health tour 
in the South. Dr. Mitchell, Professor of Mathematics, did not 
arrive for two months after the session opened. There were 92 
students, and the President had his hands full, with his two 
Tutors, in charge of so many unruly boys. The following is the 
substance of Moseley's description of the village : 

There was one street, running east and west, called Franklin 
or Main street. The Raleigh and Hillsboro road crossed this, 
that part to the south being Raleigh, that to the north being 
Hillsboro street. East of Raleigh street were two dwellings 
fronting on Franklin, that at the corner, the residence of Presi- 
dent Caldwell and wife. The other, east of it, was the property 
of Prof. Wm. Hooper. 

On the north side of Franklin and east of Hillsboro street 
was the dwelling of Mrs. Puckett, widow of the late John 
Puckett, once Postmaster. This was the lot afterwards bought 
by Professor Olmstead and by him sold to the University. Be- 
tween the part of the campus fronting on Franklin street and 
Raleigh street there were only two residences, Hilliard's Hotel, 
afterwards the Eagle, and now Chapel Hill Hotel, and next to 
Raleigh street the dwelling of Tom Taylor, a merchant, after- 
wards sold to the University for Tennessee land. It is now 
occupied by Dr. Eben Alexander. The Episcopal church was 
not built until long afterwards. 

In front of the campus, including the grounds where are now 
the Presbyterian church and the stores of R. S. McRae and 
H. H. Patterson, was woodland, owned by the University. Be- 
tween that and Hillsboro street were only two buildings. One, 
about half way, was a store belonging to Tom Taylor, and the 
other, at the corner of Hillsboro and Franklin Streets, the home 
of Wm. Pitt, now belonging to the heirs of Henry C. Thomp- 
son. 

Columbia street is perpendicular to Franklin in the western 
part of the village. Between that and the part of the campus 



272. HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

fronting on Franklin were two residences only. That adjoining 
the campus, now Central Hotel, was the residence of James 
Hogg, father of the eminent lawyer, Gavin Hogg. Next to 
Columbia street lived the widow Mitchell, who dispensed table 
board. 

Opposite James Hogg's was Major Pleasant Henderson's, 
father of the attractive Miss Eliza. West of this about 150 
yards was the store of Mr. Trice, and further still, at the corner 
the blacksmith shop of Christopher or Kit Barbee. 

At the southwest angle of Columbia and Franklin streets was 
the famous boarding house of Mrs. Elizabeth or Betsy Nunn, 
and south of that was the only other building on Columbia, that 
of Wm. Barbee, long the Steward of the University. 

At the junction of Cameron Avenue and Pittsboro streets was 
the residence of Mrs. Pannell, whose fair daughter captivated 
the heart of Tutor, afterwards Bishop James H. Otey, and be- 
came his wife. Opposite Mrs. Pannill's on Cameron Avenue 
was Mr. Watson's, the father of Mayor John H. Watson and 
Mr. Jones Watson, merchant and lawyer, long esteemed citi- 
zens of Chapel Hill. The father came near being a martyr of 
the University. He was a carpenter, working on a third-story 
scaffold of the South Building, when he stumbled and was pre- 
cipitated over the edge of the scaffold. A friendly nail caught 
the seat of his tow breeches, of tough flaxen fibre, and held him 
suspended over the deep abyss, in a plight pitiable but safe. 

There was no other house on Cameron Avenue to the west- 
ward. All was forest, wherein were numerous chinquapin 
bushes. Adjoining the campus was the President's house, then 
occupied by the new Professor of Mathematics, afterwards of 
Chemistry, Dr. Mitchell. 

Governor Moseley overlooked the residence of the Principal 
of the Grammar School, Rev. Abner W. Clopton, east of the 
campus, now the Battle residence. The grove in front of it was 
then thick woods. 

The only college buildings were the East, the South and Per- 
son Hall, or the "Old Chapel," now, largely increased in size, 
devoted to the use of the Department of Medicine. 

Governor Moseley remembered that the graveyard contained 
about half a dozen graves. He recalled Rock Spring, southeast 



MOSEI#EY S LETTER. 273 

of the campus, now Brickyard Spring, and the Twin Sisters, 
north of the village, below which the waters were conducted 
through a gutter, having a fall of about ten feet, and making 
an excellent open air-down-pouring bath. The Davie Poplar 
was even then, eighty years ago, called the Old Poplar. 

In his distant home, said Moseley, living the life of a hermit, 
worn out with old age, his six children all grown but one, he 
rejoiced over the successes of the University, "much of it due 
to Swain's great abilities and untiring energy." He felt glad 
that the last vote he gave as Trustee was for him as President. 

The records show where the students of 1819 had their dormi- 
tories. I give the list, that it may be compared with Moseley's 
description of the village : 

In the East Building roomed 30 students. 

In the South Building roomed -. 51 " 

At Major Henderson's roomed 7 " 

At President Caldwell's roomed 2 " 

At Mrs. Pannell's roomed 3 

At Mrs. Burton's roomed 2 " 

At Mrs. Craig's roomed 2 " 

At Mr. Thompson's roomed 2 " 

At Mr. Moring's roomed 1 " 

At. Mr. KittrelFs roomed 1 " 

At Mr. Barbee's roomed 1 " 

At Mr. Pitt's roomed 1 " 

At Mrs. Mitchell's roomed 4 " 

At Mr. Strain's roomed 1 " 

At Mrs. Xunn's roomed 1 " 

109 

It should be noted that the Mrs. Mitchell in this list was not 
the wife of the Professor. As might be expected, Governor 
Moseley omitted some of the inhabitants, but very few. Cer- 
tainly Mrs. Craig and Mr. Kittrell lived out of the village — 
perhaps others. Mrs. Burton occupied Steward Hall. She took 
the house with the burden that the ball might be conducted in 
the dining-room, free of charge. I do not know where were 
the residences of Mr. Thompson, Mr. Moring and Mr. Strain. 
Mrs. Burton was the young widow of a citizen of the village, 
who had died the year before. 

18 



274 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

It was at this period, 1819, that the management of Steward's 
Hall as an adjunct of the University was discontinued and the 
students allowed to get their table board where they pleased. 
As long as the manager was an employee of the institution and 
especially, as in the early days, compulsory eating at his table 
was the rule, grumbling was the staple conversation and rowdy- 
ism often prevalent. The village increasing in population, 
Steward Hall was rented out on condition that the tenant, Mrs. 
Burton, should supply food to student applicants at not exceed- 
ing $9 per month for the first year and $10 afterwards. This 
plan was continued about twenty years longer, the compulsory 
feature not being renewed. 

This "Steward's Hall" was a two-story wooden building 
fronting west, painted white, in the middle of what is now 
Cameron Avenue, and exactly north of the Carr Building. It 
was there that most of the students for many years boarded 
at Commons, paying for the first year, 1795, $30, or $3 per 
month ; for the next four years $40 per year, or $4 per month ; 
in 1800 rising to $57 per year; in 1805 to $60; in 1814, under 
the inflated war prices, to $66.50; in 1818 to $95; in 1839 to 
$76, when the system was abandoned. It was in this building 
that the "balls" of the old days were given, at which, tradition 
has it, venerable Trustees and Faculty, together with their 
pupils, with hair powdered and plaited into "pig-tails." and legs 
encased in tight stockings and knees resplendent with buckles, 
mingled in the dance with the beauteous damsels of the day. 

Judge Battle, who graduated in 1820, boarded, as did James 
K. Polk and others, at the house of Benjamin Yeargin near the 
creek in Tenney's plantation, about a mile from the University 
buildings, at the foot of a long, steep hill. 

Governor Moseley stated that Polk and he were the first who 
studied Conic Sections. They occupied the same room, that at 
the southwest corner third story of the South Building, soon 
afterwards to shelter another excellent student, William A. 
Graham. The study was regarded by most students as ex- 
tremely difficult. 

Conduct of Students. 

Most of the misconduct at this period consisted of fighting 
and annoyances to the Faculty. The war fever was partly the 



LAWLESS CONDUCT. 275 

cause of the former. The familiar songs were all boastful of 
the deeds of Perry and McDonough, Decatur and Hull, and of 
General Jackson. But the war spirit was stimulated to action 
partly by use of intoxicating liquors so common that the Faculty 
hardly censured it except when drunkenness resulted ; even then 
often not cutting the offender off from the institution. But this 
was not the sole cause. There was evidently a fashion to resort 
to bodily injury for fancied insults. It is noticeable that it was 
not considered derogatory to one's reputation to knock his an- 
tagonist down with a club, without warning. T. D. Donoho, 
afterwards a lawyer of repute, wrote to his friend Armstrong, 
who had felled W. H. Haywood in this manner, that all his 
friends sustained him as having acted properly. 

Another class of offences was impertinent and offensive 
speeches and conduct towards the Tutors. Most of this arose 
from irritation at being ordered by men, little, if any, older than 
themselves, to repair to their rooms, when found visiting a 
friend after 8 o'clock at night. A son of Chief Justice Hender- 
son, usually a polite and good-natured youth, stoutly insisted 
that the officer had no right to "order him about," and sub- 
mitted to being sent home, "rather than surrender his rights 
as a freeman." Others, however, while obeying the officer's 
commands secretly vented their spite by exploding gunpowder 
at his door, throwing stones through his windows, shouting 
abusive words from a distance in the darkness, and other like 
amenities. One Tutor became so obnoxious by his tactless 
severity that it became necessary to fortify his window-panes 
with wooden shutters. 

( hie of the Secretaries, Tutor Andrews, has left on record as 
evidence in a case on trial the dialogue between the Tutor and 
the student-offender, whom he found visiting a friend. It is 
worth quoting as showing the actual working of a hard law. 

Tutor — Mr. H. — Do you know that the bell has rung for 8 
o'clock ? 

Student — Yes, sir ; I know that it has rung. 

Tutor — Do you not intend to go to your room? 

Student — I intend to go by and by. 

Tutor — Why not now, Mr. H.? 

Student — I wish to read some more before I ero. 



276 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Tutor — I require you to go to your room. 

Student — I shall go when I get ready. 

Tutor — Do you intend to say that you will not go to your 
room ? 

Student — I shall go as soon as I am ready. 

Mr. H. was called before the Faculty and was asked "on 
what footing he proposed to place himself in regard to this 
transaction ?" On his replying that he ought to have obeyed 
the Tutor, and regretted that he had not, and that his purpose 
was to obey the laws of the college, he was acquitted. 

It is evident from the Faculty records that, while there was 
vigilance in detecting offenders and strictness in pronouncing 
sentence, the law-givers were very placable provided the of- 
fender acknowledged his fault, approved the law broken as 
reasonable, and gave a written promise to obey all the laws in 
the future. But there was sure punishment if there was refusal 
to do either of these. There is good reason to believe that many 
students considered the promises as not binding because they 
were in the nature of duress. Falsehood was not considered 
as heinous as at present. There are numerous cases of students 
answering for one another at Prayers, and the only punishment 
was a reprimand. There was a striking case of a Senior posi- 
tively assuring the Faculty that another, under probation, could 
not possibly have gone to Pittsboro, become intoxicated there 
and have done other wrongs, because to his knowledge he had 
never left Chapel Hill. A Professor visited Pittsboro and 
found that all this was false. In his defence the false wit- 
ness avowed that he would not have lied for himself. His 
punishment was holding back his diploma for a year. Card- 
playing, even for amusement, was considered a high ' crime. 
The players, as well as bystanders, whether occupiers of the 
room where the game was carried on, or visitors, were sternly 
dealt with. To escape dismission they were compelled to ad- 
mit that it was wrong to play, that they regretted having 
played, and would refrain in the future, and moreover that they 
would never countenance a game by their presence, nor allow 
it in their rooms. Where four students, after religious service 
on Sunday, were whiling away the interval before dinner with 



LAWLESS CONDUCT. 277 

a short hand, they were dismissed or suspended according to 
their previous bad or good conduct. 

Another trouble the Faculty had was in regard to horse- 
racing. There was a track near the Hill, a few hundred yards 
west of the railroad station. The races were inaugurated 
largely by liquor sellers and gamblers, and were frequented by 
many drunken and disorderly persons. The students were for- 
bidden to attend, but some went disguised and undetected. 
Those caught were suspended from the institution. One enter- 
prising Tennesseean, orderly and studious, stationed himself 
where he could see the horses run, while he did not approach 
the shouting, betting, riotous crowd. Was he guilty? The 
verdict of the Faculty brings out so clearly the stately verbiage 
considered "good form" in that day that I quote it: "In the 
disposition which the Faculty feel to act on the side of forbear- 
ance, where the circumstances are susceptible of a different con- 
struction in the mind of the offending person, it was resolved 
that the case of the said W. L. be exempted from any other 
consequence in the present instance than a warning given to 
beware of acting in such a manner in regard to the rules of the 
college as bears the appearance of practicing evasion." 

As showing the leniency of the sentences, I give this case 
which occurred in 1823: J. E. was convicted, 1st., of frequent 
absences from recitation without excuse; 2nd., intoxication; 
3d., of being a leader in a great noise and tumult in a public 
passage ; 4th., fastening up the door of a Tutor's room ; 5th, of 
boisterous and profane swearing, "aggravating this offence by 
such a manner and by such circumstances as announced it to 
be his intention that the oaths should be proclaimed in the ears 
of a member of the Faculty" ; 6th., of attending disguised in bor- 
rowed garments at a horse-race contrary to the express orders 
of the Faculty ; finally, of "habitual insubordination and li- 
centiousness of conduct." He was suspended for only four 
months. In another instance W. H. was discovered intoxicated 
and very noisy. He was suspended for two months. 

T. P. was with a noisy assembly at one of the doors. It was 
the day before the 22d of February and exercises had been sus- 
pended. A Tutor ordered him to leave the company. He 
obeyed, but joined another crowd, and was ordered to leave 



.278 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

that. He refused, alleging that he was in his legal rights. He 
was required to acknowledge that he had done wrong and 
would in the future obey the laws. The sentence was "until 
said T. P. shall make the concessions stated he shall be dis- 
missed." 

A. F. rose to declaim his piece before the Faculty. Whether 
from stage-fright or idleness he could pronounce only one or 
two lines. Being told that he must perform the duty on the 
next evening he avowed his determination never to do so. He 
was dismissed. After a week's cogitation he changed his mind 
and was required to perform the duty, express regret for dis- 
obedience and promise to obey the laws. 

W. E. N., intending to leave the institution, invited a number 
of students to a drinking party at his room. A number as- 
sembled. Four were found playing cards. They were ar- 
raigned for this, not a word being said about the drinking. They 
pleaded that the students always played during examination 
week. This did not avail them and they were required to sign 
a pledge, asserting that "the habit of card-playing tends to 
create a dangerous attachment to that employment, and eventu- 
ally to lead to the fatal practice of gaming," that they sincerely 
regretted having played, because it is against the University 
laws, and that they pledged themselves not to play again and 
not to allow others to do so in their rooms. One of the num- 
ber refused to sign and was dismissed. He afterwards changed 
his mind and was re-admitted on signing the paper ; and another, 
acknowledging that he did wrong in declining to sign when 
the others did, was pardoned. 

W. H., the feast-giver, applied for leave to be absent at Com- 
mencement, but the Faculty refused consent, and he went home 
without it. For this and for the above-said feast he was dis- 
missed. The context shows that the chief offence was the ab- 
sence without leave. 

J. R. and J. J. R. were charged with making a disturbance 
at Prayers. They refused to express disapprobation of such 
tumultuous proceedings or to give assurance that they would 
refrain hereafter. They were dismissed. It appears that the 
disturbance was an attempt to prevent the reading of a minute 



AMENDMENTS TO CHARTER — NEW BUILDINGS. 279 

of the Faculty. What this offensive minute was is not re- 
corded, but, as a student, J. F., had been dismissed two days 
before for writing" indecent words on the walls, and it was cus- 
tomary to announce such sentences from the rostrum at the time 
of Prayers, it is likely that the friends of the dismissed man 
were manifesting their sympathy with him, and resentment at 
his treatment. 

It must not be supposed that such outrages as I have narrated 
were continuous. There were long intervals of quiet, and there 
were many students whose demeanor was never censurable. In 
a report to the Trustees in 1822 the Faculty unanimously used 
this language, "When we consider the numbers, industry and 
virtuous and manly deportment of the young men who resorted 
to this place for the purpose of obtaining an education we are 
ready to congratulate ourselves on the great present and in- 
creasing prosperity of the institution." 

Amendments to Charter — Old East Enlarged — Old West 

Built. 

In 1819 important amendments to the charter, drawn by Bart- 
lett Yancey, were enacted. By the charter of 1789 there were 
five Trustees from each judicial district, in all 40. Vacancies 
were to be filled by the other Trustees. The members present 
with the President and Treasurer, or a majority without either 
of those officers, were a quorum. By act of 1798 the attendance 
of the Treasurer was dispensed with. By act of 1804 filling 
vacancies devolved on the General Assembly and the number 
was raised to not exceeding eight for each district. By act of 
1805 the Governor was made President of the Board ex officio, 
but, if he wished, he could appoint a substitute. The Board 
could vacate the seat of a member who had not attended for two 
years. By act of 1807, it being found difficult to secure a ma- 
jority, seven were constituted a quorum, and could appoint a 
President pro tempore. 

The General Assembly did not carry out the law requiring 
eight from each Judicial District. In 1821 there were in office 
54 Trustees. These were continued, namely, John Haywood. 
Benjamin Smith, William Polk. Henry Potter, Archibald D. 
Murphey, Duncan Cameron. Joseph Caldwell. Thomas Winns, 



280 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Edward Jones, James Webb, Henry Seawell, Calvin Jones, 
John D. Hawkins, Robert H. Jones, Jeremiah Slade, Joseph 
H. Bryan, Robert Williams, William Gaston, Thomas Brown, 
Francis Locke, Montfort Stokes, Thomas Love, Archibald Ale- 
Bride, Atlas Jones, Lewis Williams, William McPheeters, 
Frederick Nash, Thomas Ruffin, James W. Clark, John Stanley, 
Bartlett Yancey, Leonard Henderson, John Branch, William 
Miller, Simmons J. Baker, George E. Badger, Kemp Plummer, 
Thomas D. Bennehan, Willie P. Mangum, James Mebane, John 
Witherspoon, John B. Baker, James Iredell, William D. Martin, 
Joseph B. Skinner, James C. Johnson, Enoch Sawyer, Alfred 
Moore, John D. Toomer, John Owen, Gabriel Holmes, Romulus 
M. Saunders, Lewis de Schweinitz, and Thomas P. Devereurx. 

The number was now increased to 65, being the number of 
the counties, but the residence of one in each county was not 
prescribed. Nine additional were elected, namely, Lewis D. 
Herisy, Francis Lister Hawks, Richard Dobbs Spaight, the 
younger, Solomon Graves, James Strudwick Smith, M.D., 
Leonard Martin, Thomas Wharton Blackledge, Thomas Bur- 
gess, and Archibald Roane Ruffin. 

Vacancies were to be filled by the General Assembly. The 
extraordinary power was given to the Board at their annual 
meetings to remove a Trustee for improper conduct, provided 
fifteen should be present. The usual quorum was fixed at seven. 
Special meetings were authorized but they could not alter any 
"order, resolution or vote" of an annual meeting. The restric- 
tion on the power of special meetings was made more stringent 
by an act passed in 1824. 

The active Trustees at this period were William Miller, John 
Branch, Edward Jones, James Mebane, Frederick Nash, David 
Stone, Henry Seawell, President Caldwell, John Haywood, 
Thomas D. Bennehan, William Polk, Wm. McPheeters, D.D., 
James Webb, Thomas Ruffin, A. B. Murphey, Simmons J. 
Baker, Robert Williams, of Raleigh, James Iredell, of Edenton, 
afterwards Raleigh. 

In this year on the urgency of President Caldwell, the Trus- 
tees resolved to add a story to the Old East and to build the 
Old West of the same size, and also a new Chapel. The neces- 




Old West Building. 




Gerrard Hall, South Side, Before Removal of Porch. 



FACULTY OPPOSE NEW BUILDINGS. 28l 

sary funds were expected from the Tennessee land sales, and 
in anticipation thereof $10,000 was borrowed from the banks. 
Two years afterwards $20,000 additional was authorized, and 
the bank stock of the University, in the total 375 shares, pledged 
for re-payment. Afterwards another $10,000 was raised in the 
same way. The committeee recommended that the permission 
of the General Assembly should be obtained but this was not 
done. The salary of the President was at the same time in- 
creased to $1,600. 

The resolution to enter upon the construction of new buildings 
was in opposition to the views of the Faculty. In an earnest 
paper, in the handwriting of Professor Mitchell, it was urged 
that the true policy was to purchase books and apparatus. "The 
first impression of enlightened strangers is uniformly favor- 
able," they say. "But when we show them our library and in- 
form them that we have little or no philosophical apparatus, we 
sink even more than is reasonable in their estimation." 

It seems that the large room in the middle of the south side 
on the first floor of the South Building, now the Taw Room, 
extended to the third floor, and was called Prayer Hall. The 
Faculty recommended that a floor be thrown across this at the 
second story and the space below be turned into two large lodg- 
ing rooms, which by an arrangement common in other colleges 
might be used for recitation rooms. The second story might 
be used for a Library and Philosophical Chamber. The present 
Library should be converted into two lecture rooms. These 
changes would provide for 106 students in all, and perhaps 
room might be made in the fourth story of the South Building, 
thus accommodating no. The proportions of those living in 
the University buildings to those living without last session 
were 82 to 68. The alterations would make the numbers 106 
to 44, or no to 40. 

The petition closes with this extraordinary argument and 
prediction. If invested in apparatus, the property will not be 
perishable. "Instruments with careful usage will be as valuable 
one hundred years hence as now." 

The Trustees could not be diverted from their purpose, but 
they resolved to purchase the apparatus, some of which after 



282 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the lapse of 75 years is still used. The floor was thrown above 
Prayer Hall, but the room below was not divided but converted 
into a Chemical Laboratory. The ceiling was built and the 
rooms above made into a combined Library and Lecture Room 
for the President and Professor of Rhetoric. The stately books, 
dust-covered and unread, remained until the erection of Smith 
Hall in 1852. 

At the same time the cupola on the South Building was torn 
down because of its ruinous and leaky condition, and the roof 
made continuous. The cupola was not replaced until after the 
expiration of over thirty years. 

The work on all the buildings was left to Wm. Nichols, archi- 
tect of the old Capitol at Raleigh. The plan was for him to 
make contracts for lumber, labor and other things necessary and 
obtain the funds for paying for the same from the Building 
Committee, often advancing the amounts out of his own re- 
sources. It was found that the two buildings and some repairs 
and changes in the South Building would cost $26,587.54, in- 
cluding $1,000 for commissions for the services and compensa- 
tion of Nichols, including also surveying and laying off some 
lots at Chapel Hill. The bricks were made on the University 
lands, the water being obtained from the spring south of the 
present Athletic Field known as Brickyard, but in old days, 
Rock Spring. 

After this settlement, which exhausted the funds on hand, 
the Building Committee concluded that the prospect of sales of 
Tennessee lands and collections for those already sold justified 
them in proceeding with the erection of the new Chapel. A 
bargain was made with Mr. Nichols that he should assume the 
responsibility of all payments and await the convenience of the 
Trustees for re-imbursements. Probably on account of the 
panic of 1825 he was unable to meet the demands upon him. 
The creditors urged their claims upon the Trustees. The Com- 
mittee therefore deemed it best to stop the work and discharge 
all the debts, especially as there was no prospect of funds 
from any source necessary for completing the building. The 
amount expended, together with compensation to Nichols, was 
$3,410.14. There was abundant hostile criticism of his man- 



END OF GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 283 

agement, which the committee frankly admitted to have been 
wasteful and costly. They excused themselves partly by their 
distance from Chapel Hill and partly by the fact that the Super- 
intendent was for several months disabled by a dislocated ankle. 

Exit the Grammar School — Commencements, i820-'2o,. 

When Abner W. Clopton gave up the Grammar School in 
1819, the University abandoned it. At that time there was an 
uncommonly good classical school in Hillsboro called the Hills- 
boro Academy. The general superintendence was under Rev. 
Dr. John Witherspoon, but the active teacher was Mr. John 
Rogers, who had distinguished himself in his profession at Wil- 
mington. President Caldwell induced them to agree that their 
institution should be preparatory to the University. Members 
of the faculty could participate in the periodical examinations 
of the pupils and those passing the examinations of the highest 
classes had a right to enter the University on certificate of the 
fact. 

The old Grammar School house was then left to the bats and 
owls, but was after some years in the occupancy of a family 
whose head was the last survivor in this section of a class, im- 
portant in the early settlement of the country, and interesting 
figures in fiction— that of the professional hunter. His name 
was Peyton Clements. 

Notwithstanding that the University ceased its connection 
with a preparatory school at Chapel Hill, sundry teachers en- 
deavored to supply its place. The first was a graduate of the 
class of 1816, James A. Craig, who advertised extensively in 
the Raleigh Register, then the State Gazette. We have no 
means of knowing his success, but feel sure that parents at a 
distance were not willing to send to him their boys of tender 
years. Certainly when Judge Battle and others in 1843 an ^ 
1844 attempted, with very competent teachers, to inaugurate a 
flourishing academy at Chapel Hill the number of pupils did 
not exceed a dozen, not one of whom was from abroad. The 
schools here relied on local patronage and that was meagre. 
Still from time to time, intermittently, there have been teachers 
of intelligence and skill, and many of their boys have taken a 
high stand in the Universitv. 



284 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROUNA. 

The first honor in the class of 1820 was assigned to Charles 
G. Spaight, the next to Wm. H. Battle. Then came Thomas 
B. Slade, Thomas E. Read, Bartholomew F. Moore, James H. 
Otey, and Thomas H. Wright. 

In scholarship a shade the best, Charles G. Spaight, son of 
Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, the elder, who spoke the 
Latin Salutatory, was a man of great promise. He represented 
New Bern in the Legislature but his upward career was cut 
.off by early death. Next to him Battle, to whom the Valedic- 
tory was assigned, was Reporter of the Supreme Court and 
Judge of the Superior and Supreme Courts of this State. 
Another honor speech was by Thomas B. Slade, on Natural 
Philosophy. He emigrated to Columbus, Georgia, and became 
the Principal of the first, great female school in the State, a 
Doctor of Divinity in the Baptist church. Read's career I have 
not been able to trace. Moore was one of the most eminent law- 
yers the State has had, particularly distinguished in constitu- 
tional questions. James H. Otey was the venerable Bishop of 
Tennessee. Wright was a physician and President of the Bank 
of Cape Fear. Connected with this class, but not graduating, 
was John Hill, of Stokes ; a Representative in Congress and 
member of the Convention of 1861, dying soon after voting for 
the Ordinance of Secession. 

The subjects of graduating speeches not named above were: 

Are Banks Beneficial to the Country?, debate by Thomas H. 
Wright and Matt. A. Palmer. 

The Character of Thomas Jefferson, William Royal. 

Ought Colleges to be in Populous Cities or Small Villages ?, 
debate by Phil. H. Thomas and Richard I. Smith. 

Present State of Knowledge, Bartholomew F. Moore. 

Ought Defamation to be Publicly Confronted?, debate by 
Wm. Lea and Henry C. Williams. 

Influence of Surroundings on the Manners and Abilities of 
Men. John C. Taylor. 

Ought a License to be Required for the Practice of Medi- 
cine ?, debate by Charles D. Donoho and Charles G. Rose. 

Classical Literature. Thomas E. Read. 

The Means of Acquiring Influence. Richard Allison. 



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CLASS OF l820 AND 1 82 1. 285 

Ought Interest to be Regulated by Law?, James F. Martin 
and Cyrus A. Alexander. 

The Advantages of Industry, David W. Stone. 

The Character of American Indians, Wm, H. Hardin. 

Ought Novels to be Interdicted by Law?, debate by John M. 
Starke and Archibald G. Carter. 

The Study of Nature. James H. Otey. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred on Malcolm 
G. Purcell and the honorary degree of Bachelor of Arts on 
Ransom Hubbell. These were students of irregular standing, 
but deemed substantially to have earned the degree. 

The best of the class of 1821 was J. R. J. Daniel, who spoke 
the Latin Salutatory. Next was Anderson Mitchell, who had 
the Valedictory, and third and fourth were Edward G. Pas- 
teur and Joseph H. Saunders, to whom were assigned respect- 
ively the Natural Philosophy Oration and that on the Belles 
Lettres. 

Intermediate honors were assigned to Willis M. Lea, Wm. 
S. Mhoon, Samuel H. Smith and James Stafford, pronounced 
equal. Next to them were Nathaniel W. Alexander, Nicholas 
J. Drake, Samuel Headen and Charles L. Torrence, also pro- 
nounced equal. 

Daniel became Attorney-General of this State and Repre- 
sentative in Congress, then a planter in Louisiana; Mitchell a 
Tutor in this University, a Representative in Congress and then 
a Judge ; Pasteur was a Judge in Alabama ; Saunders, a Tutor 
in this University, an Episcopal clergyman, who sacrificed his 
life for his flock in a yellow fever pestilence in Pensacola, the 
father of Colonel William L. Saunders, of the class of 1854. 

Of the others Mhoon became State Treasurer; Thomas J. 
Lacey, a Judge in Arkansas ; and George Washington Hay- 
wood, a leader of the Raleigh bar. 

Of the non-graduates, Spier Whitaker was Attorney-General 
of North Carolina and settled in Iowa after the Civil War. 

A matriculate of this year, Leonidas Polk, son of Col. Wm. 
Polk, became a graduate of West Point, then Bishop of Louis- 
iana, Lieutenant-General of the Confederacy, and was killed on 
Pine Mountain in Georgia in 1864. 



28C) HISTORY UNIVERSITY Oi : NORTH CAROLINA. 

For the Commencement of 1821 there was projected a scheme 
of exercises of portentous length. On Monday evening was 
"Public Speaking," presumably declamations, by Messrs. Joel 
Holleman, George W. Whitfield, James H. Dickson, Wm. M. 
Inge, Alfred Scales, Abram Rencher and James Norwood. 

On Tuesday evening was Public Speaking by Messrs. Robert 
V. Ogden, Benjamin Sumner, George S. Bettner, Robert B. Gil- 
liam, Daniel B. Baker, John W. Norwood and John W. Potts. 

On Wednesday evening were declamations by representatives 
of the two societies. On Thursday, besides the speeches by the 
honor men, were the following "disputes:" 

1. Has the Art of Husbandry been advanced more by the 
Philosophical Agriculturist than by the Practical Farmer? De- 
baters, Wm. A. Mebane and Wm. Murphey. 

2. Have the Moderns equaled the Ancients in Eloquence? 
Debaters, Robert Cowan and Bryan S. Croom. 

3. Is it probable that the Aborigines of America would ever 
have equalled the Ancient Romans if they never had had inter- 
course with the Europeans? Debaters, Frederick J. Cutlar and 
Henry S. Garnett. 

4. Is it Sound Policy in the People of North Carolina to open 
and improve the navigation of their rivers and coasts ? De- 
baters, Benjamin F. Blackledge and G. W. Haywood. 

5. Are early Marriages to be recommended? Debaters, 
Pleasant Henderson and William Shaw. 

■ 6. Is a Public preferable to a Private Education ? Debaters, 
Rufus Haywood and James Taylor; Thompson Johnston, Um- 
pire. 

7. Has the Advancement of the Arts promoted the Happi- 
ness of Mankind? Debaters, Johnson Alves and Thomas J. 
Lacey. 

On November 22, 1821, probably by the potent influence of 
State Treasurer Haywood. Charles Manly, a young lawyer, 
who had married Haywood's niece, was elected Secretary and 
Treasurer of the University in place of General Robert Wil- 
liams, deceased. The books of Williams were in such disorder 
that an expert accountant, Daniel Dupre, was employed to 
straighten them and the expense, $110, collected out of his 



NEW SECRETARY AND PROFESSOR. 287 

estate. There was no suspicion of fault except carelessness. 
Manly was an excellent officer, and being a polished speaker, 
of imposing manners, and an humorous reconteur, he was a wel- 
come visitor to the annual Commencements for 48 years. In 
1848 and 1849 ne attended as Governor and President of the 
Board of Trustees, Major Charles L. Hinton holding the office 
of Secretary and Treasurer until the expiration of his term as 
Governor, and restoring it to him in 1850. 

In January, 1822, the community was thrown into a small- 
pox panic by the tidings that ten newly arrived students had 
slept in Tarboro, a village where that fell disease was prevalent. 
Among them were Augustus Moore, David Outlaw and Sim- 
mons J. Baker. The Faculty promptly ordered them to be 
"rusticated'' five miles from Chapel Hill until the danger was 
passed. 

On account of ill health Prof. Wm. Hooper resigned his Pro- 
fessorship of Ancient Languages and became rector of St. 
John's Episcopal Parish in Fayetteville. He recommended as 
his successor Mr. Manton Eastburn, of Massachusetts, after- 
wards Bishop, as having distinguished literary acquirements, 
particularly in the classics. He was a "brother of the young man 
whose late untimely end Piety and Poetry must so long lament." 
Professor Hooper adds the suggestion that it might be agree- 
able to many of the influential families of the State to have an 
Episcopal representative in the Faculty. 

President Caldwell, however, acting on the endorsement of 
Professor Goodrich, of Yale College, recommended Mr. Ethan 
Allen Andrews, of Connecticut. He would bring the Univer- 
sity "merit, talent and solid worth." He was a Senior when 
Messrs. Mitchell and Olmstead were Freshmen, obtaining the 
first honor in a class of sixty ; a fine scholar and of classical 
taste. His profession was that of the law, and he had been a 
member of the Legislature. "His connections are numerous and 
respectable." A strong praise of Prof. Hooper was given. 

At the Commencement of 1822, the graduates being 28 in 
number, the highest honor men were Benjamin Sumner, who 
delivered the Latin Salutatory; Robert N. Ogden, the Valedic- 
tory, with an oration on the Moral Sublime ; and Joel Holleman, 
the Natural Philosophy address. 



288 HISTORY UNIVERSITY 01? NORTH CAROLINA. 

Of the other orators, Benjamin F. Haywood and Thomas Hill 
dared to attack the venerable question, "Is Homer's Iliad Actual 
History ?" ; Joseph A. Hogan endeavored to elucidate the char- 
acter of Byron's Poetry; Lucius J. Polk and Wm. D. Pickett 
discussed whether the new South American States would con- 
tinue to enjoy Political Freedom, while James Bowman dis- 
coursed on Eloquence, whether eloquently or not does not ap- 
pear; Robert J. Martin plunged into State politics and proved 
that a Convention should be called to rectify inequalities in 
representation in the General Assembly. In the afternoon Wm. 
B. Davies spoke on Belles Lettres, William D. Jones on Intel- 
lectual Philosophy, Thomas F. Davis and Robert H. Mason de- 
bated whether Studies, not having immediate bearing on Politi- 
cal Life, are a part of a Liberal Education. The Cultivation of 
Good Morals was inculcated by one whose name is not given, 
probably by one of those to be preachers, John L. Davies, Wm. 
A. Hall or James G. Hall, who had not already spoken. 

Of the honor men of the class of 1822, Benjamin Sumner, 
a relation of Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner, was an esteemed 
Classical teacher and member of the Legislature; Robert N. 
Ogden, Judge of the Superior Court of Louisiana, and Joel 
Holleman, a Representative in Congress from Virginia. Other 
members were Thomas F. Davis, Bishop of South Carolina ; 
John G. Elliott, a quaint but able teacher, so cadaverous as to 
receive the nickname of Ghost, which he good-humoredly 
adopted as his middle name; Fabius J. Haywood, a physician of 
Raleigh, of large practice ; Pleasant W. Kittrell, State Repre- 
sentative of Granville, an esteemed physician and University 
Trustee ; Wm. D. Pickett, a Judge of the Superior Court of Ala- 
bama ; Lucius J. Polk, planter, Adjutant-General of Tennessee ; 
Abram W. Rencher, member of Congress, Governor of New 
Mexico, and Charge d'Affaires to Portugal. 

Of the non-graduates, conspicuous were Patrick Henry Win- 
ston, of Rockingham County, a learned old bachelor, lawyer 
and Reporter of the Supreme Court, and Hugh McQueen, At- 
torney-General of the State, a brilliant speaker of irregular 
habits, who emigrated to Texas. He wrote a book called 
"Touchstone of Oratory." He recommends the young orator 



STATE GEOLOGIST — CLASS OF 1 823. 289 

to strengthen his vocal chords by declaiming extracts of great 
speeches as loudly as God gives him the power, preferably in 
the depths of a forest. 

State Geologist. 

In this year (1822) the General Assembly authorized a Board 
of Agriculture, and in the next year gave the Board authority 
to employ a "person of competent skill and science to commence 
and carry on a geological and mineralogical survey of this 
State." The modest sum of $250 per annum for four years, 
and a year in addition, was appropriated. The Board employed 
Professor Olmsted, who made a report which was published, 
the first probably of any State in the Union. After he returned 
to Yale the survey was continued by Prof. Mitchell, who made 
one report. The appropriation was not renewed. Both Pro- 
fessors made tours through the State. Part of the diary of Dr. 
Mitchell is published as the James Sprunt Historical Mono- 
graph of 1906. 

Of the class of 1823, in number 28, Richmond M. Pearson, 
afterwards Judge of the Superior and Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, was first and spoke the Latin Salutatory. Wm. 
S. Chapman was also first with the Valedictory, afterwards a 
Judge in Alabama. Thomas G. Graham, second honor man, 
was a physician ; Robert B. Gilliam became Speaker of the 
House and a Judge of the Superior Court ; Daniel W. Courts 
became State Senator and Treasurer; George S. Bettner was 
a physician in New Bern and New York, and author of a book 
called "Acton, or the Circle of Life ;" James H. Dickson was 
a physician of wide reputation, author of an admirable address 
before the Alumni Association ; and James Augustus Washing- 
ton achieved a national reputation as a physician. 

Matriculating with these, though not graduating, were Wm. 
M. Inge, a Judge in Tennessee ; Alexander D. Sims, a member 
of Congress in South Carolina ; and Thomas Jefferson Green, 
a member of the Legislatures of North Carolina, Florida, Cali- 
fornia and Texas, a member of the Texas Congress when it was 
a Republic and a Brigadier-General in the Texan army. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on John 

19 



2<J0 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OS NORTH CAROLINA. 

Stark Ravenscroft, the first Episcopal Bishop of North Caro- 
lina. 

We have the list of speakers on Commencement Day: 

Richmond M. Pearson, the Latin Salutatory. 

Thomas G. Graham, Natural Philosophy. 

Debate — Ought Military Posts be established on Columbia 
River?, Alexander M. Boylan against James K. Leitch. 

Robert B. Gilliam, American Literature. 

George F. Davidson, Character of the Irish. 

James H. Dickson, Will the new States of South America 
continue free? 

James A. Washington, Superstition of the Hindoos. 

George S. Bettner, Belles Lettres. 

Daniel W. Courts, Theatrical Entertainments. 

Thomas J. Sumner, Oratory. 

John Rains, Effects of the Waverly Novels. 

Win. S. Chapman, Sympathy, with the Valedictory. 

The grades of Pearson. Chapman and Graham have been 
mentioned. The third distinction was given to Bettner, Rains 
and Washington. What was called the "intermediate'" grade 
was assigned to James H. Dickson, Robert B. Gilliam, Thomas 
J. Sumner, George E. Davidson, Daniel W. Courts and Mat- 
thias E. Sawyer. 

Nineteen out of twenty-eight members of the Senior class of 
1823 concluded, after they had passed their final examinations, 
to celebrate the event by having a "high old time." They pro- 
cured a large quantity of whiskey and brandy and carried it to 
a gushing spring north of the village, known as Eoxhall, doubt- 
less a corruption of Vauxhall. once a London pleasure resort, 
and proceeded to get on, as the phrase goes, a "glorious drunk." 
The tradition of the extravagance of this carousal lingers yet 
about the village. After the reason of one of them was in a 
measure dethroned, he proceeded to make a wholesale toddy 
by pouring the liquor into the spring, forgetting how rapidly 
it would be diluted. 

On being summoned before the Faculty the delinquents 
pleaded that they entered into the revelry because it was the 
last time thev would be tog-ether, and these final "treats," as 



CALDWELL S VISIT TO EUROPE. 291 

they were called, were customary with the Senior classes. The 
sentence was that "proper concessions and acknowledgments" 
shall be made by all, except one, and that then their diplomas 
should be granted. Direful threatenings were made as to future 
like disorders. The excepted student almost lost his diploma, 
because, in addition to being inattentive to all his duties, he had 
behaved in a riotous manner on the streets after the "Senior 
treat." Among the festive youths of 1823 were a future Chief 
Justice, a State Treasurer, two Judges of the Superior Court, 
four prominent physicians, several able lawyers and other like 
good citizens. It is comforting to know T that the excepted one 
wrote such a feeling and dignified letter of contrition as to 
induce the Faculty to pardon him and the tale of the class, was 
not lessened. 

About this time two students were accused of writing scur- 
rilous and defamatory letters. One confessed and was repri- 
manded. The other, who falsely denied his guilt and had com- 
mitted the same offence before, was suspended. He afterwards 
attained high legislative and judicial positions. It is altogether 
likely, though not so stated, that the defamation was abuse of 
the Faculty. 

Caldwell's Visit to Europe. 

In February, 1824, President Caldwell addressed to the Board 
very important recommendations. The first was for the pur- 
chase of more books. Much advantage was derived from the 
expenditure for this purpose of the two dollars per annum fee 
from each student, but this was not sufficient. Without it "we 
must have become completely stationary, within limits, which if 
known to others, would have been disgraceful." "A Professor 
in a college without books in tolerable supply, is analagous to 
the creation of nobility, which for want of estate is obliged to 
live in rags." He then compares a bookless Professor to a law- 
yer without a legal library, to a shoemaker without awls or 
lasts, to a printer with insufficient types. Books were much 
cheaper in England than in America and cheaper on the Conti- 
nent than in England. 

He added that it was impossible to carry on the study of Nat- 
ural, sometimes called Experimental. Philosophv. without a 
proper supply of apparatus. For the purchase of such a reliable 



292 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

agent is necessary. "An Astronomical Clock, a Transit Instru- 
ment, an Astronomical Telescope, are articles of high cost, and 
if they be not really good, they are so much money thrown 
away, only to tantalize us with standing objects of chagrin and 
disappointment." Makers of philosophical apparatus, unless 
carefully watched, will have their defective articles "mingled 
with the mass of his instruments of the same kind and talked 
off upon the terms of the best." 

The President then modestly suggests his willingness to act 
for the Trustees, paying his own expenses. He would be com- 
pensated for the sacrifice by "personal improvement and acces- 
sion of strength in regard to the affairs of the University." He 
submits to the judgment of the Trustees. Whatever they shall 
judge to be the best he "shall be prepared to admit in a moment, 
and to settle upon it with the utmost complacency and conclu- 
siveness." The offer involved a trip to Europe, then a very ex- 
pensive and prolonged journey, full of physical discomforts. 

The Trustees felt strong enough to spend $6,000, to be di- 
vided equally between books and apparatus, and accepted the 
offer of the President. We have a long letter of his to Dr. 
Olmsted giving some account of his voyage. The writer was 
singularly lacking in enthusiasm, the wonderful sights of the 
Old World not seeming to quicken the heart-throbs of the 
back-woods mathematician. It is dated London, August 31, 
1824. It was forwarded by "Y. A. Steamer, Thomas W. Evans. 
Liverpool," and was received at New York October 4th. It is 
as follows : 

"It is now, it seems, more than two months since I arrived 
at Liverpool from New York, and more than three since I left 
the latter of these cities. After arriving in London I continued 
nearly a month in the city, first visiting places and institutions 
of importance and becoming acquainted with books and book- 
sellers, and instruments and instrument-makers. Having in- 
formed myself of circumstances and characters I made a num- 
ber of purchases and engagements, and set off in a steam packet 
which runs between London and Edinburgh. After a pas- 
sage of 3 1-2 days we 'arrived on the Forth, where the scenery 
of Scotland began to open upon our view. This was character- 



CALDWELL IN SCOTLAND. 293 

ized by what is known as North Berwick Low, and Bass Rock 
at the entrance of the Forth, as well as several other elevated 
places, presenting the first appearance of those masses of rock, 
of which Scotland seems very much composed. After having 
a pretty rough passage along the British coast of the German 
ocean, during which most of the passengers and myself too, 
at last became sick, we found a beautiful contrast in the tran- 
quility and glossy smoothness of the Forth. I continued in 
Edinburgh 10 days, and then passing over to Glasgow, and 
staying some days, I set out for Loch Lomond, Rob Roy's Cave, 
the Highlands, Loch Katrine and the Trosachs, returning by 
Callender, Doane and Stirling to Edinburgh, down the Forth 
in a steamboat. I stayed two or three days between Loch Lo- 
mond and Loch Katrine, among the mountains, in a house or 
rather a cluster of buildings, called the Garrison, which had 
been built 120 years ago, or more, as a station for troops, to 
keep in check the wild clansmen of those times and subdue them 
to the English power. The garrison is about a mile from Rob's 
Cave, and from a spot where they tell us his house probably 
stood. One object for staying here was to be for some time in 
the country of the shepherds, whom I visited in their cottages 
to observe their mode of life and opportunities and customs and 
state of society. This is the tour which is very commonly made 
by people from England and the Lowlands of Scotland, and its 
objects have had much interest added to them by the writings 
of Sir W. Scott. While in Loch Lomond I attempted to visit 
the summit of Ben Lomond, the highest mountain but one in 
Scotland, but when near the top I was driven back by a storm, 
and was thus prevented from seeing those extensive prospects, 
which constitute the principal object of the ascent. 

"After my return to Edinburgh, reflecting to how little pur- 
pose it is to be visiting universities during their vacations, as I 
had some occasion to experience in Edinburgh, I concluded to 
postpone my visits to Cambride and Oxford till after my return 
from the Continent, and traveled sometimes on foot, but for the 
most part by coach to this place, whence I am expecting to set 
out for Paris this week. Present me respectfully and affec- 
tionately to Mrs. Olmstead and Miss Harriet and all my 
friends." 



294 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The apparatus bought by the President was the best manu- 
factured in that day. It is a remarkable proof of his sensitive 
integrity, that when part of it was lost by shipwreck, he offered 
to the Trustees to replace it out of his own funds. The follow- 
ing statement by our Professor of Physics shows that some of 
the implements are in good order after the wear and tear, and 
at other times, neglect and misuse, of three-quarters of a cen- 
tury. Professor Gore further states that the full list of pur- 
chases shows that they were made with excellent judgment. 

Apparatus purchased by Dr. Caldwell of W. & S. Jones.. No. 30, oppo- 
site Furnival's Inn Holborn, London. 

June 26th, 1829, and still in good condition: 

1 3-feet Plate Electrical Machine. 

1 Jointed Discharger. 

1 Powder House. 

1 Diamond Spotted Jar. 

1 Universal Discharger. 

1 12-in. Convex Mirror in blackened frame. 

Mrs. Fannie DeB. Whitaker has presented to the University, 
among other papers found among those of her grandfather, Dr. 
William Hooper, the account of Francis McPherson, for a por- 
tion of the books purchased : 53 volumes of Delphin Classics, 
89 to 141, were rated £55. 13s., about $277.25, or £1 is. ($5.25) 
each ; for binding 83 volumes, calf, lettered contents, hollow 
backs and bands, £12 9s., or 3c. each; the packing case, 10s., 
shipping expenses, duty, etc., £17; the whole bill being iyy is. 
6d. This is given to show the prices of that day. 

The account rendered by the President showed an expendi- 
ture — 

For books $3,234.74 

Philosophical and astronomical apparatus 3,361.35 

Minerals 9 . 00 

Boxing, packing, transportation and exchange 632.92 

7,238.01 

which exceeded the appropriation ($6,000) by $1,238.01. This 
excess was paid by the President, but refunded by the Board. 
The number of volumes of books purchased was 979. Mr. Cat- 



RECEPTION AT HOME. 295 

tell, a bookseller in London, presented the University six vol- 
umes in folio, the works of Thuanus, and the British and For- 
eign Bible Society donated six volumes of the minutes of the 
Society, also 48 volumes, being copies of the Bible in different 
languages. 

One of Dr. Caldwell's most worthy pupils, the late Paul C. 
Cameron, whose love and admiration continued fresh during a 
long life of over four-score years after leaving his instruction, 
gives a vivid picture of his reception on his arrival from 
Europe. 

"A trip to Europe was not then a summer's jaunt of a few 
weeks, but caused his absence for nearly a year; and on his 
return to New York he announced his arrival to Prof. Mitchell, 
the acting President of the University, and the probable day 
of his arrival in Chapel Hill. He was on time. The students 
of the University resolved on a welcome. A brilliant illumi- 
nation — the first and only one ever made in these buildings — 
was resolved on and it was an entire success. Well do I recall 
the splendor of that night and the procession of the students 
to his residence and his stepping out upon the floor of the back 
piazza — the cheer after cheer that was given to the dear old 
man. Falling into line, the march back to the college was com- 
menced, and on our arrival at the front door of the South Build- 
ing the President was escorted to a stand near the well, from 
which he addressed the students and the entire village popula- 
tion with the affection of a long absent father, for he was indeed 
full of feeling, and it was with difficulty he could give utterance 
to his words. He was escorted back to his modest home, and 
the impression prevailed that it was the happiest day of his 
life — the consummation of his supreme joy." 

At their meeting in December, 1825, the Trustees unani- 
mously thanked the President for his "faithful and judicious 
discharge of the trust committed to him, and that he be assured 
of the unabated confidence of the Trustees in his ability and 
devotion, at once honorable to him, gratifying to the Trustees 
and useful to the community." The resolution was drawn by 
Mr. Badger, who had a deserved reputation for felicitous Eng- 
lish. 



2y6 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The highest honor men of the class of 1824 were Edmund D. 
Sims, of Virginia; Matthias Evans Manly, Thomas Dews, and 
William Alexander Graham. The second honor man was E. 
J. Frierson. The third, John W. Norwood, James H. Norwood, 
Benjamin B. Blume, Robert Hall, Henry E. Coleman, Thomas 
Bond, Augustus Moore and David Outlaw. Sims spoke the 
Latin Salutatory, Manly the Valedictory, Dews the Mathemati- 
cal Oration, and to Graham was assigned the Classical oration. 

The other speakers at Commencement were : 

Should the United States assist the South American Re- 
public against Spain and the Holy Alliance?, by Bromfield L. 
Ridley. 

The Character of the North American Indians, by James H. 
Norwood. 

Will Greece emancipated attain the eminence of Ancient 
Greece?, Daniel B. Baker. 

Perpetuity of the United States, Henry E. Coleman. 

The Effects of the French Revolution on Liberty, Benjamin 
B. Blume. 

The Effects of the Invention of Printing, Augustus Moore. 

Should a Professorship of Law be established at the Univer- 
sity? James W. Bryan. 

The Mahometan Religion, Thomas Bond. 

American Literature, John W. Norwood. 

Should the American Colonization Society receive the pat- 
ronage of the Public, Robert H. Booth. 

Of the foregoing, Sims was Tutor in this University and Pro- 
fessor in Randolph-Macon and the University of Alabama; 
Matthias E. Manly was Speaker of the State Senate, Judge of 
the Superior and Supreme Courts of this State, elected in 1866 
United States Senator, but not allowed to take his seat. Thomas 
Dews became a very able lawyer, but dying early. William A. 
Graham, State Senator and Commoner, Speaker of the House, 
United States Senator, Secretary of the Navy, nominee for the 
Vice-Presidency on the Winfield Scott ticket, member of the 
Convention of 1861, Confederate States Senator, Trustee for 
thirty-five years and a warm supporter of the University. To 
him was assigned the classical oration. 



CLASS OF 1824 NEW BUILDINGS. 297 

Other noted graduates of 1824 were Daniel B. Baker, Judge 
of the Superior Court of Florida ; John Bragg, member of Con- 
gress and Judge of the Superior Court of Alabama ; James W. 
Bryan, strong lawyer, Trustee of the University and State Sen- 
ator from Craven ; A. J. DeRosset, physician and merchant of 
Wilmington, Treasurer of the Dioceses of North and East Car- 
olina and often Deputy in the General Conventions of the Epis- 
copal church ; Augustus Moore, Judge of the Superior Court 
of North Carolina ; John W. Norwood, able lawyer and member 
of the Legislature ; David Outlaw, member of Congress, State 
Solicitor, State Senator and Delegate to the Convention of 1835 5 
and Bromfield L. Ridley, Chancellor of Tennessee. 

On December 19, 1824, Dr. James S. Smith addressed a com- 
munication to the Board recommending the employment of a 
regular physician for the students, to be compensated by a fee 
from each. He expressed his willingness to undertake the work 
himself, and in addition conduct a private Medical School to- 
gether with an Eye Infirmary. Dr. Smith was a physician of 
established reputation, a Trustee of the University, and had been 
a Representative in Congress. The plan was not adopted until 
three-quarters of a century later. Soon, however, there was 
urgent need of skilled medical service. 

In this year a settlement was had with Wm. Nichols, who en- 
joyed the double position of supervisor and builder. The ac- 
counts seem to show that there was a want of careful superin- 
tendence by Nichols. One of the entries is, "to sundry persons 
at sundry times, upon several drafts at sundry times by the 
Building Committee" $7,402.04." The final account is "Labor 
and material in repairing President's House, Steward's Hall, 
getting timber, making bricks and building new Chapel, taking 
down cupola from the South Building, repairing roof and build- 
ing belfry," in addition to the expense of building the West 
Building, $26,587.57. The Trustees became disgusted with the 
continual drain from their treasury, and as the receipts of sales 
of Tennessee lands had greatly dwindled, the new Chapel (Ger- 
rard Hall) was suffered to be unfinished and unoccupied for 
over ten years. The delusion that it was necessary to have the 
Building Committee composed of members of the Board, al- 



298 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

though they lived a day's journey from Chapel Hill, proved to 
be very expensive in practice. The notion that college profes- 
sors lacked practical sense was probably the cause of the de- 
lusion. 

Some College Pranks. 

Colonel Benjamin Forsyth was killed in battle in Canada in 
the war of 1812 and gave his name to a county. The education 
of his son, James N., was being paid for by the General Assem- 
bly. In 1824 he forfeited his place in the University by irregu- 
lar conduct. He afterwards entered the navy and was lost 
with the ship Hornet, on which he was a petty officer. 

One division of the Sophomores and the whole of the Fresh- 
man class absented themselves from recitation on the morning 
of Senior speaking. They were all required individually to 
acknowledge the impropriety of their conduct, and pledge them- 
selves to refrain from similar conduct in the future. All gladly 
complied except R. J., who was dismissed. Ten days after- 
wards he made the required promises and was readmitted. 

In 1824 occurred a flagrant outrage. A. A. and L. K. loaded 
themselves with whiskey in the village grog-shop, and arming 
themselves, one with a club and the other with a pistol, "sallied 
forth for the purpose of attacking the persons of different mem- 
bers of the Faculty." They committed "violent outrages" on 
two of the persons hunted. 

The Faculty concluded that extraordinary proceedings were 
necessary. The Trustees resident in Orange County were sum- 
moned to meet with the Faculty to consider the case, namely, 
Thomas D. Bennehan, Esq., Honorable Duncan Cameron, 
Francis L. Hawks, Esq., Hon. Thomas Ruffin, Dr. James S. 
Smith, Dr. James Webb. 

The Faculty present were Rev. Elisha Mitchell, Presiding 
Professor ; Ethan A. Andrews, Joseph H. Saunders, Elisha 
Young. Dr. Caldwell was in Europe. 

The young criminals expressed their regret for their miscon- 
duct, but it appeared to the authorities assembled impossible 
that the peace and good order of the institution could be main- 
tained, if such outrages were permitted to pass without exem- 
plary punishment. The said A. A. and L. K. were therefore 



LAWLESS CONDUCT. 299 

expelled. As we now say. "the line was drawn" at cudgelling 
the Faculty with sticks, while looking into the muzzle of loaded 
pistols. 

W. R. was dismissed for twice throwing brickbats into the 
room of the Tutor. 

A youth, who afterwards became a distinguished physician, 
came from the village in a state of intoxication and disturbed 
the good order of the College in a most outrageous and violent 
manner. As this was the first offence, he was sentenced to 
receive an admonition in the presence of the Faculty, and a 
minute of the proceedings was read in the Chapel after evening 
prayers. 

There was a strange occurrence, at this day not to be ac- 
counted for. In November. 1828. after the students assembled 
for divine worship in the Chapel on Sunday morning, thirty of 
them retired from the hall, not all at once but by degrees. The 
Faculty proceeded next morning to investigate the matter. It 
was explained that two laws of the institution, one certainly 
and the other apparently, had been broken. The first was ab- 
sence from Divine service, the second combination or conspiracy 
to break a law. The absentees were severally examined as to 
their conduct. Seven at once gave satisfactory excuses, and 
were allowed to retire. At an adjourned meeting six others 
offered valid excuses for withdrawing. The remaining seven- 
teen after being questioned disavowed any combination, and the 
trial was ended. The causa causaus of the movement cannot 
be ascertained, possibly some transient anger against the 
preacher. Some of the most orderly students were among the 
retiring party, for instance, Wm. Eaton. R. H. Smith of Hali- 
fax, Cadwallader Jones of Hillsboro, Judge James Grant of 
Iowa. 

On the resignation of Professor Olmsted, passed into the 
ownership of the University the dwelling occupied for many 
years by Dr. James Phillips and of late by President Yenable. 
Belonging to a widow lady, Mrs. Puckett, it was bought from 
her for $1,300 by Dr. Denison Olmsted, who spent $900 on it 
by way of additions and repairs. After having converted, to 
use his language, "an awkward, inconvenient and rude struc- 
ture into a handsome, commodious and neat dwelling," a de- 



300 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

scription which must he deemed quite roseate hy those who have 
seen its perpendicular outlines and inconvenient interior, he 
induced the Board of Trustees to take it off his hands at cost, 
using the argument that the expense of removal from New 
Haven and of living had exhausted his funds. The lot was set 
apart for the use of the Professors of Chemistry, hut between 
Dr. Olmsted and Dr. Venable there was an interregnum of 
over three-score years. 

Dr. Olmsted resigned his professorship in December, 1825, 
and accepted that of Mathematics in Yale College, (now Uni- 
versity). In 1836 he was transferred to the Chair of Astron- 
omy and Natural Philosophy. He published text-books of 
value in the departments of science under his charge, and a 
number of biographical memoirs. He made important observa- 
tions on hail, meteors, the aurora borealis, etc., which were 
published in the Smithsonian Contributions. He was born in 
East Hartford, Conn., June 18, 1791, and died May 13, 1859. 
His work in North Carolina has been described elsewhere. 

The distinctions of the class of 1825 were awarded as follows : 

1 st. To John M. Gee, Wm. H. Hodge, and Marshall T. Polk. 

2d. To Wm. J. Bingham, Wm. P. Boylan, James Martin, 
James Moore, and John J. Wyche. 

3d. In the order of their names, to Frederic W. Harrison, 
Walter Alves, Albert Vine Allen, Burwell B. Wilkes, Wm. A. 
Wright, and James C. Bruce. 

The program at Commencement has been lost, except that 
Polk spoke the Latin Salutatory, Hodge the Valedictory, Gee 
the English Salutatory, Wright, Bruce Harrison and Alves had 
what were called Intermediate Orations, but the subjects are 
unknown. 

Of these, Polk, a brother of President Polk, settled in North 
Carolina at Charlotte, and was cut off in early life, considered 
one of the most promising young lawyers in the State. His 
son, of the same name, who became Treasurer of Tennessee, 
not a son of the University, left children who are among the 
best citizens of that State. Hodge was a physician of Tarboro, 
and then of Granville. Wm. A. Wright was an able lawyer of 
Wilmington and President of the Bank of Cape Fear ; Harrison 



SICKNESS. 3OI 

was a physician in Virginia; Bruce a wealthy and cultured 
planter of Virginia, and member of its General Assembly ; Wil- 
liam J. Bingham, the second able Principal of the Bingham 
School, whose fame under him was extended ; Wyche was a 
Tutor of the University and Professor in Jefferson College, 
Mississippi ; Alves, a physician in Kentucky ; Allen, a lawyer of 
much reputation. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was con- 
ferred on Nathaniel Macon, United States Senator; that of 
Master of Arts (A. M.) on Charles Bailly and on John H. 
Eaton, of Tennessee, a matriculate of 1803. To William Glas- 
cock, of Virginia, a matriculate of 1816, was granted the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts (A. B.) 

In August and September of the year 1825 there was a very 
serious sickness in the University, evidently typhoid fever. 
Three students died- — Wm. H. Beard, Zenas Johnston, and 
another whose name is not recorded. The acting President 
reported that the first two brought the seeds of disease with 
them. From an unknown cause it was thought that the air 
was worse than usual, as was shown by the pallid countenances 
of the students generally. There were no ponds or marshes 
near Chapel Hill and the disorder was attributed to "unknown 
conditions of the air or water." The learned Professor drops 
no hints of ferocious and treacherous bacteria. Skilled physi- 
cians had stated that the elevated parts of the country had 
suffered most. He recommends that a resident physician should 
be obtained, who should teach a class of medical students. 

At that date the Faculty had no power to prevent theatrical 
and other shows. Urgent request was made that they be in- 
vested with such authority. A band of strolling players had 
given nightly dramatic performances for a week and had re- 
ceived, it was estimated, $383, more than $300 of which was 
from students. Value received cannot possibly be expected 
from such acting and scenery as can be exhibited in a room 
over a store in this village. The use of the University Chapel 
was refused, as intolerable profanation. The General Assem- 
bly passed a law in compliance with the wishes of the Faculty, 
giving them prohibitory powers. 



3<J2 HISTORY UNIVERSITY Ol' NORTH CAROLINA. 

it is remarkable that complaint was made that the well be- 
tween the building's had gone dry and the water at that of the 
Steward's Hall was muddy. This must have been on account 
of insufficient depth, as pure water in the former has been un- 
failing for the last sixty years certainly. The latter was filled 
up when the Hall was torn down about 1846. 

It is surprising that when Gerrard Hall, designed for the 
new Chapel, was begun the Trustees had it in mind to tear down 
Person Hall. A vigorous remonstrance from the Faculty de- 
feated this vandalism. 

Dr. Mitchell makes the astonishing statement that the old 
trees in the Campus were falling, and there was no under- 
growth from which a supply of new trees was obtainable, and 
he recommends extensive replanting. Thirty years afterwards 
the old trees were so numerous that the English gardener 
deemed it necessary to eradicate many. 

About this time a prominent Trustee of Wake County, about 
to remove to Tennessee, Gen. Calvin Jones, presented to the 
University his "Museum of artificial and natural curiosities." 
Probably some of these are somewhere among the University 
collections, but it is doubtful if they can be identified. 

New By-Laws. 

On motion of Bartlett Yancey, a number of resolutions were 
submitted to a Committee, and at the June meeting, 1825, were 
substantially reported back and adopted. They were : 

1st. The appointment by the Trustees of a Superintendent of 
the property and financial concerns of the University, who 
shall reside at Chapel Hill, give a $10,000 bond, and receive not 
exceeding $500 salary per annum. 

2d. He was to care for all the property of the institution and 
carry out all orders of the Trustees. 

3d. Each student shall pay him all his money, and shall 
pledge his honor to pay all received at any time. The Super- 
intendent shall out of the same pay college dues and other nec- 
essary expenses, the repair of injury to College property done 
by the student ; also such purchases of merchants as the student 
may buy, and to the student not over one dollar pocket-money 
each month. 



NEW BY-LAWS. 303 

4th. He shall pay the board of the student, provided that the 
boarding-house keeper shall have written authority from the 
Faculty. 

5th. He must notify each parent or guardian of the student 
as to the amount paid him, and at the middle and end of each 
session furnish them an account of expenditures. 

6th. No student, under penalty of admonition or suspension, 
shall purchase at Chapel Hill or elsewhere, wares or merchan- 
dise, or spirituous liquors, without consent of the Faculty. 

7th. No student shall change his room without permission 
of the Faculty. 

8th. The Superintendent must visit all rooms at least once 
a week, note the injuries and their perpetrators, and at the end 
of the session take charge of the keys. 

9th. Scribbling and other injuries in passages by unknown 
persons must be charged to those living on the same. 

Thomas H. Taylor, a merchant of Chapel Hill, was appointed 
to the office of Superintendent. He did not give satisfaction, 
and in January, 1829, the Faculty were empowered to choose 
the Superintendent out of their number at a salary of $200. 
They settled on Elisha Mitchell. 

Some Trustees desired to erect another boarding house. In 
the meantime the Board of Visitors was authorized to employ 
some person to live in Steward Hall and to have the privilege of 
firewood and the use of the cleared land adjacent to the Raleigh 
road free. The Board recommended the students to board with 
him. One Moore agreed to rent it for six months, paying fifty 
dollars. 

1st. A uniform dress was prescribed; in summer a coatee of 
dark gray mixture, chiefly cotton, decent and cheap, with white 
pantaloons and waistcoat. In the winter the whole suit must be 
blue. By a subsequent ordinance blue was changed to dark 
gray. 

2d. The wearing of boots was prohibited. It was recom- 
mended that the other parts of the dress should be plain and 
decent, and the persons cleanly. 

3. The Seniors at Commencement might dress as they 
pleased, it being presumed that they would wish superior attire 
on this momentous epoch in their lives. 



304 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Letters were ordered to be written to Trustees, three in num- 
ber, who had not attended any meeting since their appointment, 
asking them if they agreed to accept the office tendered them. 
The movement led to no result. Three letters were written to 
which there was only one response. 

The annual Board of Visitors was reinforced by the addition 
of President Caldwell, who was a Trustee. By this reinforce- 
ment there was always one in attendance. For 1827 the other 
members were Duncan Cameron, James S. Smith, and James 
Webb. 

Messrs. Yancey, Badger, and Moore (Alfred), were ap- 
pointed, on motion of President Caldwell, to prepare a bill for 
prohibiting the distillation or retailing of spirituous liquors at 
or near Chapel Hill, and to prohibit the merchants of the vil- 
lage from trading with the students. This was enacted into a 
law. A Chapel Hill merchant was subject to indictment for 
selling without Faculty permission to a student any article. 
The liquor prohibition still exists. The other, always ignored, 
was repealed years ago. 

Col. Polk's By-Laws — Professors Protest. 

The next year a properly fitted up room in the College build- 
ings was ordered to be assigned to each professor, and it was 
made his duty to be in it from 9 a.m. to 12 m., and from 2 p.m. 
to 5 each day, except "Sundays and other College holidays." 
The object was to aid in the administration of discipline and 
give occasional assistance to the students in their studies. 

It was stated that the nightly visitations of the rooms of 
students by the Tutors had been insufficient to maintain order 
and insure the presence of the students in their apartments. It 
was therefore required that each student's room should be vis- 
ited by a professor at night at least three times a week. 

This rigorous code was at the instance of Col. Win. Polk, 
who always regarded students in the light of soldiers in bar- 
racks and professors as military officers. They were, with some 
modifications, obeyed, by some without failure, by others spas- 
modically, until near the beginning of the Civil War. They led 
to numberless clashings and ill feelings. The halls and campus 
were not lighted, and occasionallv stones and cold water were 



A HARD BY-LAW. 305 

thrown at an unwelcome visitor. One, who was accused of 
opening a drawer of the absent inmate, was forced to hide under 
a table in order to escape the missiles through crashing glass. 
Signals were invented which showed to the listening students 
the progress of the professor, so that card-players would have 
time to open their dictionaries, and the corn-whiskey bottle 
could be safely hid. When the word DOGS ! or FACULTY! 
was shouted from the window of one building, it was the sign 
that those in another might expect at once the professorial 
policeman. While the manners of some professors were so 
agreeable that they were usually welcomed, others were so 
rough that they became odious. Every species of disorder was 
prevalent in the recitation rooms of these latter, partly in the 
spirit of childish fun, but mainly for the annoyance of the 
instructor. 

The professors vigorously protested against the mandatory 
provision in regard to spending their mornings and afternoons 
in the College buildings, and nightly visitation of rooms. Dr. 
Mitchell addressed an able letter to the Board, giving cogent 
reasons against it. He himself could not comply, as he must 
spend most of his time in his laboratory, which was in Stew- 
ard's Hall. It was unfortunate that the professors were not 
consulted, as they are in the position of both witnesses and 
lawyers. The visiting rooms at night will do no good, as stu- 
dents wishing to go on excursions will wait, as they do now in 
case of the Tutors, until the visits are over. The students will 
not consult professors about their studies, as was found by 
experience at Yale and at Chapel Hill. They are afraid of the 
jeers of their fellows. If rooms were provided the professors 
would undoubtedly be in them often and so secure better order 
without requiring them to spend their mornings and evenings 
in them. The professors have not been slow to improve the 
work of the University of their own accord. As an instance, 
when he came to Chapel Hill the two upper classes recited only 
once a day, the lower twice. The Faculty have continually 
increased the number of recitations, and he believes that they 
are more frequent than in any Northern college. The provis- 
ion will be peculiarly burdensome for several reasons : 
20 



3O0 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

J st. As there is no market in Chapel Hill, the professors must 
spend some time in providing for their families. 

2d. For their own studies their libraries should be on hand. 
They cannot be removed to the College rooms. 

3d. Most of the professors are engaged in some study, which 
would be broken up if this regulation is in force. Professor 
Hentz, for example, "perhaps is one of the most accomplished 
Entomologists, perhaps the most accomplished in America." 
He must ramble in the woods two or three evenings in the week. 

The regulation will be a hardship: 1st, Because professors 
would be exposed to a charge of want of fidelity to duty; 2d, 
it is an evil, because it precludes the possibility Of exact com- 
pliance with the laws, and thus gives excuse to students to 
neglect them. 

Such duties are not required of Professors in the American 
Colleges, and those in the wild woods of Chapel Hill, deprived 
of large libraries and scientific and literary journals, except 
what they themselves supply, should not be loaded with duties 
not performed elsewhere. 

If this provision is enforced he apprehends that we will lose 
Mr. Hentz, "a man whose fellow will not be found by the Trus- 
tees in the whole Atlantic coast." He thinks that another will 
be lost. "I shall not be regarded as meaning to threaten the 
Trustees with the good luck of getting clear of the writer of 
this letter. I have had an opportunity within the last two years 
of exchanging my present situation for a professorship in a re- 
spectable college in one of our Northern cities with a salary 
of 2100 Dollars, and, if the allurement of 900 Dollars added to 
his income, and the polished society of a great city, is not 
enough to draw a Yankee away, it is useless to think by the im- 
position of new duties to drive him away." While he deemed 
himself fixed in Chapel Hill, it is likely that some of his col- 
leagues might accept new and more congenial duties. 

Dr. Mitchell was doubtless sincere in announcing his determi- 
nation to stand by the University, because he had no love of 
money and he looked on North Carolina as a luxuriant field for 
botanical, geological, mineralogical and geographical discov- 
eries, and he. had resolved to explore it. 



REPEAL ASKED FOR. 307 

President Caldwell made also an earnest request for the re- 
peal of the law. He declared that visitation of rooms was the 
most unpleasant and arduous duty the Faculty had to perform. 
"They are exposed to petty tricks and occult, insulting" behavior, 
and capricious indignities. One of the chief inconveniences is 
drenching with water, clean or foul, as they pass the steps or 
walk the passages. Such tricks may be performed with great 
perfection by the most trifling genius or idle inhabitant of Col- 
lege, who has no other feeling, but to exult in its dexterity and 
admirable meanness, and then to pass the jest through the circle 
of his companions, thus learning to connect in their feelings 
derision and levity, instead of respectful deportment with the 
person of a Professor." 

The Trustees were partly persuaded by the arguments against 
domiciliary visits. A compromise was made. Rooms were 
allotted to the professors, and they were requested, not required, 
to spend a portion of each day in them, and they were required 
to make nightly visitations only occasionally. As late as 1849 
certainly, perhaps later, each professor in turn was expected to 
visit every room at some time at night during the week as- 
signed him. It became customary to speak of Dr. Mitchell's 
week. Prof. Hooper's week, and so on. Greater tact was shown 
and insults to the Professors were rarely offered. When, how- 
ever, a "spree" was determined on, there was neither civility 
nor forbearance shown. 

Prof. Mitchell, who possessed greater initiative than any of 
his colleagues, about the same time induced the Faculty to 
recommend several changes. 

Firstly, that the long summer vacation be abolished on ac- 
count of its injury to the health of the students, and replaced by 
one of six weeks, immediately preceding commencement, as at 
Harvard and the South Carolina College. Another of four 
weeks in November was proposed. A thrifty argument is 
urged that the May vacation would enable the summer clothing 
to be supplied at home. The change would enable those con- 
nected with the University to explore the State "for Botanical 
and Geological purposes." The objection that this arrange- 
ment would not be convenient to the members of the Board 



308 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

appointed to attend the examinations is met by the half satirical 
statement that, "after repeated alterations of the time and re- 
peated attempts to adjust it to the various wishes of the differ- 
ent individuals, the examinations have been obliged to be carried 
on for several years without the presence of a single Trustee 
until very near its close." It is suggested that suitable literary 
gentlemen be employed and compensated for acting as exam- 
iners. 

If the change should be made the four weeks' recess to the 
Seniors before Commencement should be abolished. 

The memorial embodies a complaint that the present Super- 
intendent, Thomas H. Taylor, had departed from the old custom 
of paying the Faculty from time to time sums out of the tuition 
money, that he retained all his own salary and otherwise appro- 
priated the funds, leaving little for the members of the Faculty. 

It is suggested that the Librarian should be paid for his 
services. 

The President's Report shows that he and his Faculty were 
not yet emancipated from the interference of the Trustees in 
small matters of routine. It is gravely asked that the hiring and 
employment of servants be allowed them. They are disturbed 
about the ordinance about wearing gowns at Commencement. 
By whom were they to be furnished ? Shall all the Faculty and 
students be required to don them? It appears that the Trus- 
tees did not insist on the execution of this mandate. 

A question most earnestly pressed by the Senior class was 
that of a Senior vacation, i. e. a holiday given to them for one 
month before Commencement. Occasionally the Trustees 
ordered its abolition, but always a moving petition two or 
three pages long touched their hearts and met a favorable 
response to the prayer for restoration. One signed by William 
Eaton and Rufus A. Yancey, son of Rartlett Yancey, is a fair 
example, committeemen at other times being such men as 
Thomas S. Ashe, Rev. J. Haywood Parker, Calvin Jones, Giles 
Mebane, J. DeBerniere Hooper. The petition alleges firstly, 
that the time was needed for the preparation of Commencement 
speeches, 'and secondly, that as neither suitable cloth, nor a 
skilled tailor, could be found at Chapel Hill, the graduates 



SOCIAL UFE IN THE TWENTIES. 309 

should be allowed to go home and there prepare such habili- 
ments as would reflect credit on the University. The practice 
lasted until the closing of 1868. Regularly for fifteen or twenty 
years after the re-opening in 1875 the Faculty were called on 
to negative petitions for its revival. 

A riot, in which five students were engaged, shows a rough- 
ness of manners not paralleled now. Becoming angry for some 
cause with Wm. Barbee, the ex-Steward, who had been recently 
in the Legislature, colleague of Willie P. Mangum, they pro- 
ceeded one Sunday night to rock his house, crashing the win- 
dow panes and even the sashes. Barbee swore out a warrant 
against the leader and the others were summoned as witnesses. 
To use the stilted words of the clerk of the Faculty, the wit- 
nesses "resorted in their minds to such construction of the oath 
and of the questions put to them, as in their apprehension 
relieved them from the necessity of testifying in relation to their 
companions, in consequence of which the protection of society 
was withheld from the person, the family and property of one 
of its citizens." *The leader and one other were dismissed. 
The remaining three were suspended, two for four and one for 
three months. 

Social Life of Chapel Hill in the Twenties. 

One of the most popular Chapel Hill belles of this period, 
very winning and beautiful, a good singer, accustomed to raise 
the tunes in church service, was Miss Sarah Williams Kittrell, 
whose father removed from Granville to a home about two 
miles southwest of the University buildings, where he carried 
on a farm and took student boarders. Tradition says that 
she agreed to marry a promising Senior, afterwards United 
States Senator, but the match was broken off because of his 
poverty and great distance from Chapel Hill. After he became 
famous, he returned by invitation to deliver the annual Com- 
mencement address, and his old boarding house keeper, Mrs. 
Betsey Nunn, upbraided him for breaking faith with her favor- 
ite Sally Kittrell. Learning that she was living in Midway, 
Texas, in her 90th year, Mrs. Goree, aunt of Judge George W. 
Kittrell of California, I wrote to her and received in reply a 



3IO HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

most sprightly letter, giving her reminiscences of Chapel Hill 
society. I add that fiye of her sons and grandsons were officers 
in the Confederate Army, and that during a visit of Miss 
Winnie Davis to Texas she rode one hundred miles to pay her 
respects to the "Daughter of the Confederacy." The kindly 
manner in which she speaks of her old flame indicates that their 
engagement and its disruption, if true, left no permanent scar 
on her happy soul. With her aid and from other sources I 
endeavor to depict the life of Chapel Hill in the twenties. 

There were few residents of the village, but among them were 
strong characters, male and female. Among the men Dr. Cald- 
well and Dr. Mitchell overtopped all in learning and influence, 
while in society Major Henderson and his four sons, James, 
William, Pleasant, and Tippoo Saib,* all physicians, were most 
agreeable and accomplished, "loved and honored by rich and 
poor." The leader among the ladies was the wife of the Presi- 
dent, a daughter of James Hogg of Hillsboro, who had moved 
from girlhood in as polished society as the United States af- 
forded. There were bright and handsome young ladies, edu- 
cated at the female schools of Salem and Oxford, of whom were 
Betsy Pannill, and Franky Burton who became the wife of 
Thomas J. Green, afterwards a prominent lawyer of Virginia. 
Wm. Barbee, son of Christopher (or Kit) Barbee, one of the 
donors of the Univei sity lands, had several daughters, who were 
very attractive, one of whom married Ilai Nunn, a skilled violin- 
ist, who gave lessons in dancing; another Jesse Hargrave, a 
merchant, and a third Dr. B. W. Cave, a physician of the village. 

There was an excellent Sunday School held in Person Hall, 
called the Chapel, now the Medical Building. The teachers 
were Mrs. Caldwell and the wives of the Professors. The task 
was memorizing five or six verses of the Bible and part or whole 
of a hymn. Four score years afterwards the pious "Mother 
in Israel" recalled vividly the moral and educational value of 
this, one of our earliest religious institutions for the young. 

*Note. — The hatred of England by our people is shown by their nam- 
ing sons after cruel oriental despots, simply because they fought our old 
enemy. Thus Davie had a Hyder Ali. Major Henderson a Tippoo Saib, 
and a prominent citizen of Edenton a Tippoo Saib Haughton. 



SOCIAL LIFE IN THE TWENTIES. 311 

The village teacher was called "Old Father Hughes," an 
Englishman by birth, but devoted to his adopted country, a 
thorough teacher and strict disciplinarian, using frequently the 
rod on boys but gentle to the girls, who doubtless suffered 
vicariously when the blows descended on their brothers and 
sweethearts. In one end of the school-room at play hours the 
good Father added to his petty tuition receipts by the sale of 
pickled oysters and ginger cakes, into which traffic went every 
penny which the children could raise. After Father Hughes, 
came Rev. Abner Clopton, a Baptist preacher, teacher of the 
Preparatory school of the University. 

As might be conjectured from the increase of the income 
from the students and in the number of the Faculty, together 
with a small addition to their salaries, the village became larger 
and more modern between 1820 and 1830. The ladies arrayed 
themselves in finer clothes, improved their houses with added 
rooms and with paint, cultivated grass and flowers on their 
lawns, frequented the University and Society libraries, rode to 
hear preaching sometimes in the neighborhood churches, es- 
pecially Mount Carmel, induced services in the University 
Chapel, prayed fervently but never aloud, at prayer-meetings, 
and inaugurated reading clubs. 

Notwithstanding this forward movement, luxury was un- 
known. Modern children and their parents would regard the 
mode of life at this period as one of intolerable hardship. As a 
rule, to the boys and girls was allowed onlv one pair of shoes for 
the year, which of course implies that naked feet were fashion- 
able except in freezing- weather. Most families kept cows, and 
on farms oxen. When these ceased to be producers their end 
was hastened by the deadly axe or brain-piercing bullet, the 
flesh reserved for the table, and the skins sent to the tannerv to 
be converted into leather. Then one by one the children placed 
their feet on the outspread hide under direction of an itinerant 
shoemaker, who marked the shape with knife or chalk and 
made by hand the shoes, rough but serviceable. Often from 
want of skill there was a tightness across the toes or a mis- 
placed protuberance, which caused suffering analogous to that 
experienced by a high-caste Chinese srirl. Then too there was 



312 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

a looseness around the ankles which admitted snow, and the 
urchin came in from his winter sport with his feet well nigh 
frozen. 

The food was plenteous and palatable. In addition to the 
poultry, hogs and beeves, which all raised for themselves, rac- 
coons abounded on the creeks, opossums and squirrels in the 
forest, partridges, larks, doves and hares swarmed in the fields. 
As winter came on great flocks of wild pigeons darkened the 
air, often resting at night in the oak trees, where they were 
slaughtered by the wheelbarrow-full. Owing to the abundance 
of persimmons, the opossums were so fat that their superabund- 
ant grease was used to make smooth the wagon axles ; their fur 
and that of hares, minks, muskrats and raccoons were fashioned 
into winter caps for the boys. Then too there were many fish 
in the creeks, and part of the daily task of the pretty black-eyed 
Sally Kittrell was, accompanied by a brother, to visit their fish 
traps and bring in the catch for the breakfast fry. 

The clothing was mostly home-made. Small patches of cot- 
ton were planted, and for some time the seed was picked out by 
hand. Each child had his or her task, and after all were fin- 
ished they were regaled with cider and apples. After this, 
lessons for the next day were studied by the light of split light- 
wood or pine knot. Tallow candles were a luxury, reserved 
for a great occasion, such as a preacher's visit, or a festive 
gathering. 

Mr. Kittrell, the father, imported the first cotton-gin ever 
seen in this part of the world, not much larger than a sewing 
machine. After this there was more cotton raised in the neigh- 
borhood. The date of the importation is not exactly known, 
but it was prior to 1833, when he removed to Alabama. The 
clothing was woven on the family loom. 

Before the advent of the Whitney gin, tobacco was largely 
raised. The market was Fayetteville. The hogsheads contain- 
ing the leaf were placed on little wheels and thus rolled to Fay- 
etteville, a horse pulling each. The driver would be absent 
two or three weeks. His return was hailed with delight, for 
each girl expected a calico dress and a pair of shoes, to be worn 
Only on Sundays. 



SOCIAL LIFE IN THE TWENTIES. 313 

The course of life was simple and happy. There was no 
umbrella, but neither snow nor rain deterred from school and 
no one was afraid to be wetted. There was little physic bought, 
but dyspepsia was never heard of. Trading was mainly by 
bartering. Money was scarce, but the family never incurred 
debt. Sally Kittrell never had twenty-five cents of her own 
until she was grown. 

Notwithstanding all privations, there was probably more 
hearty fun than in our day. Although they danced no germans, 
and some were not allowed to dance at all, there were many 
social gatherings, with just enough work to make play enjoyable 
— cotton-pickings, husking bees or corn shuckings, log-rollings, 
hog-killings, house-raisings, quiltings, and even spelling bees. 
In some of these the girls did not take a hand, but they cheered 
their beaux to feats of skill and strength, and after the work was 
over all joined in games and pleasant talk, not sparing the 
piquant anecdote and boisterous laugh. Conspicuous among 
all the maidens, doubtless the only survivor of all her associates. 
was Sally Kittrell, beautiful, graceful, agreeable, dutiful, pious, 
whose memory of Chapel Hill after seventy years is still green, 
who in her distant Texas home, radiating loving influences all 
around, remembers her old home with so vivid clearness and 
such tender love that she signs the long letter written entirely 
by her own hand — 

"In my 90th year, seeing and hearing as well as ever, 
A daughter of Chapel Hill, 

Sarah Williams Goree." 

The "National Jubilee" was celebrated at Chapel Hill on the 
4th of July. 1826, the semi-centennial of the Declaration of 
Independence, with enthusiasm. There was, according to the 
local chronicle, "the good humor and cordiality which should 
ever be the characteristic of Freemen." There was a proces- 
sion at eleven o'clock to Person Hall. The famous Declaration 
was read by one who had fought for it in the Revolutionary 
struggle. Major Henderson. It was properlv enunciated, for 
the gallant Major, a brother of Judge Richard Henderson, was 



314 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

selected for thirty-nine years to be Reading Clerk of the House 
of Commons on account of his sonorous voice. The oration 
was by a young lawyer, William McCauley, graduate of 1813, 
son of Matthew McCauley, a donor of the site of the Univer- 
sity. He doubtless bearded the British Lion in the manner 
fashionable on such occasions. At one o'clock a dinner was 
served at Mr. S. B. Alsobrook's hotel, and at night there was a 
ball, at which Virginia reels and cotillons were danced to the 
lively tunes of Ilai Nunn's violin. 

In the autumn of the same year a horse-race was held in a 
mile of the village, the principal objects being betting and gam- 
bling. The Faculty forbade the students to attend it. One 
disobeyed and was suspended therefor. Another stood afar off 
and witnessed the running but did not go into the crowd. He 
was excused. 

There was at all times during the earlier decades of the Uni- 
versity delight among the students to engage in the explosion 
of gunpowder. There are numerous complaints of the prac- 
tice and prosecution of the offenders. The following grave 
entry is a sample of the solemn opinions of the Faculty : "This 
mode of producing disturbance in the College Buildings for 
some few nights past, as it is a method of producing disorder 
full of evil effects, and apparently having no other object but 
to annoy, is highly reprehensible." 

Other by-laws were added to the lengthening roll. The Pro- 
fessors and Tutors were required to furnish the Trustees pres- 
ent at examinations with the names of the members of the 
classes, so that "the Trustees may be enabled to have their own 
opinion upon scholarship." 

Each Professor and Tutor was required to keep account of 
the scholarship, regularity and moral conduct of the members 
of his class, and furnish an abstract of the same to the parent, 
and also to the Board of Trustees. 

The students were not bound to promise more than once obed- 
ience to the rules. 

Erasmus D. North was the best scholar and spoke the Salu- 
tatory Latin oration, in the graduating class of 1826, — 21 mem- 
bers. 



CLASS OF 1826. 315 

The following were declared equal and next to North : Dan- 
iel Moreau Barringer, who had an oration on Modern Lan 
guages ; Samuel E. Chapman, the Valedictory; William Nor- 
wood, on Political Economy; Oliver W. Treadwell. on Classical 
Literature. 

Archibald Gilchrist, Thomas W. Watts. Henry T. Clark, 
Silas M. Andrews, Richard S. Croom, James A. King, Henry 
B. Elliott, Ferdinand W. Risque, Thomas S. Hoskins, and 
George W. Morrow spoke what were called Intermediate Ora- 
tions, while William J. Anderson, Henry I. Brown, Wm. B. 
Dunn, Samuel I. Johnston delivered Forensics. 

Of these honor men. North was for a short while Professor 
of Languages in our University, an Instructor in Yale, and a 
physician ; Barringer, a member of Congress and Minister to 
Spain ; Chapman, a reputable physician of Newbern ; Tread- 
well, a Tutor in this University ; and Norwood, an Episcopal 
Doctor of Divinity over a large congregation in Richmond, 
Virvinia. Of the others, Clark became Speaker of the Senate 
and Governor ex officio in 1861-62. 

Of the non-graduates, was Paul C. Cameron, a wealthy 
planter, State Senator, active Trustee of the University for 
twenty-seven years. 

In 1827 died John Haywood, one of the charter Trustees of 
1789 and continuously thereafter. He was always a member 
of the Committee of Appointments and other like committees, 
and was one of the most active and regular in attendance. His 
popularity in the State is shown by his annual election as State 
Treasurer without opposition for forty years ( 1 787-1827') , and 
by his name being given to a western county and to an eastern 
town. In December, 1828, the Trustees, "in consideration of 
his long continued and useful services" rendered to the Univer- 
sity, granted a scholarship to his son, William Davie Haywood. 
There is no record, however, of his entering the University. 

Exercises oe 1827 — Murphey's Address. 

The multitudinous speeches on the programme of 1826 prob- 
ably led to the radical change of 1827. In that year began the 
series of orations by eminent men elected bv the two Literary 
Societies alternately. The Dialectic had the first choice, which 



316 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

fell on ex-Judge Archibald Debow Murphey. His address was 
in the main historical «and reminiscent and was perhaps the last 
work of one who had done much for his State. His portrait in 
the Dialectic Hall, taken at this time, shows that his physical 
powers were rapidly waning, but his mind was strong and lucid. 
A contemporary writer in the Raleigh Register testified that "the 
debility of his body gave an interest to his appearance. Unas- 
suming, yet easy and insinuating in his address, clear and dis- 
tinct in his enunciations, perspicuous and eloquent in his style, 
he was sustained through a long and eloquent oration by the 
admiration and applause of a crowded assembly. — None of his 
audience will soon forget their own emotions, or the glow of 
sympathy imparted to them by the orator's beautiful remem- 
brance of his friend and patron, the late Wm. Duffy." 

The writer described the exercises as "No longer, as on 
former occasions, a monotonous succession of heavy and unin- 
teresting speeches, but a Literary Banquet, where the different 
tastes of the audience were gratified by alternate displays of 
Oratory and Wit." "We were all particularly pleased with a 
little 'ludicro-comico' piece written and (as the Dramatists say) 
gotten up by one of the Professors, and called, I think, 'Im- 
provements in Modern Duelling.'. It was well delivered Tues- 
day evening by five young gentlemen, and exhibited in the most 
ridiculous attitude certain late exquisites and proficients in that 
sublime art." As Dr. William Hooper was skillful in this kind 
of writing, conspicuous in his own address in 1859, entitled 
"Fifty Years Since," it is evident that he was the author. 

It was at this time that, on motion of Chief Justice Ruffin, 
the once-a-month holidays, which had been in vogue for some 
time, were discontinued, to the great discontent especially of 
boys of a smaller growth, or less studious disposition. 

The speakers of the graduating class of 1827 were: Richard 
Henry Lewis, the Latin Salutatory ; Charles B. Shepard, the 
Valedictory ; Thomas P. Hall, Oration in Greek ; Lorenza Lea, 
Oration in French ; Alfred O. P. Nicholson, Oration on Politi- 
cal Economy ; Jesse H. Lindsay and Alexander Mackey, Inter- 
mediate Orations. 



CLASS OF 1827. 317 

Of these, the best scholar, Lewis, became a wealthy planter 
of acknowledged ability, cultivation and influence. A nomina- 
nation for Congress was tendered him by his party, the Demo- 
cratic, but he declined it. Charles B. Shepard, next to him, 
was a member of the State Legislature and a Representative in 
Congress, dying at the early age of 37 ; Lea was a Tutor in the 
University, then a minister of the Gospel and President of 
Jackson College, Tennessee; Nicholson was a lawyer in Ten- 
nessee and held many honorable positions, including the Chief 
Justiceship of that State's Supreme Court, and United States 
Senatorship ; Lindsay was an influential wealthy citizen of 
Greensboro, president of a bank and member of the Legisla- 
ture ; Robert A. T. Ridley, of Oxford, became Speaker of 
the House in Georgia and a member of Congress; Lewis 
Thompson was a wealthy and able farmer of Bertie and promi- 
nent in the Legislature ; Warren Winslow became a member of 
Congress and, as Speaker of the State Senate, acted as Governor 
in 1854; Thompson Byrd was a Tutor in the L T niversity and a 
minister of the Gospel ; Absalom A. Barr was also a minister. 

Of those who matriculated with these but did not graduate, 
was Calvin Graves, a State Representative and Senator, mem- 
ber of the Convention of 1835, Speaker of the Senate, and as 
such gave the casting vote for the charter of the North Carolina 
Railroad. 

The report of the Acting President in 1828 was gloomy. The 
Faculty should be nine, whereas four were lacking from this 
number. North Carolina and the neighboring States had been 
explored in vain for competent Tutors, and Professor Olmsted 
bad been written to for them. The strength of the Professor of 
Mathematics, Phillips, was waning under his arduous labors. 
Professors and teachers generally are among the most laborious 
of men. They cannot be deficient without being infamous, nor 
can deficiencies and blemishes fail to expose them to reproach 
and scorn, if every imperfection be excluded by an accurate, 
prompt and comprehensive knowledge of the abstract and scien- 
tific analysis on which they are employed. 

The expected successor of Judge Murphey, chosen by the 
Philanthropic Societv as the orator of the Commencement of 



318 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

1828, was Alfred Moore, son of the Judge of the same name. 
He had been Speaker of the House of Commons, but preferred 
private life and the companionship of books to the storms of a 
political career. He was one of the early students, who reached 
Chapel Hill after the doors of the University were opened in 
1795, was faithful to duty, and afterwards lived a useful and 
honorable life. It was a great disappointment to the company 
that sickness prevented his filling his engagement. His bust 
is in Gerrard Hall, the property of the Philanthropic Society. 

The Raleigh Register praises the speeches of the graduating 
class as free from the usual bombast and false ornament, dis- 
playing sound sense and strong discrimination. Richard H. 
Battle was pronounced the best scholar and had the Latin Salu- 
tatory. The next best, Henry S. Clark, had the Valedictory. 
Then came John L. Taylor, with the French, and Thomas P. 
Johnston, the Natural Philosophy orations. 

Henry I. Toole's subject was The Objects of Education; 
James D. Hall's was Mental Philosophy; John L. Taylor's 
French speech was Le Caractere et regne of Louis Quartoze. 
There was a debate between Edwin G. Booth and Edwin R. 
Harriss whether the Southern States should turn their atten- 
tion to agriculture. James N. Nesbitt and John P. Gause dis- 
cussed whether political parties, not founded on local interests, 
were prejudicial to the strength of nations. T. J. Oakes ad- 
vocated internal improvements. The Valedictory by Clark was 
the last address by students. President Caldwell, as was his 
habit, then delivered a feeling and wise talk to the graduates. 

Of these, Battle was a life-long invalid, but strong enough to 
be Secretary of a Life Insurance Company and Commissioner 
of War Claims against the State, by the appointment of Goa - - 
ernor Worth. He was often Commissioner (now Alderman) 
of the city of Raleigh. He had a strong and original mind. 
Clark reached the honor of a seat in Congress. Taylor was a 
physician of high standing, and Johnston was a Presbyterian 
minister and missionary for twenty-three years. 

Of the non-graduates, J. S. Gatlin was a Surgeon in the U. S. 
Army, killed in the Seminole war ; Rev. Nehemiah Henrv Hard- 



CLASS OF 1828. 319 

ing, a Doctor of Divinity in the Presbyterian Church ; Richard 
Caswell Gatlin was an officer in the United States Army, then 
a Confederate States Brigadier-General and x\djutant-General 
of North Carolina in the darkest hours of the Civil War. 

The honorary degree of Master of Arts (A. M.) was con- 
ferred on Win. Glascock, M.D., of Virginia, and on John Hill 
Wheeler, afterwards the author of Wheeler's History and 
Wheeler's Reminiscences. 

Ethan Allen Andrews remained at the University until 
1828, devoting himself to the close study of the ancient classics, 
in which he continued for the rest of his life. In that year he 
accepted the position of the Professor of Ancient Languages in 
the New Haven Gymnasium. A year afterwards he established 
the New Haven Young Ladies' Institute, conducting it with 
success for five years. He then took charge of a similar insti- 
tution in Boston. Here he remained until 1839, when having 
in conjunction with Soloman Stoddard published a Latin Gram- 
mar, which met with favor among teachers, he returned to his 
home, inherited from his father in New Britain, and devoted the 
rest of his life to the preparation of school books. The follow- 
ing is a list of his books, besides the Grammar mentioned : 
First Latin Book ; Latin Reader ; Viri Roma; ; Latin Lessons ; 
Synopsis of Latin Grammar ; Questions on the Latin Grammar ; 
Latin Exercises ; Key to Latin Exercises ; Caesar's Commen- 
taries ; Sallust ; Ovid ; Latin Dictionary. 

Professor Andrews was intellectually, morally and in manners 
a very superior man. 

He died March 24, 1858, aged 71 years. His two daughters 
married successively Prof. Edward D. Sims, a graduate of the 
University of North Carolina in 1824. 

Troublesome Escheats. 

The Trustees were occasionally embarrassed by petitions from 
persons who claimed that they were injured by escheated prop- 
erty vesting in the University. One Mary Bell stated the pitia- 
ble fact that by twenty-five years hard labor in keeping a public 
house she and her husband had accumulated some property, the 
title of which under the law vested in her husband : that on his 



320 HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

death without heirs half of the property devolved on the Uni- 
versity; that she was sixty years old and could not live on 
what the statute allowed her. "I am a poor widow, citizen of 
a country whose policy and well regulated government does 
not need the. assistance of property drawn from old age and 
infirmity, leaving me to starve, in order to support most valua- 
ble institutions." 

The minds of the Trustees were torn by the conflicting ideas 
of natural pity and fiduciary duty. They finally concluded to 
invest the money and pay the interest to Mrs. Mary Bell so 
long as she should live. 

They seemed to experience no difficulty in deciding another 
case, which in our times would be considered hard. A free 
negro had a daughter, the slave of another. He bought her, 
and she then became the mother of a boy. The woman's father 
died without kin and intestate. His child and grandchild being 
his personal property became the property of the University. 
They were ordered to be sold. This sounds hard, but it was 
proved to the Board that they were in the lowest stage of pov- 
erty and degradation and that it would redound to their happi- 
ness to have a master. It must be remembered that slaves were 
considered to be as a rule in a better condition than free negroes. 

One of the saddest claims which devolved on the University 
was that of Governor Benjamin Smith, the first benefactor. In 
his old age he became surety for a man who owed the institution, 
and the Trustees felt compelled to enforce payment. There is 
on record a petition by him for extension of time, which was 
granted. The tradition already mentioned that he was impris- 
oned has a modicum of truth, but the detention was only for a 
short while and, as he himself says, by the hard action of a 
lawyer, who was his personal enemy. The Trustees released 
him as soon as the matter was brought to their attention. It 
must be remembered, too, that ex-Governor Smith was hope- 
lessly insolvent, and if the University had released him from 
the debt, his other creditors and not himself, would have reaped 
the benefit. All his valuable lands on the Cape Fear were sub- 
ject to the judgment obtained by the United States to make good 
the defalcations of Collector Reid, for whom he was bondsman. 



WORTHLESS ESCHEATS. $2 1 

It may be well to give other cases, showing the working of the 
escheat law. 

At a later date, 1852, a sale of an escheat on behalf of the 
University created some local excitement. A lot on which was 
an old building, once used as a school house, but then in ruins, 
had been for years claimed by no one. The University attor- 
ney had it sold. The sum bid was one dollar. A memorial 
signed by six leading men of the town stated that the school had 
been closed because of sickness from a local cause, which had 
been removed, and plans for its revival were renewed. But 
"there comes an agent of the University who blasts the almost 
open blossom of our Hopes, thereby robbing perhaps many a 
poor boy from becoming a useful and prominent member of 
society, who might have been brilliant lights and added others 
to the many great luminaries who claim the University as their 
Alma Mater, but now left without a light must mope in darkness 
and ignorance." 

After several pages of similar rhetoric it was stated that the 
attorney found a bidder at one dollar, and took a conveyance 
to himself and sold the lot to a widow for $80, who proceeded to 
tear down the house and cut down the shade trees. Then the 
widow was threatened with a suit and she made a moving ap- 
peal to the Trustees, stating that she was about to be ruined. 
It does not appear that the pathos and eloquence of their peti- 
tions effected their purpose. Indeed, the petitioners seemed to 
have made the mistake of applying for a remedy after instead of 
before the alleged wrong was done. The attorney (General 
Singletary ) asserted positively that the people generally ap- 
plauded his conduct. The amount received by the University 
was only eight dollars. 

In 1 86 1 the Trustees were notified of a possible windfall of. 
distributive shares. Judge John M. Dick, a Trustee, while 
riding the Mountain Circuit, wrote that Acque to geh. Wage 
to togutah, Jack Rabbit, To ga kee la son Betsy, and 330 other 
Cherokee Indians living in Western North Carolina, had died 
since the Treaty of 1836. The attorney of the Indians, William 
H. Thomas, took out letters of administration on their estates, 
giving bond for $33,400, and collected $54 for each of the de- 

21 



322 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ceased, and it did not appear that any return had been made to 
the court. As th.~ University realized nothing from this claim, 
it is to be presumed that Colonel Thomas made a satisfactory 
explanation. 

A dissipated Freshman, Spencer Reeves, was dismissed in 
1829 for giving a drinking and card-playing frolic, and follow- 
ing it up on Sunday night by illuminating his windows with 
bunches of lighted candles. It is sad to chronicle that after 
some years he became so degraded from drink that he slew his 
sister for refusing to give him part of her property and was 
righteously hung for the crime — the only instance of an alumnus 
dying on the gallows. 

J. S., who participated in the spree, was saved by his previous 
good character and by taking the iron-clad pledges. 

At the same time four students were dismissed for going 
home at the end of the session without permission which either 
had been asked for and refused, or had not been asked for at 
all. 

At the Commencement in 1829, described as very brilliant, a 
new feature was introduced. Representatives from the Junior, 
Sophomore and Freshman classes competed in declamation. 

The orator before the two societies chosen by the Dialectic 
Society, was Professor William Hooper, who returned to the 
University in 1825 as Professor of Rhetoric and Logic, and 
three years afterwards was made Professor of Ancient Lan- 
guages. The contemporary chronicler says that he was a deep 
and severe thinker, as well as profound and eloquent rhetorician. 

The best scholar among the graduates was Franklin L. Smith 
of Mecklenburg, to whom the Latin Salutatory was assigned. 
Next was Richard R. Wall of Rockingham County, with the 
Valedictory. Then were John Potts Brown, of Wilmington, 
with an oration on Natural Philosophy ; Sidney X. Johnston on 
Geology, and David M. Lees on Ethics. Debates were had 
between James A. Johnston and James E. Kerr on the question, 
"Is the backwardness of North Carolina due to moral or physi- 
cal causes ?" ; between Burton F. Craige and Osmond F. Long, 
as to whether Daughters should be educated as well as Sons ; 
and between Thomas W. Dulany and Wm. Eaton, as to whether 
Europe was benefitted by the Independence of Greece, while 



COMMENCEMENT OF l82y. $2$ 

Rufus A. Yancey and Philip W. Alston wrestled with the great 
problem, whether in the aggregate the Destinies of Europe were 
Beneficially Influenced by the French Revolution. Richard M. 
Shepard of Newbern discoursed on Modern French Literature. 

The best scholar of the fourteen graduates, Smith, died in 
1835 with rising reputation as a lawyer. Wall was a physician 
of high standing, Brown was a commission merchant of the 
firm of DeRosset & Brown of Wilmington, and Brown & De- 
Rosset of New York. Johnston was a physician and member 
of the Convention of 1861. William Eaton was author of a 
valuable law book, Attorney-General and Senator from War- 
ren ; Craige, who dropped his middle name, was a Representa- 
tive in the Congress of the United States and of the Confeder- 
acy, member of the Convention of 1861, and as such offered the 
Ordinance of Secession ; Alston was an Episcopal minister and 
a poet. 

Among those matriculating with the class, but leaving before 
graduation, may be mentioned Wm. Dallas Haywood, for years 
Mayor of Raleigh ; Henry A. London, a very influential mer- 
chant of Pittsboro ; Cameron F. MacRae, a prominent Episcopal 
minister of this State, of Georgia and lastly of Maryland ; James 
Bryan Whitfield, State Senator. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity fell on Rev. John 
Robinson of Poplar Tent, and Rev. John McKamie Wilson of 
Rocky River, both of Cabarrus. Besides being pastors of power, 
they were principals of excellent classical schools. 

The Trustees present were Governor Owen, Dr. S. J. Baker, 
F. Nash, John D. Hawkins, William Robards, John Scott, 
James Mebane, Dr. J. S. Smith, Arch. McBryde, James Webb, 
Rev. Dr. Wm. McPheeters, Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon, Pres- 
ident Caldwell and Secretary-Treasurer Manly. 

The honorary degrees granted were as follows, on the Rev. 
Adam Empie, President of William and Mary College, after- 
wards Rector of a church in Richmond, Virginia, formerlv of 
Wilmington, N. C, Doctorate of Divinity. 

The same degree on Rev. Cornelius Yermeule, of the Presbv- 
terian Church of New Jersey. 

The degree of Master of Arts on Professor James Phillips 
and Professor Nicholas Marcellus Hentz, of the University of 
North Carolina. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Commencement of 1830. 

At the Commencement, on Monday evening there was 1. decla- 
mation by James Lea, William Owen, Julian E. Sawyer, Wm. 
Smith, John S. Hargrave, Thomas F. Jones, Solomon Lea. 

On Tuesday evening, the 21st of June, the speakers were 
James Grant, J. DeBerniere Hooper, Wm. W. Spear, Jacob 
Thompson, Thomas S. Ashe, Michael W. Holt, and James O. 
Stedman. 

On Wednesday, there were original speeches delivered by 
representatives of the two Societies. 

The best scholar, to whom was given the Latin Salutatory, 
was Nathaniel H. McCain. James W. Osborne was next, with 
a speech on Moral Philosophy. Next came Cicero Stephens 
Hawks, whose subject was Influence of Rewards Bestowed on 
Distinguished Characters. The fourth in scholarship was John 
A. Backhouse, to whom was assigned the Valedictory. The 
fifth in scholarship was Richard K. Hill, with a speech on Polit- 
ical Economy, and sixth Avas Aaron J. Spivey, whose subject 
was "The LTse and Abuse of Parliamentary Debates." The 
next honor men were George G. Lea, who spoke on the Import- 
ance of Liberal Education to all professional men ; then Mr. 
W. L. Kennedy, on the Influence of Periodical Literature, and 
lastly came RaWley Galloway, who discussed Design in the Con- 
stitution of Nature. Benjamin F. Terry and William K. Ruffin 
debated whether the gold mines, recently discovered in North 
Carolina and elsewhere, are attended with greater advantages 
or disadvantages to our State and to the Union. There was 
evidently in the air dread of inflation of the currency and diver- 
sion of labor from other pursuits, as well of the evils of making 
haste to be rich. 

John H. Edwards and Elisha Stedman. both afterwards 
physicians, discussed this question : "Could the United States 
maintain its Constitution if the Atlantic Ocean did not separate 



COMMENCEMENT OF 183O. 325 

her from Europe?" J. M. Stedman's thesis was whether there 
could be a Permanent Government without Education. 

McCain removed to Mississippi, and was a highly respected 
and successful planter. Backhouse had a strange career. He 
was of fine promise, was a Tutor of his Alma Mater after grad- 
uation ; then studied theology, teaching at the same time. After 
being ordained a minister of the Gospel, he was deposed for 
conduct unbecoming a minister, and died early. Osborne was a 
prominent lawyer and Judge, member of the Legislature and of 
the Convention of 1861. Hawks was Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of Missouri. Hill was a teacher of repute, in 
North Carolina and Texas. 

At the Commencement of 1830, Hon. John H. Bryan, who 
changed his home from Newbern to Raleigh, chosen by the 
Philanthropic Society, was the orator. The reporter described 
his effort as chaste and eloquent. 

The report of the President at the annual meeting of the 
Board in December, 1827, deplores the falling off in numbers. 
This was attributed to three causes: 1st. the establishment of 
Universities and Colleges in Virginia, Tennessee, South Caro- 
lina, and Georgia ; 2nd, to the financial stress and unparalleled 
depreciation in the pecuniary resources of the people; 3rd, vast 
efflux of population to the West. 

He also informed the Board that the Main Building was in 
ruins. Tt had not been occupied for years. The materials 
were worthless, the work wretched. The experiment of em- 
ploying a Superintendent of Buildings not connected with the 
University, at a salary of $20. was unsatisfactory. Prof. Mitch- 
ell assumed the duties. 

Panic of 1825. — The General Assembly Applied to. 

The financial panic of 1825, with its sequelae, was in truth a 
fearful blow to the University. The receipts from Western 
lands and payments for those sold were largely cut off. The 
tuition receipts diminished with the number of students. The 
debts to the banks, incurred for building the Old West and work 
on the Old East and unfinished Gerrard Hall, were unpaid. 



326 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Trustees thought that turning off Professors would destroy 
the prestige of the institution, and therefore borrowed money 
to meet their salaries. By 1830 the University seemed on the 
verge of ruin. Energetic steps were necessary to avert it. The 
President of the Board of Trustees called a special session to 
consider the matter. It was on the 21st June, 1830, at Chapel 
Hill. 

There were present, Governor Owen, Dr. Caldwell, Messrs. 
John H. Bryan, Willie P. Mangum, Charles Manly, James 
Mebane, Alfred Moore, John M. Morehead, Wm. Robards, 
John Scott, James S. Smith, John Witherspoon, D.D. 

On motion of Judge Mangum, a committee of seven were 
appointed to draft an address to the Trustees, setting forth the 
urgent necessity for them to meet in Raleigh on the 19th of 
July. Dr. Caldwell was directed to send by express, that is, a 
special messenger, a copy to every Trustee within a reasonable 
distance of Raleigh, and to the rest by mail. 

Considering the difficulties of travel in the hot July days, there 
was a very respectable attendance, about one-third of the Trus- 
tees. Their names should be held in remembrance. They 
were : Governor John Owen, Dr. Caldwell, Messrs. George Ei 
Badger, Thos. D. Bennehan, John H. Bryan, Duncan Cameron, 
James Craven, Wm. Gaston, John D. Hawkins, Louis D. Henry, 
James Iredell, Charles Manly, Alfred Moore, Willie P. Man- 
gum, Angus McBryde, Frederick Nash, Wm. Robards, Thos. 
Ruffin, Romulus M. Saunders, John Scott, Hugh Waddell, 
James Webb, W. McPheeters, D.D. Of these, nine were resi- 
dents of Raleigh, ten of Orange, one of Fayetteville, one of 
Moore County, one of Franklin, one of Craven, one of Kinston. 
None except those from Fayetteville, Moore, Franklin, and 
Kinston lived more than one day's distance from Raleigh, and 
they only a two-days' easy journey. It is possible that Messrs. 
Gaston and Henry were in attendance on the Supreme Court. 
On motion of Mr. Gaston, not then a judge, a strong committee, 
Messrs. Iredell, Cameron, Moore, Henry, Bryan, Webb, Rob- 
ards (State Treasurer), and Waddell, were appointed to report 
the debts and resources of the University, and recommend a 
plan of relief. 



UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL CONDITION. 327 

The Committee, through Mr. Iredell, reported the next day 
the following statement : 

Assets. 

23 .shares State Bank stock ($2,300) if at par. 

241 shares Newbern Bank stock ($24,100) if at par. 

Ill shares Cape Fear Bank stock ($11,100) if at par. 

Judgment in Wake County Court, $2,805. 

Interest from July 1, 1829. 

Bonds for lands sold in Tennessee, comprising warrants adjudicated 
in 1820 and 1822, the Resolution warrants, and Smith and Gerrard lands. 
The whole estimated in 1820 and 1822, to be worth $240,642. Probably 
not worth so much. 

Debts. 

Decree for Jacques le Gorde, $1,230.83; interest from 

July 1, 1828, say, in all $1,405.11 

Balance due Faculty 1,158. 

Due State Bank 17,524.24 

Due Newbern Bank 6,978 . 12 

Due Cape Fear Bank 6,396 . 

Due United States Bank 4,057.26 

Total debts $37,518 .73 

Average annual expenses $8,200 . 

Tuition receipts (82 students) 2,304. 

Deficiency $5,896. 

Average annual receipts from western lands the last four years, about 
$6,000, subject to large deductions for expenses of collection. 

The Committee recommended : 

1. That the judgment in Wake Court be collected and applied to the 
Le Gorde debt and that to the Faculty. 

2. The Cape Fear Bank will accept their own stock at 80 per cent. It 
is recommended that payment be made in this manner. 

3. That 5 shares of Cape Fear stock be sold at not less than 75 cents 
in the dollar and proceeds applied to the U. S. Bank debt. 

4. That 26 shares of State Bank stock be paid to that Bank at 75 
cents, if they will be received at that price, which is probable. 

5. That 26 shares of Cape Fear Bank stock be sold at not less than 
75 cents in the dollar and the proceeds paid to the State Bank. 



328 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

6. As the value of Bank of Newbern stock is uncertain, none should be 
sold at present. 

7. After these payments the debts will be as follows: 

To the Bank of Newbern $G,978 . 12 

To the U. S. Bank, about 3,G82.26 

To the State Bank 13,849 . 24 

Total $24,509 . 62 

And the Trustees will have 241 shares of Newbern Bank stock. Esti- 
mating this at 60 cents in the dollar, its supposed value, the University 
will owe about $10,000. Probably this might be paid by receipts of 
western lands in two or three years, but it is not certain that the Banks 
will wait so long. Besides, nearly $6,000 annual deficiency in the sal- 
aries of the Faculty will be due. 

The Committee therefore recommended that the General As- 
sembly be memorialized for aid until the lands in Tennessee 
can be sold. 

The report was concurred in, and Messrs. Ruffin, Cameron, 
and Gaston were appointed to prepare and present the special 
memorial to the Legislature as was recommended. It was 
drawn by Chief Justice Ruffin, and, like his writings generally, 
is very thorough, strong, and comprehensive. It sketched the 
action by the Legislature towards the University from 1789, 
and showed that the only grant then of value that was available 
for its support arose from the Tennessee lands, which came 
from the escheated warrants vested in the institution. Accord- 
ing to the last report of the agent, there were 106,051 acres, 
including the 20,000 acres given by Governor Smith and about 
9,000 acres by Major Gerrard. Sales had been made and bonds 
taken to the amount of $71,081.24. It was deemed unwise to 
press the sales of more lands or the collection of these bonds at 
present, because of the financial condition of the country, and 
because the lapse of time is strengthening the University titles, 
which so many are ready to attack or weaken in courts and in 
the Legislature. The value of the unsold lands was estimated 
eight years ago at $240,642, but that is probably high. 

The actual cost of the buildings belonging to the University 
was $95,537.41, besides annual outlays for repairs. The Library 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE. 32y 

and apparatus cost about $10,000, and are still worth about that 
sum. Part of the debt arose from the necessity of providing 
accommodations for the large number of students, from 150 to 
200, whose health was endangered by overcrowding. The 
money was borrowed from banks in which the University cwned 
stock to the amount of $37,500, for which par was paid. The 
total debt amounted to $37,518.73. We now see that the stock 
should have been sold, instead of contracting loans on pledge of 
the same, but no one could foresee the rapid decline in its mar- 
ket value, and in the dividends. The most careful and astute 
investors, and successive Legislatures, made the same blunder. 
By the sales of stock at 75 and 80 recently ordered by the Board, 
the debt has been reduced to $20,124.55. The Treasurer has on 
hand $3,143.21, but of that. $2,790 is payable to the Faculty for 
their salaries. There remains 241 shares in the Bank of New- 
bern, but the}' have no market value, and the bank is not paying 
dividends. 

With ample resources in prospect, the actual income is nearly 
nothing. The tuition fees have been fixed at $30 per annum, 
so as to meet the wants of people of limited means. At the 
enlargement of the institution, nearly 200 students paid an 
amount sufficient to meet the annual expenses. From various 
causes, chiefly the general distress for money, and the erection 
of well-endowed colleges and schools, the number is diminished 
to about 80. The Faculty consists of a President at a salary of 
$1,600, four Professors at $1,400 each, and two Tutors at $400 
each. The expenses may be stated as follows : 

Salaries of the Faculty $7,360. 

Secretaries, Treasurer, Superintendent and incidentals.. 840. 

Interest upon the debt 1,207 . 47 

Total $9,407 . 47 

Deduct probable tuition fees 2,400 . 

Deficit $7,007.47 

If the State will assume the debt to the banks, the deficit will 
be $5,800. 

The Trustees have no means now available for meeting this 



33° THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

alarming deficiency. It would not comport with the dignity of 
the State to ask individuals to support a public institution, nor 
would such an appeal be successful. The Faculty cannot be 
reduced without seriously impairing the efficiency of the instruc- 
tion and the prestige of the institution. "By a slight exertion 
of the fostering care of the Legislature, this Institution, de- 
manded as well by the wishes as the welfare of the people, may 
be revived. In the course of three or four years at the f urther- 
est, the decision as to its right to escheated land in Tennessee 
will be rendered. If favorable, the prosperity of the University 
will be fixed beyond the reach of mischance. If unfavorable, it 
must be, like the colleges of some of our sister States, wholly 
dependent on annual appropriations, or close its doors." 

The memorialists venture to suggest that the General Assem- 
bly shall pay the debt, and in addition grant a small appropria- 
tion for three or four years, or else apply some of the bank stock 
owned by the State to the extinction of the debt. If neither 
plan meets with favor, "it may then be considered, whether it be 
wise and politic that the public should suffer its own child and 
favorite Seminary to be overwhelmed by the interest accruing 
on this large debt whilst a Literary Fund of a greater amount 
is lying in the vaults of the Treasury, or deposited in the banks 
for their own use and emolument." It is suggested that a loan, 
without interest, be granted from this Fund, enough to dis- 
charge the debt, say $21,000, and in addition for three or four 
years supply the deficiency in the annual receipts heretofore 
mentioned. But the Trustees will be compelled to accept a 
loan even on the most disadvantageous terms, as they cannot 
meet the interest on their debt, much less the instalments re- 
quired by the Act of 1829 to be paid." 

As Chief Justice Ruffin was considered one of the ablest law- 
yers, not only in this State, but in the Union, I give in his own 
language his opinion of the value of higher education. 

"Your memorialists refrain from indulging in extended re- 
flections, though obviously growing out of the occasion, upon 
the vast importance of education ; its influence upon individual 
happiness ; its tendency to enlighten and purify the mind ; to 
chasten and correct the evil passions and propensities of our 



MEMORIAL TO LEGISLATURE. 331 

nature, and soften the affections ; to enlarge the sphere of human 
action and promote enterprise and the arts ; multiply useful men 
and increase their capacity for usefulness ; and in a popular 
government to inform the community at large, and dispose them 
to cherish, and qualify them to defend, their free institutions. 
All these considerations address themselves so powerfully and 
directly to the understanding, that every man, and much more 
every member of your honorable body, must estimate its im- 
portance highly. In North Carolina every person, who is old 
enough to remember when the University was not, must have 
observed, and cannot but testify to the effects most salutary of 
its establishment." 

The memorial then shows that the University had graduated 
more than 460 of her sons, and about the same number had 
attended her instruction without waiting to obtain degrees. 
"These seven or eight hundred alumni now fill with honor to 
themselves and to the College, and with usefulness to their 
country, most of her posts of distinction, trust, labor and re- 
sponsibility, in her Legislatures, her Judiciary, her professions, 
her schools, besides adding greatly to the mass of general in- 
formation caught from them in the intercourse of Society and 
diffused through the body of our citizens. Many, who have 
sought employment and homes in distant sections of the Usion, 
make us favorably known in sister States, adorn our character 
and their own, and, cherishing a grateful memory of the land 
of their birth, thank God, that though they do not live in North 
Carolina, they were born on her soil, and were educated under 
her patronage." 

Then follows a panegyric on the Professors and Tutors. 
"They are able teachers, discreet governors, and kind friends of 
their pupils." The praises of Dr. Caldwell are so peculiarly 
adulatory as to suggest that, in the opinion of the Chief Justice, 
the recently earned popularity of the good Doctor, on account of 
his Carlton letters, falling in with the general enthusiasm for 
building railroads, would win scores of votes for the institution, 
of which he was well-nigh the personification. After a glow- 
ing tribute to his character and pre-eminent services, his learn- 



33^ THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ing, piety, to his qualifications eminently suited and always equal 
to his responsible station, to his enthusiasm for education, and 
the love and respect of his pupils, to his repeated refusals of 
more lucrative positions elsewhere, it is added, "The mind 
revolts from the thought that this venerable and venerated 
Apostle of Science and Virtue, should in the natural life of his 
frail body survive the child of his mental labors for thirty- four 
years, that he should now be compelled to abandon the scenes 
of his studies and usefulness through such a long course of 
time, and seek another abode, after witnessing the downfall and 
ruin of that institution, which has thus engaged his individual 
attention and from which he has shed abroad through the land 
the lights of knowledge, of science, social duty, public virtue, 
private probity, and Christian piety." 

The memorial was adopted, and Governor Owen, as Presi- 
dent of the Board, was requested to communicate it to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Messrs. Cameron, Henry, and Saunders were 
appointed to confer with the Select Joint Committee of the 
General Assembly, with full power to act in place of the Board 
in -vgard to financial relief. 

I now give the action of the General Assembly. The part 
of the Governor's message transmitting the memorial of the 
Trustees, was in the Senate referred to a select committee, con- 
sisting of Senators Speight, Askew, Hill, Jones, Ward, Kerr, 
McKay, and Williams of Franklin. This committee, on De- 
cember 24, 1830, made its report, accompanied by a bill without 
the second provision hereinafter recited, giving the Legislature 
full power over the University charter, property and instruction. 
That was inserted on motion of James J. McKay, Senator from 
Bladen, afterwards Representative in Congress, a Jeffersonian 
Democrat, who probably had constitutional scruples about the 
State's aiding any institution not under its entire control. The 
amendment was adopted by a vote of 35 against 26, those who 
voted in the negative being more ardent friends of the Univer- 
sity. The names of these minority Senators were George O. 
Askew of Bertie, David W. Borden of Carteret, Abraham 
Brower of Randolph, Pinckney Caldwell of Iredell, Samuel 
Davenport of Washington, John M. Dick of Guilford, Edward 



VOTE ON STATE AID. 333 

C. Graves of Sampson, John Hill of Stokes, Edmund Jones of 
Wilkes, Jonathan Lindsay of Currituck, Clement Marshall of 
Anson, Wm. B. Meares of New Hanover, Stephen Miller of 
Duplin, Wm. Montgomery of Orange, Wm. D. Mosely of 
Lenoir, Caleb Perkins of Camden, Joseph Ramsey of Chatham, 
Richard Dobbs Spaight of Craven, Gabriel Sherard of Wayne, 
Henry Skinner of Perquimans, Wm. M. Sneed of Granville, 
Robert Vanhook of Person, Edward W^ard of Onslow, Wm. P. 
Williams of Franklin, Hillory Wilder of Johnston, Louis D. 
Wilson of Edgecombe. 

After the adoption of the amendment, the bill passed the 
Senate by a vote of 40 to 19, the peculiar friends of the Univer- 
sity with the majority, except Senators Dick, Hill, Lindsay, 
Marshall, Perkins, Ramsey, Sherard, Skinner, and Wilder. 
Meares was absent. Of those who refused to accept the amend- 
ment, Senators Dick, Meares, Spaight were alumni. One 
alumnus, Charles L. Hinton of W'ake, voted in favor of the 
amendment. All the Senate Committee were against it except 
McKay of Bladen and James Kerr of Caswell. 

The bill passed the House by 70 to 48. It is evident that the 
hostility of the Trustees was not foreseen, because we find with 
the majority such friends of the University as Evan Alexander, 
Daniel M. Barringer, John Bragg, Joseph A. Hill, Geo. C. Men- 
denhall, Spencer O'Brien, Thomas McGehee, Council Wooten, 
Jonathan Worth, John H. Wheeler, Richard Allison, Bartlett 
Shipp, Dr. Thomas Hill. 

Thus in response to the eloquent, wise and feeling memorial 
of the Trustees, the General Assembly fed its child with a stone 
of striking angularity and hardness. The Literary Board was 
required to lend the University $25,000 for five vears. with 
interest from date, on the following conditions : 

First, that the sum loaned should be a lien on all the Univer- 
sity property, real and personal, in possession and to be ac- 
quired. The Trustees should signify in writing their assent 
to this lien. 

Second, the Trustees must agree that the Legislature might 
thereafter modify or alter the charter of the institution, so as to 
assume to the State its management, and the possession and 
disposition of all property, real and personal. 



334 THJ 5 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Third, the Trustees must discharge all debts having a lien on 
University property out of the proceeds of this loan. 

At that time it was thought that the University was pro- 
tected by the decision of the United States Supreme Court in 
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward, against the encroachments 
of the Legislature without the consent of the Trustees. At this 
day, however, under the State's constitutions of 1868 and 1876, 
and the decisions of the Circuit Court of the United States and 
of this State in analogous cases, it is settled that the Univer- 
sity is a State institution under legislative control. The Trus- 
tees of 1 83 1, indignant at being called on to turn over the 
University to the Legislature, and encouraged by a prospective 
remittance of $7,500 from Tennessee, unanimously rejected the 
loan. For immediate needs they borrowed $4,000 from the 
Branch Bank of the United States at Fayetteville. 

Such was the pressure of the debt, that Col. Polk and Messrs. 
James Mebane and James Webb, were appointed a committee 
to offer for sale the unimproved lands of the University around 
Chapel Hill. If this had been done we would now have blasted 
rocky old fields in the place of our beautiful forest — with all 
the purchase-money gone. A small sum was realized by the sale 
of the Preparatory School Acre. The school had been closed 
for over ten years. 

An abortive effort was made to obtain funds by subscription 
for finishing the new Chapel, begun years before. A committee 
was raised, but no funds. 

The Observatory. 

President Caldwell had always been fond of the Science of 
Astronomy. It was on this account that, in 1813, as I have 
shown, he was called on to be the scientific expert on the part 
of North Carolina in running the South Carolina boundary 
line. He built on the top of his dwelling a platform, on which 
he would take the Seniors in squads of three and four, and 
point out to them the heavenly bodies. He erected in his gar- 
den a sun dial, which stood until the invasion of the Federal 
cavalry. He also built two pillars, still standing, covered with 
vines, their eastern and western faces accurately showing the 
true North and south line in his day. 



OBSERVATORY. 335 

In 1830 he determined to erect a building in which he could 
use the astronomical instruments bought by him in London. 
It was finished in 1831, and he is thus entitled to the credit of 
inaugurating the first observatory connected with an institution 
of learning in America, that of Professor Hopkins at Williams 
College being in 1836. Dr. Caldwell's building was on the 
highest summit of a hill north of the Raleigh road, near the 
village graveyard. The structure was about twenty feet square, 
without a portico or entry hall, and with a window in each of 
its eastern and western faces. Through the center was a pillar 
of masonry on its own foundation, and on a circular disk on the 
top was the Altitude and Azimuth instrument. A slit through 
the northern and southern faces and through the flat top afforded 
a range of 180 degrees for the Transit. The Altitude and 
Azimuth Telescope stood on a circular disk of sandstone, which 
capped the pillar. It was protected from the weather by a 
wooden structure, drawn backwards and forwards on a railway 
by a windlass and rope. The adjacent trees were felled so as to 
command a view of the horizon. The instruments used were a 
Meridian Transit Telescope, made by Simms of London, an 
Altitude and Azimuth Telescope, also by Simms. a Telescope 
for observations on the earth and sky. Dolland of London, an 
Astronomical clock, with a Mercurial Pendulum, by Molineux. 
Besides these, which were stationary, there were a sextant, by 
Wilkinson of London, a portable Reflecting Circle, by Harris of 
London, and a Hadley's quadrant. With the Astronomical 
clock and the Transit, President Caldwell, assisted by Profes- 
sors Mitchell and Phillips, obtained the longitude and latitude 
of the South Building, 79° 17' W. and 35 54' 21" N. This 
calculation was made in the mathematical room in the South 
Building in the second story opposite the well. 

Observations were made by President Caldwell and Dr. 
Mitchell and the older Dr. Phillips for the longitude and lati- 
tude of various places, on Eclipses and on Comets and other 
celestial phenomena. These observations have been lost. 

This institution had a short life. The building was of bad 
materials and fell rapidly to decay. After the death of Dr. 
Caldwell it became necessarv to remove the instruments. In 



336 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

1838 the building was destroyed by fire, tradition says, kindled 
by a student. The sound bricks were used to build a kitchen 
for President Swain on the lot next to the Episcopal Church. 
The site of the old Observatory is easily recognized by the 
fragmentary bats and the cedars clustering around the shrunken 
basement. 

President Caldwell, while he was averse to debt and kept free 
from it, had no propensity to accumulate money. He built the 
Observatory out of his own funds, at a cost of $430,291. The 
Trustees, however, reimbursed him a few days before his death. 
After removal from the Observatory, most of the instruments 
were for years unused. Dr. James Phillips and his son, Dr. 
Charles, thought that the interior of the dust-covered telescope 
was a safe place for hiding valuables from the incoming Federal 
soldiers. They accordingly deposited their watches within its 
r^ recesses. They underestimated the keen-eyed seekers for hid- 

den treasures. But the commanding officer was in love with 
the President's daughter, and forced the lucky finders to dis- 
gorge. 

Mrs. Royali.. 

In this period an American woman, said to have lived among 
the Indians as a captive, coarse and ignorant, Mrs. Anne Royali 
by name, was the authoress of "Sketches of History, Life. Man- 
ners, in the United States, by a Traveller." In 1830 was pub- 
lished her "Southern Tour, or Second Series of the Black 
Book." She visited Chapel Hill the preceding year and evi- 
dently was avoided by the Faculty ladies, as her pen was dipped 
into gall when she wrote of her visit. Her first impression was 
unpleasant, as the inn keeper's lady met her with the question, 
"have you no man with you?" The Univeristy. she said, was 
in a most delightful situation, sitting upon an eminence, in the 
midst of a handsome grove, but, to the disgrace of the State, is 
under the influence of a woman, the President's wife. She is 
ruled by priests, the priests are ruled by money, and she rules 
the University. The institution, which cost so much money, is 
under the dominion of "these she wild cats, a Priest loving 
woman, fleecing the last cent of pocket money from the innocent, 
unsuspecting young men. Meantime they are ruled by a rod of 



MRS. ROYALL. 337 

iron by this she wolf. Not a step dare the hen-pecked Presi- 
dent take without apprising this tyrannical woman.*' As Mrs. 
Royall was leaving" Chapel Hill, a tall, genteel young man 
stepped into the stage. He had been dismissed, she said, for 
''smiling in church." The students, fine, manly looking young 
men, came to take leave of the dismissed man. In the opinion 
of Mrs. Royall, he deserved a statue, and "so would any man 
who would raise his voice against such hypocrites and besotted 
fools." "This young gentleman possessed more virtue and 
honor than the whole posse of the Faculty, with Madam Presi- 
dent to boot." 

The truth is, that the student was dismissed for bad behaviour 
at the preaching in the village chapel on Sunday night, before 
the arrival of the preacher. There was much noise, vocifera- 
tion, laughter, and tumult. "The house was turned into a scene 
of wild riot." After the arrival of a member of the Faculty, he 
persisted in ill-behaviour, conspicuously disregarding the order 
of the place, was directed to leave the house, but refused to obey. 
On the next morning at Prayers he interrupted the prayer by 
scraping with his feet. He had repeatedly been guilty of dis- 
order, and had incurred the censure of the Faculty. 

Mrs. Royall was either a malicious, untruthful woman, or 
demented. Mrs. Caldwell was a woman of talent, of polished 
manners, and excellent heart. She naturally dominated and 
gave tone to the village society, but her husband was distin- 
guished for his independence of character and inflexible will. 
Neither she nor any other human influence could dominate or 
lead him. I quote from the bitterness of the slighted vanity of 
Mrs. Royall, because, although long ago consigned to oblivion, 
her book was once the theme of amused conversation. Her 
vitriolic satire on Chapel Hill ladies is really a high tribute to 
their conservative feminine virtues. Notoriety-seeking, "man- 
nish" females could get no countenance from them. 

After leaving North Carolina, Mrs. Royall sojourned in 
Washington City, where she engaged in writing vituperative 
books and edited a "Paul Pry" newspaper, so full of scandal 
that she was arraigned and convicted of the crime of being a 
common scold — "communis rixatrix." She was sentenced to 

22 



33<^ THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the old common law punishment of being- ducked in the Poto- 
mac, but, modern ideas being against the infliction of this primi- 
tive rough penalty on a woman, the Court was induced to sub- 
stitute a pecuniary fine. 

At the Commencement of 183 1, the Freshman competitors 
were Julius C. S. Bracken, of Caswell County; Thomas Pollock 
Burgwyn, of Craven County; William H. R. Wood, of Ala- 
bama ; Thomas G. Haughton, of Edenton ; Pleasant Buchanan, 
of Alabama; James B. Shepard, of Craven; John Gray Bynum, 
of Stokes County; Addi Edwin Donnel Thorn, of Greensboro. 

For Tuesday evening the Declaimers were James N. Neal, 
of Chatham ; William H. Owen, of Oxford ; William N. Me- 
bane, Greensboro ; Julian E. Sawyer, Elizabeth City ; Thomas 
L. Clingman, of Surry County ; Thomas W. Harris, of Halifax ; 
John H. Haughton, of Tyrrell County; James R. Holt, of 
Orange. 

Of the Class of 1831, numbering 15, the best in scholarship 
was John DeBerniere Hooper, who spoke the Latin. The 
Valedictory was the next highest, by Calvin Jones, of Tennes- 
see. Next to him was Jacob Thompson. His subject was, "In- 
ducements to the men of talents to improve their powers." 
Then was Lemuel B. Powell, who spoke on "National Pride"; 
then Giles Mebane, on the Most Effectual Means of Promoting 
National Wealth, and Thomas J. Pitchford, on the Advantages 
Derived from the Study of Natural History. Then came John 
L. Hargrove, on the Influence of America on the Future of 
Europe ; James O. Stedman, on Christianity as a Civilizer ; John 
H. Haughton, on Christianity and Civil Liberty; Thomas F. 
Jones, on the Intellect of the North American Indians ; Samuel 
B. Stephens, on the Fine Arts ; and Thomas P. Armstrong, on 
the great question, "Ought the Legislature to Provide for Public 
Liberal Education?"; Samuel S. Biddle, on the effect of multi- 
plying Colleges on Education; Michael W. Holt, on the Com- 
munity of Interests between North and South American Re- 
publics. After this, the following subjects were debated: "Is 
the Salic law correct in principle and practice?", by Charles C. 
Wilson and Thomas W. Harris ; "Are Honorary Distinctions in 
College expedient?", by Stephen S. Sorsby and Thomas E. Tay- 



INSTITUTE OT EDUCATION. 339 

lor; "Is the character of the Athenians or Spartans more 
worthy of admiration?", by George Hairston and Thomas E. 
Taylor; "Can a Christian properly become a Soldier by pro- 
fession?", by Thomas W. Harris and Rufus M. Roseborough; 
"Would it be expedient for the United States to employ Ex- 
ploring Expeditions for the advancement of Science?", by 
Thomas B. Hill and Richard H. Smith; "Is National Calumny 
properly an Occasion of War by the Law of Nations?", Cadwal- 
lader Jones, Stephen S. Sorsby and Samuel A. Williams. 

These are the most pretentious Commencement Day exercises 
on record. All had places on the programme except Doak and 
Grant, probably absent. Some spoke twice, as seen above. 

The honor men did well in after life. Hooper was Tutor and 
then Professor successively of Latin, of Modern Languages, 
and of Greek and French in the University. Jones was a Pro- 
fessor in the University of Alabama and Chancellor of West 
Tennessee. Thompson was Tutor, lawyer. Congressman from 
Mississippi, Governor, Secretary of the Interior, Inspector-Gen- 
eral of the Confederate States. Powell was a physician of repu- 
tation. Giles Mebane was an able and upright member of the 
Legislature, President of the Senate ; Thomas J. Pitchford a 
prominent physician and State Senator. 

Among other strong men was James Grant, a Judge of the 
Superior Court of Iowa and a benefactor of the University. 

The only honorary degree was that of Master of Arts, con- 
ferred on John Tate, of North Carolina. 

The Oration before the two Societies was delivered by Rev. 
Wm. Mercer Green, Rector of the Episcopal Church in Hills- 
born, of the Dialectic Society, a graduate of 1818. 

North Carolina Institute; of Education. 

During the week, on the 22cl of June, 1831, an organization 
was made of the friends of education into an association called 
"The North Carolina Institute of Education." A constitution 
and by-laws were adopted on motion of Benjamin M. Smith of 
Milton, who explained the objects of the Association in a highly 
interesting and appropriate address. Doctor Simmons J. Baker, 
of Martin, was unanimously elected President, and Wm. Mc- 



34-0 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Pheeters, D.D., of Raleigh, Rev. Wm, M. Green, and Hon. 
Frederick Nash, of Hillsboro, Vice-Presidents. Dr. Walter A. 
Norwood, of Hillsboro, was Recording Secretary, and Mr. Wm. 
J. Bingham, Corresponding Secretary. The Executive Com- 
mittee were Professors Mitchell, Wm. Hooper, and James 
Phillips of the University. The Committee met and elected 
Hon. Alfred Moore, of Orange, Orator for 1832. 

Lectures were appointed to be given at the Commencement 
of 1832, as follows: On Imperfections in "Teaching in Primary 
Schools," by Prof. Wm. Hooper; on "Elocution, with Particu- 
lar Reference to Reading," by H. S. Ellenwood, of Hillsboro ; 
on "Lyceums and Similar Institutions," by James D. Johnson, 
of Oxford. The subject selected for discussion was, "The Pe- 
riod Necessary for Preparing for College." 

The Corresponding Secretary was directed to obtain for the 
Institute the "Annals of Education," and five copies of the 
"Educational Reporter," afterwards reduced to one copy. 

Temperance Society — Dr. Mitchell's Address. 

In the summer of 1829, some of the students formed them- 
selves into a Temperance Society. It had a marked effect in 
causing a decline in the drinking of spirituous liquors. In 
1 83 1, Professor Mitchell delivered a very able discourse before 
the University at the request of the Society. It was printed, 
and the strength of his argument and the excellence of the style 
extended the reputation of the speaker. By the kindness of a 
friend, I have a copy, and quote a few sentences which vividly 
portray the downward career of the drunkard. 

"It seems hardly necessary to state in detail how fatal are 
habits of Intemperance to the poor wretch who has become their 
victim. Standing perhaps high in the society of which he is a 
member, he finds the respect with which an antecedent life of 
virtue, temperance, and integrity have been rewarded, passing 
silently away, like the snows of spring beneath the influence of 
the sun. The old, whose conduct used to show how highly 
they prized his friendship, and the young, who were once so 
eager to exhibit evidence of their esteem and regard, now pass 



WOES OF A DRUNKARD. 34I 

him by without more than a cold and distant salutation. His 
opinions no longer have the same weight in cases of doubt and 
perplexity. His neighbors think that a cloud has settled down 
upon his judgment, and darkened that mental eye once so clear 
and keen. * * * His affairs are involved in confusion and 
disorder, and either his schemes are not laid with his usual 
sagacity, or the turns of accident or misfortune are very much 
against him. He finds that he has lost a portion of his power 
for both physical and mental exertion. His family appear 
melancholy and dejected, and it is in vain that he wakes up all 
his wit and tries to revive their drooping spirit. They used to 
meet him when he returned from a distance with countenances 
lighted up with smiles and welcome home the protector, hus- 
band, friend, and father. But the time comes at length when 
his wife and children no longer rejoice at his return, but. as he 
approaches they stand silent ; their hearts wrung with unuttered 
sorrow, and turn away their eyes and refuse to look upon the 
ruin and degradation of what was once so venerable and lovely. 
Oh, if there be one thing beneath the circuit of the sky, of which 
there is any hope that it will awaken the strong feelings of 
nature that are either asleep or dead within him, and rouse him 
to one last despairing effort to shake off his chains and regain 
his freedom, it is that distress of his family. But often, as we 
know, even that is unavailing. The voice of the strong appe- 
tite he has created is stronger than the voice of nature, and the 
mansion that has hitherto been the abode of love and peace, 
becomes the very scene of his excesses, and when his brain is 
heated to frenzy, the arm of violence is perhaps raised against a 
woman — the wife of his bosom, or against those children, who 
should be the object of his tenderest love. But why pursue 
the melancholy story, the particulars of which, from the unhappy 
frequency of their occurrence, are but too well known to us all? 
Why speak of the ruin of his credit, the wasting of his prop- 
erty, the quarrels (with his best friends, too.) into which he is 
betrayed, when petulant and ill-natured through the effect of 
intoxication ? His friends deriving no pleasure from his so- 
cietv, at length forsake him. His estate is squandered, and his 
children (because the wealth that should have come down to 



342 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

them from their ancestors, is intercepted in its descent by the 
author of their being, whom the law of nature that binds even 
the brute creation, required to be their friend and protector), 
are driven away to seek their fortune in some foreign land or 
distant shore. 

"The poor wretch himself feels at length the access of those 
diseases, of which he has so long been sowing the seeds. The 
poison he has for years been taking into his system operates 
decisively. He sinks beneath a complicated load of disorders 
and infirmities — shall I say into a late or an early grave? An 
early grave, inasmuch as he has but just reached the age when 
the sober and temperate part of mankind are in their prime — a 
late one also, for he has long since ceased to be useful in the 
world, and ceased therefore to execute the office for which God 
created him, and for which his life was prolonged from day to 
day." 

"If the youth of a country be neglected, no matter what may 
be its physical advantages, or the form of its government, its 
soil may be fertile as the border of the Nile, its government 
monarchical, aristocratical, or democratical, as you choose, that 
country, taken as a whole, will be poor and wretched. * * * 
We may borrow the pen of Draco, and write the statute book 
from end to end in letters of blood ; we may crown the summit 
of every mountain and hill with a gibbet and a prison — amidst 
all that apparatus of law and justice, vice will present herself 
with a bold and unblushing countenance in the most public 
places, and laugh the lawgiver and judge to scorn." 

"The moral and religious education of the children of the 
drunkard must be miserably neglected. How will he dare to 
assemble his children about him to unfold and explain to them 
the distinctions between good and evil, vice and virtue, with 
their eternal sanctions — recommend the one and warn them to 
avoid the other — he whose conduct is an open violation of the 
laws and morality and religion every day he lives?" 

"The mind in ancient days did not demand the application of 
stimulants more than the body. The orators of Greece and 
Rome needed not those aids to eloquence, which our modern 
statesmen and declaimers employ. To the poet, the fervor of 
his own bosom — to the philosopher the regular and natural op- 



THE DROMGOOLE; MYTH. 343 

eration of his own vigorous and unclouded mind, were fully 
sufficient for the production of those masterpieces of taste and 
wisdom which have been the admiration of every following age. 
The lips of Moses, the Jewish lawgiver — of David, the sweet 
singer of Israel — of the holy and sublime Isaiah — of the Re- 
deemer of mankind, were never polluted by the products of 
distillation." 

These extracts are given because Professor Mitchell is known 
to have been a many-sided man in science, but it is less known 
that he possessed no little literary ability. As said elsewhere, 
his reputation as a writer of sermons and addresses was ob- 
scured by his monotonous and awkward delivery. It is worthy 
of notice that he believed that the ancients did not use — did not 
know how to make — distilled spirits, that the "strong drinks" 
mentioned in the Bible, meant the products of simple fermen- 
tation from honey, grain and substances other than grapes, and 
neither "wine" nor strong drink were much stronger than 
cider or ale. He states that our whiskey, brandy and other 
liquors did not influence the morals and happiness of man- 
kind earlier than the end of the reign of James I. of England. 

The; Dromgoole; Myth. 

There is a notable tradition dating from this year. Peter 
Dromgoole of Virginia came to enter the University in 1831. 
He was fond of card-playing and of wild company. He was 
not a matriculate. He took offence at a remark of one of the 
professors and refused to submit to further examination. After 
a few days he disappeared and was never heard of afterwards. 
A story was started that he was killed in a duel and his body 
carefully concealed. His uncle, Hon. George C. Dromgoole, 
one of our alumni, an able lawyer, came to Chapel Hill and for 
weeks investigated the case. It is said that he was satisfied 
that there was no truth in the rumor. The room-mate of Peter, 
a very reputable man, Mr. John Buxton Williams, of Warren 
County, in a letter to the press, stated that he never heard of 
Peter's getting into a quarrel, and that he started from Chapel 
Hill in a public stage. I conclude that he was ashamed to go 
home, journeyed to what was then the turbulent Southwest, and 



344 TH E UNIVERSITY UI' NORTH CAROLINA. 

was killed in a brawl or assassinated. A modern tradition 
originating within my knowledge places the scene of his fatal 
duel on Piney Prospect, and asserts that he was buried under 
a rounded rock on its summit. Certain stains of iron in the 
rock are pointed out as drops of his blood, and a still later 
story is that his sweetheart, Miss Fanny, hurried to stop the 
combat, arrived too late, went into rapid loss of reason and 
health, and was buried by his side. The spring at the base of 
the hill, where the lovers are said to have sat and cooed, bears 
the name of Miss Fanny's Spring. This last story is embodied 
in a short poem of merit by Mr. L. B. Hamberlin, an Instructor 
of Expression in this University, and that of Texas, and pub- 
lished in our University Magazine of 1892. 

The persistency of belief in student circles in the Dromgoole 
legend and its accretions throws light on the growth of similar 
legends elsewhere and in the times of old. It doubtless sug- 
gested to Edwin Fuller in his novel of Sea-Gift to create a 
fatal duel in which De Vare was killed. Some credulous young 
people unblushingly avow their belief that the rains and snows 
of three-quarters of a century have not washed out Dromgoole's 
blood spots on a rounded granite rock. 

Gaston's Address. 

At the Commencement of 1832 the address before the two 
Societies was delivered by Hon. William Gaston, chosen by the 
Philanthropic Society. It met with public favor to a most ex- 
traordinary degree. It ran through four editions, the first of 
5,000, published by the Philanthropic Society, a second shortly 
aftenvards by LaGrange College, Alabama, a third by Mr. 
Thomas W. Whyte at Richmond, Virginia, with a strong com- 
mendation by Chief Justice Marshall. It was also published in 
part in various periodicals and entire in the North Carolina 
University Magazine of 1844. To satisfy the popular demand, 
the two Societies in 1849 jointly issued a new edition. 

It is remarkable that when the public mind was inflamed pecu- 
liarly on account of the bloody insurrection of Nat Turner in the 
preceding year the orator should have frankly avowed himself 
an advocate of the ultimate abolition of slavery, and that the 



COMMENCEMENT OF 1832. 345 

audience cheered the utterance. "Disguise the truth as we 
may," he said, "and throw the blame where we will, it is Slav- 
ery which, more than any other cause, keeps us back in the 
career of improvement. It stifles industry and represses en- 
terprise — it is fatal to economy and providence — it discourages 
skill — it impairs our strength as a community, and poisons 
morals at the fountain head." This bold language did not 
weaken his standing in the State. Six months afterwards, 
although a Roman Catholic, and the Constitution contained a 
clause inhibiting men of that faith from holding office, he was, 
by the General Assembly, elected a Supreme Court Judge. He 
accepted the office, being persuaded that the clause was con- 
trary to the Declaration of Rights and therefore void. One 
cause of the popularity of the address was the eloquent dentin- * 
ciation of Disunion and praise of the Constitution, at a time 
when South Carolina threatened Nullification and many openly 
advocated Secession. 

The Graduating Class had 36 members and was notable for 
merit. The honors were as follows : The best, Thomas L. 
Clingman, who had the Latin Salutatory. Next, John Hay- 
wood Parker, who had the Valedictory. Thomas S. Ashe, 
speaking on the Application of Steam to the Arts, being third, 
and James C. Dobbin, on Mental Philosophy, being fourth. 

As a rule, the members were successful in after life. Of the 
honor men, Clingman was a Representative in Congress, and a 
Senator, also prominent in State legislation. He was, more- 
over, a Brigadier General of the Confederate States. Parker 
was an Episcopal clergyman of power; Ashe was a Senator 
of the Confederate States and Justice of the Supreme Court of 
this State. Dobbin was an able member of the State Legisla- 
ture and Secretary of the Navy. To this class belonged Rich- 
ard H. Smith, a sound lawyer, wise member of the Legislature, 
and Delegate to the General Conventions of the Episcopal 
Church ; Cadwallader Jones, Solicitor for his Circuit and Colo- 
nel in the Confederate army, and John H. Haughton, a very able 
lawyer, and efficient in the General Assembly in shaping the 
legislation of the State. 

Among the non-graduates was the eminent physician. Wm. F. 



346 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Strudwick, of Hillsboro. Of the matriculates of 1832, Charles 
G. Nelms, of Anson County, after reaching the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel lost his life in the Civil War. 

The honorary degree of Master of Arts was granted to Rev. 
Jarvis Barry Buxton, Rector of the Episcopal Church of Fay- 
etteville, and Rev. Samuel Lyle Graham, of Virginia. 

The second meeting of the North Carolina Institute of Edu- 
cation was on June 19, 1832. Mr. Alfred Moore delivered the 
Annual Address according to appointment. Rev. Dr. Wm. 
McPheeters and Messrs. Wm. Hooper and Wm. J. Bingham 
were appointed a Committee to report on questions and sub- 
jects for the next Commencement. Mr. James Grant, after- 
wards Judge Grant of Iowa, moved that a Committee be ap- 
pointed to memorialize the Legislature on the subject of Popu- 
lar Education. The motion was carried, and Wm. Gaston, 
Frederick Nash and David L. Swain were appointed. 

The Institute adjourned until 3 o'clock, at which time wa^ 
heard the lecture on Primary Schools by Prof. Wm. Hooper. 
It met with such favor that it was published in pamphlet form. 
He began by stating that good schools cannot abound in com- 
munities where all are engaged in clearing and subduing new 
lands. Then his first point was that the imperfections of our 
schools were due to the circumstances of our youth, raised amid 
active toil and hunting and fishing, and the slack discipline of 
parents. He was noted for his numerous illustrations. I give 
a sentence or two as showing this, and also the nicety of his 
scholarship. "Will it be wonderful if a youth sent from do- 
mestic indulgences, should find school ungrateful and accuse 
his teachers of being cruel, that he should recite with mournful 
recollections, and still sadder forebodings, that awful Greek 
verb, tupto, to beat, particularly in the passive voice, tuptomai, 
I am under beating now; etuptomen, I was under beating a 
little while ago, and then the dismal future, tuphthesomai, I 
shall be beaten — but above all the tenses (denoting the immi- 
nence of his dangers), tetupsomai, I shall be very soon beaten 
again." He then argues for more severe training, praising the 
father of John Adams, the President, who, when his son was 
reluctant to learn Latin, put him to ditching as a punishment. 



DR. HOOPER S IDEAS ABOUT SCHOOLS. 34/ 

A second injury to improvement comes from the employment 
of cheap teachers and want of proper valuation of superior men. 
Due applause should be given to the superior schools. 

The third cause of imperfection of primary schools is the 
scarcity of able teachers. Among the deficiencies is the neglect 
of the common rudiments of English education. Another is 
the omission of the greater part of the classical course. A 
third defect is the want of spirit and energy in imparting 'in- 
struction. "The manner a schoolmaster should have is much of 
the promptness, energy and decision of a military officer, giving 
the word of command to a company of soldiers." 

Another improvement in our schools would be the use of oral 
lectures. Apparatus, maps, plans of sieges, etc., military en- 
gines, should be used ; for example, the line of march in one 
of Caesar's campaigns in Gaul, the columns of the two armies, 
and all the testudos, vineae and battering rams which were em- 
ployed. The trustees of academies should provide such. 

The proper construction of schoolhouses should be attended 
to. They should be built with an especial eye to the purposes 
to which they are to be applied. Stoves should be provided 
instead of fireplaces. He states, that the celebrated Round Hill 
in Massachusetts, and the Newbern Academy in this State. 
approach near to his beau ideal of a schoolroom. He then 
describes what he considers the best — with floor of brick laid 
upon plank, to prevent noise, not omitting the small cell for 
confining the unruly. 

Professor Hooper then gives some hints on female education, 
making the criticism that some seminaries attempt too much. 
"The whole encyclopedia of knowledge is embraced in the list 
of studies ; and the young lady, by the time she reaches her 
teens, is in clanger of thinking herself grammarian, geographer, 
astronomer, chemist, botanist, painter and whatnot." 

He closes with a strong argument for the establishment of a 
Seminary for the Education of Schoolmasters. "We have semi- 
naries for training up physicians, lawyers and divines ; even me- 
chanics learn their trades under the best masters. But that 
most important and difficult business of fashioning the intellect, 
moulding the disposition and wielding the nascent energies of 



348 THE; UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

those who are soon to be rulers of the world, is left to mere 
accident, or falls to the lot of the most common and inexperi- 
enced characters." 

"We know not how many young' persons have been ruined or 
injured by unskillful management at school." 

The address shows that the author largely anticipated the 
ideas now ruling the world of thought on the subject of educa- 
tion. 

In 1832, on the 21st of June, the Institute of Education had 
another meeting. The Committee on Addresses and Questions 
for the meeting in 1833 made their report, which was adopted. 
Joseph A. Hill, of Wilmington, was appointed to deliver the 
Annual Address, James D. Johnston, of Oxford, to read a paper 
on Lyceums, Rev. Frederick Nash, on A System of Elemen- 
tary Schools for North Carolina, Walker Anderson on "Excit- 
ing Emulation in Literary Institutions by Rewards and Dis- 
tinctions." 

Plea for Balls. 

Those acquainted with college life are surprised at the in- 
tensity of earnestness felt in this microcosm, miniature world, 
over matters trivial in the estimation of those who move in the 
greater world. An abstract of a petition to the Trustees in 
1833, signed by Christopher C. Battle, John H. Watson and 
William P. Webb, written by Battle, will illustrate this. They 
were a Committee appointed by a mass-meeting of students, 
for the purpose of procuring from the Board of Trustees per- 
mission to use a room in Steward's Hall for the Commencement 
Ball. The petitioners are "sensibly touched with the delicacy 
of presenting their petition at so early a period (November 6th), 
but, knowing not whether there will be another meeting of the 
Trustees before Commencement, the strongest motives of policy 
constrain their sending it in now, though stamped with the 
impress of prematurity." The intellectual improvement and 
gentlemanly accomplishments caused by dancing would justify 
a special ball-room, and if the New Chapel were completed, 
they would have asked permission to fit up the old Chapel for 
the purpose at their own expense. It would be extreme pre- 
sumption to argue the propriety of balls, since the Trustees 



SOPHOMORIC ELOQUENCE. 349 

"deduce conclusions from the wisdom of experience." No 
genius, however promising, can effect much in the present en- 
lightened era, destitute of the polished accomplishments. — ■ 
Since on this retired Hill of Science, we are precluded from 
the improvement of Society, we feel an inevitable drawback 
upon our literary acquirements. As balls greatly promote gen- 
tility, acquiescence in the petition is earnestly asked for. Waiv- 
ing all personal concern, we strenuously advocate its principles 
as promoting the best interests of the institution, as enhancing 
the splendors of our Commencements, and as contributing much, 
very much, to the gratification and pleasure of the adored Fair, 
who honor us with their company on that universal jubilee." 

The Trustees could not stand against such eloquence. The 
Ball Managers in their gratification concluded to send special 
invitations to all the great men in the State. Young Battle (a 
brother of Judge Battle) wrote to the Governor, Swain, a per- 
sonal letter, asking him to attend the Ball, ''in order to give dig- 
nity and stability" to it. The Governor replied, regretting that 
he could not attend, and suggested that "agility" would be more 
needed than "stability." Battle was so afraid of this becoming 
known to the students, that he made his colleague. Judge Webb, 
promise to keep the correspondence secret, which he did faith- 
fully until after their graduation. 

In 1833, Tutor John DeBerniere Hooper resigned his place 
in order to become a teacher in the Episcopal School in Raleigh, 
which had been inaugurated with great promise of usefulness, 
which however for various causes failed as a school for bovs. 
but afterwards as St. Mary's Girls' School became a power for 
good. The Sophomore Class passed resolutions, which show 
the strong hold the Tutor had on their admiration.. The letter 
of the Committee accompanying the resolutions is such a char- 
acteristic specimen of the peculiar style which has given the 
name of Sophomoric to a species of Oratory, that I quote some 
sentences. In truth, no history of a University would be com- 
plete without embalming a specimen of such euphuism. The 
praises, though grandiloquently expressed, were well deserved. 

"In every day occupations Farewell has an awful and ill- 
boding sound in it, but when we reflect that we are now about 



350 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to be parted, and perhaps forever, with one who has labored so 
diligently for our present happiness and future aggrandisement, 
and who, by his own example of piety and virtue, has also 
pointed out to us the bright and glittering paths of morality, 
we are constrained to transcend the usual cold formalities of 
separation and bid you that word bearing in its aspect our true 
expressions of grief in a valedictory letter." . . . "Now since 
wc are all in the glow of youth and health, and have ample 
opportunity, let us take an affectionate and deep-impression ed 
farewell, such a one as long-cherished friends take when they 
part with the expectation of meeting no more on this side of 
eternity. Working out the great course of Nature, some dire 
pestilence may sweep across our country and fell you or us, and 
perhaps both ; war and famine may hurry us into oblivion, or an 
earthquake may submerge us ; to part we must, and whether we 
ever again shall meet is on the fluctuating tides of chance, 
therefore let us part as convicts doomed to die, but not despair- 
ing of hope. To the reckless and unthinking this may indeed 
appear more the outward expressions of grief than the spontan- 
eous emotions of sorrow-stricken hearts, but they should recol- 
lect that we are about to bid adieu to him that has so honorably 
conducted us through the Sophomore year, to him that has laid 
the foundations of our future eminence, to him that has con- 
nected the beauties of the scholar and the refinements of the 
gentleman. It belongs alone to the viper to implant his fangs 
in the bosom that warmed him, but to a man who is endowed 
with the finer sensibilities of his God, it belongs to repay in a 
two-fold proportion every generous and benevolent action." 
. . . "Now, in all the emotions which the word naturally sug- 
gests, we bid you an affectionate 'farewell.' In the name of 
the whole class, 'farewell.' " 

It was in 1833 that Messrs. Gaston and Badger gave the opin- 
ion that the Board had the right to sell the "service tract" of 
Maj. Charles Gerrard, at the mouth of Yellow Creek in Tennes- 
see, notwithstanding the wish expressed in his will that it should 
be retained by the University. Colonel Polk as attorney made 
the sale, $6,400 for the 2,560 acres, and $2,000 of the proceeds 
was voted to the finishing of the new Chapel. It was resolved, 



UNIVERSITY ATTORNEYS. 35 I 

that in order to manifest a grateful sense of the liberality of the 
donor and perpetuate his memory of it, this building be forever 
known as Gerrard Hall. Col. J. B. Killebrew, the late very in- 
telligent ex- State Geologist of Tennessee, informed me that the 
tract is not of especial fertility, and that the iron deposits once 
reported to be in its limits are of little value. 

In 1832 the list of attorneys for the University was revised. 
On motion of Louis D. Henry the requirement of a bond was 
dispensed with, as being unusual, and sometimes mischievous, 
because excluding superior lawyers, who consider the require- 
ment a reflection on their professional character. I give their 
names as a matter of history. The numbers begin in the moun- 
tain counties. 

No. 1. Joshua Roberts Asheville 

2. Anderson Mitt-hell States ville 

I!. Robert H. Burton Lincolnton 

4. Washington Morrison Mecklenburg 

5. Clement Marshall Anson 

() John M. Dick Greensboro 

7. John W. Norwood Hillsboro 

8. John D. Eccles Fayetteville- 

9. John D. Hawkins Franklin County 

10. Thomas P. Devereux Raleigh 

11. William D. Mosely Lenoir County 

12. Hardy L. Holmes Clinton 

13. Joseph A. Hill Wilmington 

14. Matthias E. Manly Newbern 

15. Benj. J. Blume 

Hi. Joseph R. Lloyd Tarboro 

17. John S. Hawks Washington 

18. John L. Bailey Elizabeth City 

In the same year the Board sold at public auction their 243 
shares in the Bank of New Bern. The average price per share 
was 63.10 1-2, the purchasers being Col. Win. Polk and Messrs. 
John Snead and Alfred Jones. The purchase money, $15,- 
208.56, was at once paid on the debts to the Bank of New Bern 
and the State Bank, leaving only $1,500 due the branch of the 
Bank of New Bern at Raleieh. 



35 2 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Removal to Raleigh. 

Ex-Governor and ex-Senator Iredell, who had recently re- 
moved from Edenton to Raleigh, moved that a committee of fif- 
teen members be appointed to consider the expediency of trans- 
ferring- the University to the seat of government, one of the 
committee at least to be from each Congressional District. The 
President of the Board, Governor Swain, appointed the follow- 
ing : 

James Iredell Chairman 

John B. Baker Gates 

Win. A. Blount Beaufort 

John H. Bryan Craven 

John Owen Bladen 

William S. Robards Granville 

John D. Toomer Cumberland 

John M. Morehead Guilford 

John Giles Rowan 

Wm. J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

Thomas Lov e Haywood 

Lewis Williams Surry 

James C. Johnston Chowan 

While it is not known that this committee was favorable to 
removal, it is certainly open to criticism that, with such wise 
Orange County trustees to choose from as Judge Duncan Came- 
ron, Dr. Joseph Caldwell, Judge Frederick Nash, James 
Mebane, Dr. James Webb, Thomas D. Bennehan, Rev. Dr. John 
Witherspoon, Alfred Moore, Judge Willie P. Mangum, Dr. 
James S. Smith, John Scott, Hugh Waddell, all very active 
friends of the University, their county, more interested than any 
other, had no representative. 

Most of the committee were often called on to visit Raleigh 
on private or official business. Owen and Robards had recently 
resided there. Johnston was a relative of the chairman, Iredell, 
and often visited him at his home in Raleigh. Four of them, 
Dr. S. J. Baker, General Blount, Mr. Bryan and Mr. Henry, 
removed to the capital, and Dr. J. B. Baker was a relative of Dr. 
S. J. Baker. Although a majority of these trustees might have 
been expected to favor removal, the committee in December, 
1833, reported that it was inexpedient at that time. Notice was 



COMMENCEMENT OF 1833. 353 

given that it would be called up at the next meeting, but the 
measure slept forever. 

There was a spirited discussion of this question between two 
Seniors — Crenshaw of Wake, and Proteus E. A. Jones of Gran- 
ville — at the ensuing Commencement. It is said that Mr. Cren- 
shaw of Wake, "applied the lash" to Orange. He contended 
that Wake County would welcome the University. He sarcas- 
tically remarked that no one in that county would get votes by 
running about and telling the people that he would persuade the 
Legislature to force students to work on the roads. This was 
probably aimed at Joseph Allison, a Representative for that and 
other years, and often Senator, whose reputation for saying 
things pleasing to the people was very high. Mr. Jones of 
Granville, with much animation and ingenuity, vindicated 
Orange, and opposed removal. The question was not brought 
again before the Trustees. The University was in such condi- 
tion that all its energies were required to enable it to stay in 
Chapel Hill. 

The Commencement of 1833 was held without the presence of 
Dr. Caldwell, whose health required a visit to Philadelphia. 
The strong man's constitution was steadily giving away to the 
assaults of an incurable disease, and the most eminent surgeons 
advised against lithotomy. The joltings over the long rough 
roads gave him exquisite anguish, which he bore with the forti- 
tude of a martyr. Professor Mitchell, the senior professor, 
presided as his lieutenant, at the request of the Trustees. 

The address before the Literary Societies was delivered by 
George E. Badger, chosen by the Dialectic Society, who had 
stood from early manhood among the ablest and best in our 
State. It is said by the chronicler to show "accurate and pro- 
found thought, strength and vigor of expression, interspersed 
here and there with a caustic sarcasm forcibly applied." While 
1 his praise is well merited it did not meet with the success ob- 
tained by that of Judge Gaston. 

John Gray Bynum carried off the first honor, and spoke the 

Latin Salutatory. Junius B. King and Wm. N. Mebane were 

next and equal, and Mebane drew the Valedictory. King took 

the Philosophical Oration, and Solomon Lea that on Belles 

23 



354 TH E UNIVERSITY 01' NORTH CAROLINA. 

Lettres. The other honor men were Julian E. Sawyer, Addi E. 
Thom and Wra. H. Owen, and to them were allotted the In- 
termediate Orations. Wm, M. Crenshaw and Proteus E. A. 
Jones, as heretofore stated, discussed the question whether the 
University should be removed to Raleigh ; Edmund Jones and 
Josiah Stallings wrestled with the problem, "Will the Emanci- 
pation of the Slaves in the West Indies be Beneficial?" and 
W. E. Kennedy and Henry I. McLin, "Whether the Recent 
Revolutions in Europe Will Be Productive of Good to the 
Human Race?" 

In after life Bynum was a very strong lawyer and influential 
in the State Legislature, but missed high political preferment. 
Mebane was an able and useful Presbyterian minister and King 
embraced the same calling, and held similar rank in Alabama. 
Lea was in the front rank of Methodist preachers, a tutor in 
Randolph-Macon College, President of Farmville Female Sem- 
inary, and then of Greensboro female College. Sawyer was 
likewise a minister, as well as Thom. Owen was a much 
respected Tutor of Ancient Languages, and then professor 
of the same at Wake Forest College. Edmund W. Jones was 
a State Senator, a councillor of State and member of the Con- 
ventions of 1861 and 1865. 

The degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on Rev. John 
Avery, rector of the Episcopal Church of Edenton, and Prin- 
cipal of the Edenton Academy, and that of Master of Arts on 
Rev. Philip Bruce Wiley, a teacher, and also Episcopal minister. 

Joseph Alston Hill, son of one of the Commissioners to select 
the site of the University, William H. Hill, very early in life 
attained distinction as full of promise of future usefulness, and 
was cut off before reaching middle age. The speech delivered 
by him before the Institute of Education justified his reputation, 
being full of wit, fancy, elegance, good sense. He described 
with much effect his sufferings at the Preparatory School in 
Chapel Hill, and pleaded for a more sparing use of the rod. 
The reporter however thought that the number and appropriate- 
ness of his classical quotations proved that the scourgings he 
had received had not been in vain. 

A lecture on Lyceums by Mr. James D. Johnston of Oxford, 



COMMENCEMENT OF 1834. 355 

showed extensive research. The veteran editor, Col. R. B. 
Creecy, states that Mr. Johnston was an uncommonly able 
teacher. 

Prof. Walker Anderson closed by giving his experience in 
the education of females. It is unfortunate that this paper is 
lost. 

The North Carolina Institute of Education seems to have had 
no other meeting. As Dr. Wm. Hooper was evidently a leading 
spirit, if not the promoter of it, I conjecture that the distractions 
caused by the long, painful and fatal sickness of his step-father, 
President Caldwell, withdrew his attention from everything 
extraneous to his regular duties. It is notable that the profes- 
sors of chemistry (Mr. Mitchell) and of mathematics (Mr. 
Phillips), declined active aid to it although they became mem- 
bers. It is significant that in 183 1 the Executive Committee 
were Messrs. Mitchell, Hooper and Phillips, and in 1832 
Messrs. McPheeters, Hooper and Bingham. It was a brave 
effort, however, on the part of its promoters. One hundred and 
thirty of the leaders of the State became members. 

At the Commencement of 1834, Prof. Mitchell presided, 
President Caldwell still languishing with his painful disease. 
The newspaper correspondent was enthusiastic over the im- 
proved behavior of the students. The obstreperous plaudits, 
with which they used to deafen the audience, no matter when in 
or out of place, were either omitted altogether, or exchanged 
for judicious signs of approbation. The feeble health of the 
President was sympathizingly commented on. His altered ap- 
pearance presented a sad contrast with the active steps and 
cheerful disposition, which once distinguished him. 

The class was the last which graduated before the death of 
President Caldwell. James Biddle Shepard was the best and 
had the Latin Salutatory. Abraham F\ Morehead was the 
next, with the Valedictory. Then followed David McAllister, 
who spoke on Political Economy. Wm. Pugh Bond and Wm. 
Pinckney Gunn were next and equal. Bond spoke on the Drama 
and Gunn on Astronomy. Samuel R. Blake and Samuel Wil- 
liams discussed the query whether a College Education was 
essential to General Culture ; Thomas Goelet Hausrhton and 



356 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Thomas Jasper Williams, Whether Manufacturers would be 
beneficial to the South; Henry Watkins Miller and Harrison 
Wall Covington, Whether Institutions for Public Education 
should be under control of the State, and William Brown Carter 
and Albert Gallatin Anderson, Whether a Medical Board would 
be of benefit to North Carolina. 

Of the honor graduates, Shepard became a member of the 
General Assembly and United States District Attorney. He was 
the nominee of the Democratic party for the Governorship when 
Wm. A. Graham was elected in 1846. He was a fine speaker, 
but too wealthy to undergo the drudgery of the bar. More- 
head, a brother of Governor Morehead, was Tutor of the Uni- 
versity, wrote some short poems of merit and was a promising 
lawyer when carried off by pulmonary consumption in 1837. 
McAlister was also a Tutor, and then a physician. Bond was 
a Judge and member of the Legislature in Tennessee, also a 
preacher of the Baptist Church. 

Of those who gained no honors, Henry Watkins Miller was 
one of the ablest lawyers and most eloquent orators in the 
State. He was elected to the Legislature at the beginning of 
the Civil War, and died while a member. 

Of those matriculating but not graduating, Edwin Alexander 
Anderson graduated at Yale, was an able physician, President 
of the State Medical Society. A President of this University, 
now of the University of Virginia, was named after him — Ed- 
win Anderson Alderman. One matriculate — Wm. W. Avery — 
lost his life in the Civil War, as will be hereafter described. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, (LL.D.) was con- 
ferred on George Edmund Badger, late Judge and afterwards 
United States Senator, on Thomas Ruffin, Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, and on Levi Silliman Ives, Bishop of North 
Carolina ; that of Doctor of Divinity on Rev. Andrew Syme of 
Virginia, of the Episcopal Church. That of Master of Arts on 
Samuel Smith. 

Aid to Caldwell. 

President Caldwell's disease proved to be beyond the sur- 
geons' skill, and caused him excruciating pain the remainder 
of his life. Possessed of remarkable fortitude, he did not at 



HELP FOR CALDWELL. $$/ 

once lay down his accustomed work. In December, 1833, the 
disease had made such ravages on his strength that for the first 
time he asked for help. At his suggestion it was ordered that 
when the President was unable by failure of health to take a 
personal and active part in preventing disorders in and among 
the College Buildings and the vicinity, the professor of oldest 
standing should be peculiarly vested with the responsibility and 
power to aid in the active duties of the Presidency. Thus 
Elisha Mitchell was at first partially, and then entirely, the 
acting President until the advent of President Swain. 

Although President Caldwell insisted on doing his part in 
instruction, the Trustees determined to relieve him to some 
extent. On motion of Wra. Julius Alexander, an Adjunct Pro- 
fessorship of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy was created, 
with a salary of $1,000, soon raised to $1,240. The Standing 
Committee of Appointments elected Walker Anderson to the 
Chair. The house expected to be purchased from Thomas H. 
Taylor, that east of the Episcopal Church, was promised to 
him. 

The following by-laws, regulating the conduct of students, 
were the last proposed by President Caldwell, and they, to- 
gether with that above mentioned, in regard to the Senior Pro- 
fessor, show clearly his disciplinary ideas. 

A mandate was laid on every member of the Faculty to be 
vigilant in carrying out the laws of the College, and to report 
transgressions. 

It was declared to be a great object of the Trustees in assign- 
ing rooms in the buildings to Tutors, that they should individu- 
ally and unitedly suppress disorders, not only in their own, but 
in all the buildings. They could not be absent without permis- 
sion of the President. 

The Tutors must go to their recitation rooms a reasonable 
time before the bell rings and teach the whole hour, unless bell 
for dismission should sound earlier. 

Among other provisions, after several years of entreaty on 
the part of the Seniors, the vacation asked for by them of one 
month prior to Commencement, was granted. This became 
the settled practice for years, to the great satisfaction of those 



358 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

who had speeches to prepare for Commencement, and the de- 
light of those to whom text-books were a torment. 

As Professor Wm. Hooper owned his dwelling and Prof. 
Anderson rented one, they were allowed a commutation of $75 
per annum, which was about the rental of the best houses in 
Chapel Hill. 

Our modern football has not unrivalled distinction of peril 
to life and limb. The President reported that the favorite game 
of the students, known as Bandy, or Shinny, was dangerous, 
especially if played with a round wooden ball. The players 
were frequently knocked apparently lifeless and were incapaci- 
tated for duty several days. The students themselves were 
once so shocked that they voluntarily gave up the sport, but 
renewed it. It was so firmly established by prescription that the 
Faculty doubted their power of prohibiting it without the pre- 
vious action of the Board, which action, however, was not had. 

Rev. Dr. Wm. McPheeters, the Principal of the flourishing 
Raleigh Academy, earnestly pressed raising the standard for 
admission into the University. This was acceded to, and the 
following requirements were enacted. 

In Mathematics, the whole of Arithmetic (Barnard's or 
Adam's) and Young's Algebra to Simple Equations. In the 
Classics, Jacob's Greek Reader, the whole of the prose ; or Grseca 
Minora and the latter part of Jacob's Greek Reader ; the whole 
of Virgil, and Cicero's Select Orations, except the Philippics. 

The work of the Faculty was assigned as follows : 

President Caldwell to hear each week (if his health permit, 
and if not, Professor Anderson to hear for him), three recita- 
tions ; Professor Anderson, six recitations ; Professor Mitchell, 
eight recitations ; Professor Hooper, eight recitations ; Profes- 
sor Phillips, eight recitations ; three Tutors, each nine recita- 
tions. 

For the coming session the President, or Dr. Mitchell, was to 
appoint three Tutors, temporarily, but from and after the 1st of 
January, 1835, tne Trustees were to appoint three, at a salary 
of $500 each. One should be styled Tutor of Ancient and 
Modern Languages, one of Ancient Languages, and the third 
of Mathematics. 



professor anderson s scheme. 359 

Recommendation of Professors — Judge Anderson's 
Scheme. 

The President and Professors were requested to report to the 
Board such alterations as their own experience and acquaint- 
ance with other colleges might suggest. 

The Faculty, in response to this request, made the following 
recommendations, probably the last important paper in the 
handwriting of Dr. Caldwell, his legacy to the University. 

That there shall be three Tutors. One with a salary of $750, 
to be styled the first or principal Tutor, to teach Latin and 
French. A second is to teach Greek, and the third Mathe- 
matics. It has been found by experience that the present 
salary, $400, is not sufficient to retain our best scholars. Tutors, 
as a rule, must be educated by this institution. Weight of char- 
acter is of very great importance, as well as scholarship, and 
this combination cannot be assured for a length of time on so 
small compensation as heretofore paid. The following scale is 
deemed best : A graduate who has never taught, $450; a gradu- 
ate who has taught one year, $500 ; a graduate who has taught 
two years, $600. The regulations for the duties of Tutors to 
be as heretofore adopted. 

The standard of Education in the best Northern colleges is 
higher than in our University. It is recommended to advance 
to theirs' by degrees. If we were to adopt those of Harvard 
and Yale, we would for a year have no Freshman class. The 
Trustees were asked to confer the authority to fix the terms of 
admission on the Faculty. 

Individual members of the Faculty submitted separate papers. 

The most elaborate and novel recommendation was by Walker 
Anderson, a man of much experience, good sense and honesty 
of intention. He began by avowing his veneration and respect 
for his colleagues. The defects he will point out do not involve 
any censure on them. 

The first defect is the low standard of scholarship, not per- 
haps in comparison with other colleges, but still certain. Our 
graduates in the large majority of cases, carry with them the 
most slender and superficial knowledge of what they studied. 
There are two causes for this. One is the deficiency of primary 
schools. The second is the utter inapplicability of University 



¥ 



360 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

discipline to the regulation of boys. Some half dozen of the 
lower classes are stimulated by the hope of distinction, but the 
multitude, unambitious, unconscious of the value of time and 
opportunity, and secure in the panoply of college principles, are 
impenetrable to motives Professors can present. 

The second defect is the nature of the discipline. This is 
moulded to suit the needs of mere boys, and the necessary strict- 
ness is irritating to the young men. Boys learning Latin and 
Greek and the elementary parts of Mathematics, as is the case 
with our two lower classes, ought to be in school under a 
master. 

The third defect is the isolation of the University. He be- 
lieves that a village has all the temptations and evils of a city, 
without the restraining influence of an enlightened and Chris- 
tian community. 

He might mention other defects, but these are sufficient to 
show that a change should be made. 

What are the remedies ? 

1. Better academical instruction. 

2. The subjection of boys to school discipline until they have 
obtained probable discretion. 

3. A more elevated standard of scholarship, both in the Lan- 
guages and Sciences. 

4. That the students should be placed in the reach of an im- 
proved and Christian society. 

5. That these objects be accomplished without adding mate- 
rially to the expense of the institution. 

It is proposed that the institution be divided into two depart- 
ments, "The Collegiate Institute of North Carolina" and "The 
L T niversity of North Carolina." The former to be located at 
Chapel Hill under a Rector and three Tutors, and to be mod- 
elled after the high schools of Europe and our Northern States. 
In this should be taught, under the most improved school dis- 
cipline the studies leading up to our Junior Class. 

2. The University should be located in a town, preferably in 
Raleigh ; its officers, four Professors, one to be President, name- 
ly, one of Mathematics and Astronomy, one of Chemistry and 
Natural Philosophy, one of Moral Philosophy and Political 



professor andersox's scheme. 361 

Economy, and one of Belles Lettres and Ancient Literature. 
There should be three classes, the course to occupy three years. 
The Professors should be ready, if necessary, to teach in other 
departments. It might be expedient, after awhile, to add a 
Professor of Law. They should reside under the same roof 
with the students. The object should be to have a University 
of the highest grade. The half grammar school and half col- 
lege which we have now, can never be different from the 
present. 

As to the expense — 

The present expenses for the teaching force is $8,560. The 
officer to assist the President on account of his declining health 
receives $1,240. When he is no longer needed the annual 
charge will be $7,320. The tuition fees are about $3,000, leav- 
ing near $4,500 to be provided from other sources. Under the 
proposed arrangement, the salaries of the Rector ($1,200) and 
the three Tutors ($600 each) will amount to $3,000, which 
would be discharged by tuition fees of those receiving an ele- 
mentary education. It might be best, however, to employ an 
able Rector and let him receive all fees and be responsible for 
all expenses. 

There would then be in the University proper, at Raleigh or 
elsewhere, the President and three Professors. Let them re- 
ceive $1,000 each, and, in addition, the President have two- 
fifths of the tuition money, and the other Professors to have 
one-fifth each. If there should be forty students, these officers 
would receive about the amount now paid them. The charge 
on the University would be about $4,000 a year, which is less 
than at present. 

As to the Buildings — 

It is recommended that a part of the funds to be derived from 
the Tennessee lands be invested in a building to contain four 
lecture-rooms, and accommodations for 64 students, or have 
50 students and rooms for the President and his family. Such 
a structure would cost $10,000, and the rent of rooms would 
pay 8 per cent on that sum. If the number of students should 
increase, they might be provided for in the same manner, and 
so Professors and students would be under the same roof. 



362 the; university of north Carolina. 

In another letter Judge Anderson expresses the opinion that, 
if the foregoing changes be adopted, there ought not to be any 
Tutors. The most unlearned pupils require the best teachers. 
The Freshman and Sophomore studies are taught with less 
efficiency by inexperienced preceptors than the more advanced 
portions, and should have the most skillful teachers. The dis- 
cipline, too, is devolved upon young men, possessing no author- 
ity, nor weight of character, with the students. The Professors 
ought to live among the students, as at the University of Vir- 
ginia. Professor Anderson closes his letter by declining the 
proposition made to him, to give instruction in Natural Philoso- 
phy, Astronomy, Moral Philosophy, Political Economy, Rhet- 
oric and Logic. He cannot attend to the business of two and a 
half Professors. 

Dr. Mitchell wrote that he was not furnished with such facts 
and dates as would entitle his opinion to respect. He suggested 
that the Faculty should correspond with other institutions, and 
report plans founded on information gathered. It is possible 
that being the locum tenens of the President, he deemed it 
wrong to criticize the institution, which was the product of the 
labors and thoughts of Dr. Caldwell. 

Prof. Wm. Hooper, of the Department of Ancient Lan- 
guages, answered the enquiries of the Trustees with much earn- 
estness, especially directed against the consignment of the two 
lower classes to Tutors. These contain thirty to thirty-five 
members each, while the upper classes have only fifteen or 
twenty. He described the Tutors as almost always recent grad- 
uates, without authority of character and of scholarship, 
scarcely a whit superior to their pupils. It is not to be ex- 
pected that such novices — equals to-day and superiors to-mor- 
row — should command respect and enforce good order. The 
result is the total prostration of good scholarship and considera- 
ble relaxation of discipline. At present the whole instruction 
of three Professors, and the partial instruction of a fourth, will 
be given to the Senior class. Of one hundred or more Uni- 
versity youth, about sixty-five or seventy are starved with a 
meagre taste of knowledge, while the favored minority are 
stuffed even to surfeiting. The experience of Northern Col- 



SCHEMES OF HOOPER AND PHILLIPS. 363 

leges, which employ numerous Tutors, is like that of our Uni- 
versity. This statement is made on the authority of Professor 
Stuart of Andover. 

Professor Hooper, in January, 1834, sent to the Committee 
of Appointments a formal protest against the recommendation 
by the majority of the Faculty of the immediate choice of a 
Professor of Rhetoric and a third Tutor. The reasons for the 
protest may be inferred from the foregoing invective against 
the Tutorial system and the neglect of classical instruction in 
the lower classes. He closes by saying that he has done his duty 
in laying before the Trustees the true state of his department. 
If the evil be not remedied, he will feel himself absolved from 
the responsibility of attempting to make classical scholars at 
this college and ''resign himself to the tranquillity of despair." 
He asks for an Adjunct Professor to share his labors. 

It would not be fair to the Tutors, most of whom were of 
ability and high character, not to mention that Dr. Hooper, on 
account of ill health, often took very gloomy views of his sur- 
roundings. Dr. Caldwell at this time informed the Board that 
the Professor had been subject to another attack of hemorrhage 
from the lungs, which was somewhat copious and continued for 
some time. He recommended the appointment of a Professor 
of Greek, if possible, and thus take one of the Ancient Lan- 
guages from the shoulders of Prof. Hooper. 

The Professor of Mathematics, Rev. James Phillips, sent in 
a spicy report and recommendation. He stated that he had 
been engaged in the business of teaching for twenty-five years, 
the last eight of which at this place, and though he had met 
with discouragements, he could not recollect a single case of 
entire failure. After an impartial review of what had been 
effected here, he is compelled to say that he has on the whole 
failed of his object. Some of the causes, at least, may be 
traced to the following sources: I. The bad method of teach- 
ing in our schools. 2. The inexperience and incompetency of 
our Tutors. 3. The low estimate placed on the mathematical 
sciences here and in the State. 4. The obstinate determination 
on the part of some students to do as little as possible. This 
might be obviated by refusing diplomas to them. 5. The oral 



364 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

examinations are too short, should be superseded by written, 
and time given to those examined to collect their thoughts. 

With regard to the proposal to demand of matriculates an 
acquaintance with Algebra, the following suggestions are made. 

The system which embraces the synthetic to the exclusion of 
the analytic modes of instruction, is defective. 1. The analy- 
tic is more concise and admits of greater amount and variety 
of instruction in a given time. 2. It is more uniform, general 
and comprehensive. 3. It is the easiest and imposes no unnec- 
essary load on the memory. For this statement he quoted La 
Croix and La Place. 4. The best treatises on Statics, Dynamics, 
and Physical Astronomy abound with analytical formulae, which 
would be unintelligible to those unacquainted with analysis. 
5. It induces the habit of investigation and compels the student 
to think for himself. 

If it be objected that the deficiences of our students are such 
that the standard ought to be lowered rather than raised, it is 
answered that no increase of difficulty is intended ; that this 
University ought to enter into honorable competition with those 
who have introduced analytical Trigonometry and Geometry, 
and that the interests of society and not that of individuals 
ought to require not only the quantity but the quality of in- 
struction. 

He therefore recommends that there should be required for 
admission into the Freshman class, the whole of Arithmetic, 
practical and theoretical, and Algebra as far as Irrational and 
Imaginary quantities in Young's Algebra, or a fair equivalent 
on the same subject in any other treatise. This would place 
our University on a level with the most respectable institutions 
in our country. 

In a report two years before this, Dr. Caldwell, with his 
accustomed strength, urged that the Faculty might be allowed 
to employ and pay scholarly men to attend the examinations. 
The plan of relying on Trustees had failed. Few had for years 
come at all, and they had dropped in near the close of the period. 
He tactfully suggested an argumentun ad homines. A very 
scientific person may not be qualified to be a Trustee, and so one 
may properly be elevated to a seat on the Board, who is very 
imperfectly, if at all, prepared to become an inquisitor into the 



EXAMINATIONS AND VACATIONS. 365 

scientific attainments of a student. This point was thoroughly 
appreciated by the boys under examination, who well under- 
stood that, no matter how wise they looked, gentlemen fresh 
from attendance on the Courts or Legislature, were necessarily 
rusty on Greek roots and differential co-efficients. 

Moreover, the presence of learned strangers would have a 
strong moral effect on idle students. Having often been re- 
proved by their instructors, they become revengeful, deal in 
charges of oppression, partiality, prejudice and even personal 
enmity. In this they encourage and fortify one another — 
against authority, and are studious of open or secret methods of 
evading or resisting the laws. They look on examinations 
only as other instruments of oppression and unite together to 
set them at naught. A Faculty may act with unexceptional 
prudence, and strive to maintain parental and benevolent feel- 
ings in all their intercourse, and yet find it difficult to prevent 
the success of the idle and dissipated, whose object is to pre- 
cipitate all into confusion and inefficiency. They have a need 
of reacting force from without. This may be provided with 
incalculable effects by subjecting the merits and demerits of 
students to examiners called in from society at large throughout 
the State. 

At much length he argued in favor of having the vacations 
in the spring and fall, when the weather is pleasant. "In the 
summer the eastern students now become saturated with ma- 
laria. In the winter the students leave their habitual protec- 
tion for exposure on their journeys three to five or six days, 
"through the storms of winter, and through mire and water, 
if the weather be soft, but through ice and snow if it be cold." 
The good doctor even became poetical for once. The object 
of vacations is to allow the students and members of the Fac- 
ulty to restore tone and energy to the system languishing with 
inaction, and to the mind worn with exertion unbalanced by that 
of the body. To this is necessary daily activity with pleasant- 
ness and variety of outward scenery. With this end in view, 
who of us would select the fiery ardors of the summer solstice, 
or the chilling blasts or snows of mid-winter? Though they 
seem illy sorted here, it is hard to avoid the repetition of those 
lines which we all have so often heard : 



366 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

" Who can hold a lire in hand, 
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus? 
t Or wallow naked in December's snow, 

By thinking on fantastick Summer's heat? 
Ah no ! the apprehension of the good, 
Gives but the greater feeling to the worse." 

The student should have acquaintance with the society and 
the world, which can be better had in the pleasant seasons. 

He urged other objections to the existing plan. One is that 
many students, on account of the difficulty of traveling, remain 
at Chapel Hill, peculiarly liable and often succumbing to temp- 
tation. 

He mentions with indignation the depredations of the villa- 
gers on the woodlands of the University, and suggested the 
employment of a ranger for stopping it. 

The part of the foregoing report in regard to the vacations 
was referred to Messrs. Nash, Caldwell, Jos. B. Skinner, and 
D. L. Swain, who recommended that the vacations should be 
six weeks long, beginning on the last Monday of April and the 
first Monday of October of each year. The Board refused to 
concur in the proposition, and also rejected the further recom- 
mendation that the Commencements shall be held in the middle, 
and not at the end of the sessions. 

Instead of employing experts, the Trustees were divided into 
five classes, their duty being in rotation to attend the examina- 
tions, those attending, not exceeding five, to be paid $1.50 per 
day for expenses. It is needless to say that even this gilded 
bait did not often attract them. One Committee was secured, 
who recommended that the pay should be $3.00 and ten cents 
mileage, but the Trustees did not grant it. 

The President ineffectually urged that the Professors should 
hold their office during' good behaviour. In practice this has 
virtually been the rule. In rare cases the Trustees acted on 
their legal right of dropping an obnoxious Professor without 
specifying any misbehaviour. 

It is to the credit of the Philanthropic Society that, at this 
time, under the leadership of strong members, like Richard B. 
Creecy, Haywood Guion, Wm. B. Rodman, James B. Shepard, 
and Ralph H. Graves, it offered $1,000 as a contribution to- 



the: harbinger. 367 

wards a new library. They proposed a room forty feet square, 
with six windows and three fireplaces. The finances of the 
University did not allow the acceptance of the offer. 

A contract of sale of fifty acres of the forest, now called 
Battle Park, was made with Prof. Wm. Hooper, which was 
cancelled on his leaving the University. The large trees were 
mostly cut off under this contract. The white oak trees were 
left to supply hogs with acorns. There are remnants of a stone 
wall enclosure extending into the Park. 

This Harbiintger. 

In 1834 there was published by Isaac C. Partridge, under 
the auspices of the Faculty, a weekly newspaper called the 
Harbinger. The terms were $3.00 if paid in advance, $4.00 if 
delayed six months, the publication being conditioned on ob- 
taining six hundred subscribers. 

The objects of this novel enterprise, as stated in the Prospec- 
tus, were very ambitious and patriotic, — "to diffuse literary 
information with correct taste, to impress the importance of 
popular and academic education, and explain the best methods 
discreetly but with independent freedom of stricture ; to discuss 
subjects on which it is important to enlighten the public mind; 
to furnish events and circumstances occurring among our- 
selves, that deserve notice ; to exhibit science in popular form 
that will solicit curiosity and be generally intelligible ; to 
promote the cause of Internal Improvement ; and to give a 
competent portion of the political and religious intelligence of 
the time, with studious exclusion of all party character." 

The opinion is expressed that the public had long expected 
such a publication from the site of the University, "the express 
purpose of which is to cultivate and diffuse valuable knowl- 
edge, such as is already treasured up and is constantly increas- 
ing with the progress- of the age." 

Fears are expressed as to 'the promptness of remittances, 
which was all the more necessary, "as the enterprise will be 
wholly without profit except the necessary remuneration to the 
publishers and his employees. A periodical paper in all its 
movements must by the very terms run against time, and every 
experienced and reflecting man knows the truth expressed by 



368 the; university of north Carolina. 

Dr. Johnson, that he, who enters the lists with time for his 
antagonist, must toil with diligence not to find himself beaten. 
Every one who favors the Harbinger with his patronage we 
hope will do it with presence of mind to the importance of 
fidelity in his remittance. On this the establishment must 
depend for its support." 

Then the publisher comes in with a modest disclaimer that 
he "would not enlarge on the qualities of the proposed periodi- 
cal even to excite in the bosom of his fellow citizens a disposi- 
tion to give it countenance and support, lest while consulting 
that object, he might seem to expose himself to the charge of 
making vain promises, or raise expectations too high to be 
fulfilled. But that a paper of such a character, as perhaps has 
been already imagined in the minds of his readers, is desirable 
in our State, he cannot but think few will deny." 

The prospectus closes with the request that all to whom 
copies have been sent will not only subscribe for themselves, 
but procure subscriptions from others. Moreover, the pub- 
lisher naively asks all the papers in the United States not only 
to copy it, but to act as agents to further its object. It is dated 
January 26, 1833, and it was hoped to begin publication by the 
first of the following June. 

We do not have a file of the Harbinger, but fragments of it 
were cut out and pasted in a book, from which we are enabled 
to get a glimpse of its character. Judging from the subjects 
discussed and the style, the mixture of humor and gravity, 
Dr. Mitchell and Dr. Wm. Hooper were evidently the chief 
contributors. I give abstracts of some of the leading articles. 

There is a very intelligent paper on "The Stars," suggested 
by the great fall of meteors on the night of November 13, 1833. 
The writer suggested that they were "Terrible indications of 
war — between certain members of the editorial corps in North 
Carolina" (a Raleigh editor had recently felled another with a 
bludgeon), or "the Legislature are going to have a stormy 
session," or, by their laws, "wage fatal war upon the best 
interests of their constituents." This ridicule was then useful, 
as many ignorant people were really frightened. The article 
then treats, 1st of Lightning, 2nd, of "Fire-balls or proper 



THE HARBINGER — METEORS. 369 

Meteors," 3rd, of the Aurora Borealis, 4th, of Shooting Stars, 
5th, of Ignis Fatuus, 6th, of San Elmos. The first is pro- 
nounced the most dangerous of all. As to the Fire Balls, after 
giving three hypotheses, the author believes in a fourth, that 
they are terrestrial comets, which, becoming visible to us when 
in their perigeum, and, electrified passing through the atmos- 
phere, discharge their electricity with an explosion that rends 
off part of their mass, and pass on. Shooting stars are very 
common, but never so brilliant as on the morning of the 13th 
November, 1833. The author, however, thinks their number 
was exaggerated, as he saw only one at intervals of two or 
three seconds, but greater numbers may have fallen earlier in 
the night. Of the Aurora Borealis, he states 'that it was so 
brilliant on the night of September 28, 1828, in Paris that the 
fire companies turned out and drove furiously through the 
streets, thinking the city was on fire. It is produced by "elec- 
tricity in motion, we cannot tell why or how." Of the Ignis 
Fatuus, he says that he has been tempted to pronounce it a 
delusion, but its appearance is too well authenticated to be 
doubted. The chemist can form nothing like it. It is "like 
rotten wood, which according to our theories ought not to be 
luminous, but it shines notwithstanding." There is a note here 
which resembles the style of Dr. Mitchell laughing at the 
Professor of Ancient Languages. " The words ( Jack-o'- 
the-Lantern, Will-o'-the-Wisp) will afford to the future in- 
vestigator of the English tongue, when it shall have become 
a dead language, an ample field for dissertation. If we may 
be allowed to substitute the signs of the dialects of Greece for 
those he will use, we may suppose him to state that the original 
form was Jackwithalantern, which became Ionice, Jackothelan- 
tern ; Doric, Jackomelantern ; Attic, Jackalantern. He will 
also remark, that Willwithawisp is altogether irregular, from 
an obsolete root, as Haireo makes eilon in the second aorist." 
San Elmo is a Spanish name for a meteor of electric origin. 
When there were two the ancients called them Castor and 
Pollux. 



'Note. — Vulgarly called Fox-fire, i. e. Faux (false) and tire. 

24 



370 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Another article, published April 24, 1834, strongly praises 
Tudor's Travels in Mexico and the West Indies, as one of the 
best books of travels that has been published at a period pro- 
lific in works of this kind. The critic, evidently Dr. Mitchell, 
is rapturous over the magnificent scenery, "the bold and salient 
outline, the close association of light and shadow" in these 
countries. He jocularly adds that "it seems as though our 
country were intended for the residence of a race of prudent 
republicans, who are to raise fine crops of tobacco, wheat, corn, 
cotton, and rice ; construct railroads and dig canals ; make good 
laws and steer the ship of state, driven and buffeted though 
she be by a tremendous northeaster, in safety over the ocean of 
ages, but that the improvised child of genius must be nourished 
and inspired amid the happy valleys or on the wild rocks of 
Mexico." The allusion to the "tremendous northeaster" seems 
a prophecy of our terrible Civil War, but, if Mexico has ex- 
celled us in children of genius, it is not at all apparent. Nor 
can we assent to the snow covered peaks of our neighbors as 
being superior to the grandeurs of Niagara Falls and the Yel- 
lowstone Geysers. 

Another editorial is entitled "A Meditation among the 
Pines." When the breeze blows through a forest of long- 
leaved pines, the mind of the writer is moved to speculate on 
the beauty, the usefulness and antiquity of the trees. There 
are botanists who believe that plants have sensations of pleas- 
ure and pain analogous to those of man, "But though we may 
indulge in these dreams in regard to a healthy and vigorous 
oak or hickory, it seems difficult to extend them to the pines. 
Driving their roots into a mass of arid sand, and with leaves 
just large enough to whistle and sigh with, but not to be the 
means and seat of enjoyment, an old Pythagorean might be 
excused for believing them the appointed abodes and prisons 
of all the misers who have ever trod the earth — to look down 
upon the yellow sand and find in it an image and likeness of 
that which engrossed their affections in other days." 

Changing the thought, the goodness of the Deity is discerned 
in this most useful tree, covering what without it would be a 
worthless waste. It was probably introduced on this continent 



THK HARBINGER — MASTODON. 3JI 

during the ages when lived here the mammoth and the ele- 
phant. 

The excavations of the Clubfoot and Harlow Canal disclosed 
bones of the great Mastodon, "part of which found their way 
to Dr. Jones' Museum and a couple of teeth were sent to the 
University, it is believed, by Captain (Otway) Burns." Af- 
terwards were discovered the jaws of a young elephant, with 
teeth sound, which fell into the hands of Mr. Fulton, the late 
State Engineer, who carried them off to Georgia. Mr. Lucas 
Benners, one of the few men of North Carolina who under- 
stood the value of the marl beds, presented to the University 
a "magnificent tooth of a full-grown elephant in good preserva- 
tion." The Jones here mentioned was Dr. Calvin Jones of 
Wake County. Fulton was a Scotch civil engineer, employed 
by the State at a salary of $6,000 a year to make our rivers 
navigable. 

An apology is made for wandering from the pine. "The 
character of this communication would be at variance with its 
title, if there were an intimate connection between its first and 
latter part." It is signed by "N." 

In another issue is given a description by Michaux of the 
method of making tar, pitch, turpentine, and gas, the long- 
leaved pine being the chief source. It is annotated by "N," 
who states that illuminating gas was made by letting melted 
rosin flow on anthracite coal. He predicts a great future for 
the manufacture of oil from cotton seed, "when a little addi- 
tional perfection is given to the machinery for the separation of 
the outer porous coat from the oleaginous seed," a prediction 
since verified. 

There is a very vivid description of a storm off Hatteras by 
"J. J. T." Although professedly written on shipboard, if there 
is any truth in the narration, it must have been detailed from 
memory. "Our mainmast has gone by the Larboard, our rig- 
ging and sails, split into a thousand ribbons, commingling to- 
gether, are wildly streaming in the wind. Dismay and despair 
are depicted on every countenance. . . . For sixteen days we 
have been driven at the mercy of the winds and waves. . . . 
The beautiful and accomplished Miss is among the 



372 the university of north Carolina. 

passengers . . . tossed upon the roaring waves. Were she but 
safe I would willingly embrace the fatal ingurgitating billow. 
If we are destined here to find a grave, may the same wave 
receive us both." 

There are several articles on "Rural Economy." In them 
Kenrick's New American Orchardist is highly praised, and 
much valuable advice is given. Kenrick described 235 vareties 
of apples, 251 pears, 87 peaches, 20 nectarines, 19 apricots, 63 
plums, 43 cherries, 56 grapes, and a number of almonds, cur- 
rants, gooseberries, raspberries, etc. A statement is made which 
may be new to some readers, that a graft on any stock will 
keep pace in the changes it undergoes with the stock from 
which it is derived. Part of a paper on the cultivation of the 
vine in Madeira, published in Silliman's Journal, is given, in 
order to show that peculiarities of soil and exposure even on 
the same farm must be observed, in order to obtain good 
results. 

A very intelligent editorial, signed "N" (undoubtedly Dr. 
Mitchell) gives the best methods of producing fire. After 
mentioning the old method of rubbing two pieces of dry wood 
together, of striking a flint with steel, and by the sunglass, he 
describes the phosphorous vial, into which a splinter, with 
sulphur coating the end, was thrust and rapidly withdrawn. 
For this, some ten or twelve years before, there was substi- 
tuted Hertner's Eupyrism, from Paris. This was a vial con- 
taining strong sulphric acid and a bundle of matches, the latter 
headed with chlorate of potash and a little starch or sugar, 
colored with vermilion. The fire was produced by contact of 
the acid with the potash and starch or sugar. 

"Very recently a new fire apparatus has been introduced 
under the name of Lucifer Matches." The making of these is 
described, and the prediction ventured that "this little appa- 
ratus appears to be superior to and likely to supplant every 
other." The writer does not mention the "chunk," or frag- 
ment of burning wood, which good housekeepers covered up, 
when they retired to sleep, nor the perpetual fire kept burning 
in old Rome by the Vestal Virgins, from which the citizens 
could obtain a spark when desired. 



THE HARBINGER — ENGRAVING ON STEEL — VULTURES. 373 

There is an excellent article by the same pen on "Engraving 
on Steel." "N" explains engraving on wood, on stone, and on 
plates of copper, a soft metal, and then shows how plates of 
steel were softened by heating with iron filings and so became 
soft enough to be cut by the tools of the artist, then hardened 
by heating with charcoal. This interesting statement is made : 
"When the adherents of the Bonaparte family wished to ex- 
cite a feeling in their favor a few years since, some small prints 
were brought into the market and sold at an insignificant price, 
well executed on steel and exhibiting the appearance of Napo- 
leon at the time of the most remarkable events of his life — 
when yet a stripling he directed the siege of Toulon, afterwards 
at the bridge of Areola, in Egypt, passing the Alps, at Tilsit, 
Austerlitz, Fontainbleau, and St. Helena." I have one of 
these prints, a bunch of violets, showing the features of the 
Emperor, Maria Louisa, and their son. 

In a paper on Crocodiles much skepticism is shown about 
Waterton's claim, that he rode on the back of an alligator into 
the water, twisting one of his forelegs over his back as a bridle. 
It is suggested that it requires enormous strength thus to han- 
dle the arm of the animal, and that the beast would be more 
likely to sink in the mud at the bottom than to retain buoyancy 
sufficient to float with a large man on his back. Quotations 
are, however, made from Pliny, asserting that the Egyptians 
would mount a crocodile in the water and when he opened his 
mouth thrust a club between his jaws, so that they could not 
be closed, and thus easily capture him. Dr. Pococke, in his 
observations on Egypt, places the locality of riding on land, 
not in the water. 

( )f an article on Mathematics only the title remains. 

A very interesting discussion is given as to whether a vult- 
ure, in our land called turkey buzzard, finds his food by sight 
or by scent. It had been the general opinion, supported by 
the authority of the ornithologist, Wilson, that it was by his 
very acute sense of smell, but in 1826 Audubon furnished for 
Jameson's Journal an article, detailing some careful experi- 
ments which tended to prove that Turkey Buzzards, at least, 
depend for the discovery of their prey on sight. Charles Wa- 



374 TH E UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

terton, author of "Wandering in South America," ridicules 
Audubon. He says, "I grieve from my heart that the vulture's 
nose has received such a tremendous blow. ... I have a fellow 
feeling for this noble bird. We have been for years together 
in the same country. We have passed many nights amongst 
the same trees ; and though we did not frequent the same mess, 
still we saw a great deal of each other's company." Waterton 
relies on the fact that a large serpent lay untouched under thick 
trees, until it was putrefied, when the birds found it at once. 
He thinks it strange that vultures, if they rely on sight, do not 
pounce down on sleeping fowls, even on men, who in the 
tropics take their siesta in the open air. 

On the other side, Dr. John Bachman instituted a series of 
experiments lasting a month in order to settle the question. 
The professors of the Medical College of Charleston were 
observers of his work. They all agreed that the turkey buz- 
zards of that region are guided entirely by sight. 

The critic of the Harbinger was, however, not satisfied. He 
says, "We cannot help suspecting that it will turn out at last 
that the buzzard has both eyes and a nose, or at least nostrils. 
Nor can a Charleston bird be considered a perfectly fair expe- 
riment, bred as he has been in the smoke and steam of two or 
three thousand kitchens, and amid the offal of a large city, and 
differing therefore from a buzzard inhabiting the fields and 
forests of the back country, as much as the keeper of a dram 
shop does from a thoroughgoing member of a temperance 
society. The former, if he be allowed to apply his nose to the 
bung-hole of a whiskey barrel, can hardly tell what is in it, 
while the latter will detect a man if he has been indulging in 
half a thimbleful of beverage, at a distance of something less 
than a hundred yards." 

It is a little surprising that the writer, evidently Dr. Mitchell, 
should call our vulture a buzzard. A buzzard is a species of 
hawk. Turkey-buzzard is the correct name, according to Web- 
ster, Audubon, and others. 

It is also surprising to see our learned Doctor using the 
following language : "There is some room for the suspicion 
both in his (Waterton's) case, and that of Audubon, that they 



THE HARBINGER — ROTATION OF CROPS. 3/5 

have studied the art of writing a book of travels in the school 
of Gulliver, the Baron Munchausen, Mandeville, and the re- 
nowned worthies of that class." Knowing Audubon as we do, 
we can hardly realize that a well-read and accomplished scholar 
should suggest the possibility of his veracious description being 
munchausenism. 

It appears that there was an article on Sound, but it is not 
preserved. There is one on the economic uses of the long- 
leaved pine. Its products were much sought after in those 
days when steam was not used or used but little. The pro- 
ducts are enumerated as lumber of various kinds, turpentine, 
spirits of turpentine, rosin, tar, and pitch. 

A paper by J. Hamilton Couper on Rotation of Crops as 
adapted to the Southern States, published in the Southern 
Agriculturist, is highly praised. Much emphasis is laid on 
the statement that, "it is now ascertained that a living vege- 
table does not merely leave in the earth a quantity of nutritious 
matter that is not adapted to its own subsistence and support, 
but deposits under the form of an exudation from its roots a 
quantity of vegetable substance, upon which neither itself, nor 
any other plant of the same species, can feed, but which is well 
fitted to become the sustenance of another of a different kind." 
This fact is now made available especially by our more ad- 
vanced farmers in the use of nitrogenized bacteria. 

The writer mentions that Dr. Sondley of Newburg District 
had discovered that a "new and valuable indigenous grass," 
(Leersia Orizoides), is a good food for cattle, that it is found 
in the neighborhood of Chapel Hill and recommends that it 
be tried on damp and cold lands. 

There is also an appeal for improved roads so intelligent 
that it would delight the heart of Professor Holmes and the 
other advocates of similar beneficent agencies in our day. The 
MacAdam process was preferred. 

It must not be supposed that the columns of the Harbinger 
contained only scientific discussions. "N" prints a love-poem, 
a valentine, a particular favorite of his in "his days of fancy, 
youth and frenzy," some stanzas of which he still regarded as 



37<9 THE UNIVERSITY OV NORTH CAROLINA. 

very beautiful poetry. The authoress was Miss Ella Trefusis. 
I give two verses out of eight as specimens : 

man ! how little dost thou know 
The sources whence our pleasures How; 

man ! how little canst thou share, 
The soft refinements of the fair ! 

Those heavenly nothings which we prize, 
Your grosser appetites despise ; 
Never in your hacknied bosom live 
Those loyal sentiments which give 
A sacred character to love, 
And prove its mission from above. 
Alas ! my every wish was thine ; 
But the world shared my Valentine. 

The following is possibly a good description of an engaged 

couple — ■ 

Think, Mellidor, on former days, 
Think on the thousand winning ways, 
By which my heart thou did'st obtain ! 
The fond, fond look, the melting strain, 
The frequent letter, praises bland, 
This tenderly imprisoned hand ; 
Full many an eve together past, 
Each eve more valued than the last ; 
When by the sun's declining rays 

1 dared the transitory gaze, 

Read in those eyes that dame divine, 
Now — felt but by thy Valentine ! 

The last of the original articles which I notice are on the 
history of the State. Searches, it was urged, should be made 
for documents. The biographies of officers and soldiers should 
be written. The conduct of Cornwallis' army during the in- 
vasion of 1780 and 1781 should be investigated. Stedman, an 
Englishman and a Tory, says, that "at Halifax some enormi- 
ties were committed by the British, which were a disgrace to 
the name of a man." What were these enormities? What 
influence upon the American cause by the fighting Quakers, 
the Highlanders, and the Regulators, should be looked into, as 
well as that of the Tories of Rutherford and west Lincoln. 

Another valuable paper was on the counties of North Caro- 



THE HARBINGER — HARVARD IN 1 834. 57 J 

lina, their date of erection and the origin of their names. The 
statements are as a rule accurate, but as Williamson and Mar- 
tin were followed there are a few errors. For example, North- 
ampton County was not called after a county of the same name 
in England, but in honor of the Earl of Northampton, father 
of Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, Prime Minister. 
Surry County was named after Lord Surrey, who opposed the 
American war, in office under Rockingham. Surrey was after- 
wards Duke of Norfolk. 

These historical articles are over the pen name of "N," un- 
doubtedly from internal evidence, Dr. Mitchell, as has been 
said. 

Besides the well-written and instructive editorials, there was 
the usual supply of clippings, including useful facts and humor- 
ous anecdotes. Among the facts is a statement that Harvard 
College in 1830, excluding buildings, library, apparatus and 
grounds, had property amounting only to $460,624. Of this 
amount only $149,171 was applicable to the universal use of 
the college, the balance belonging to the theological and law 
departments, and including the funds pledged to salaries and 
professorships, etc. The annual expenditure for 1832 was 
$41,054; income, $40,962. In about seventy years Harvard 
University has increased to near 6,000 students, over 500 
teachers, over $15,000,000 of property, and an annual income 
of more than a million dollars. 

The Harbinger soon came to an end, doubtless from want 
of pecuniary support, as has been the fate of all journals in 
North Carolina, which appealed to love of knowledge and 
literature. 

Of a similar nature to the Harbinger, the Columbian Reposi- 
tory, printed at Chapel Hill, was projected in 1836 by Hugh 
McQueen. No specimen of it is known to exist. Probably 
it expired with the first number. The unfortunate habits of 
the otherwise gifted editor and the limited number of those 
likely to be interested in his journal necessarily brought it to 
an untimely end. 



378 the university of north carolina. 

Sale oe Tennessee Land Warrants. 

While President Caldwell was languishing on his couch of 
pain, the bodily agony equalled by his grief for the distressed 
condition of the institution he loved more than life, plans were 
maturing on the wise initiative of Duncan Cameron, President 
of the -Bank of the State, one of the shrewdest financiers of 
his time, which ultimately gave the University an endowment 
and filled her halls with students. This beneficent result came 
from the sale of her land warrants and other assets in the 
State of Tennessee. The trials and difficulties encountered in 
pushing these claims deserve a detailed narrative. 

The grant of Carolina to the Lords Proprietors in 1663 anc ^ 
1665 extended nominally to the Pacific Ocean, called the "South 
Sea" in the charter, but of course as Great Britain became the 
owner only to the Mississippi River, this river was the real 
western limit. By the acts of 1782, 1783, and 1784 of the 
General Assembly of North Carolina, the warrants for lands 
granted to its officers and soldiers of the Continental Line were 
to be located in a region in the western part of the territory, 
now the State of Tennessee, called the Military Reservation, 
with the proviso that if sufficient tillable land could not there 
be found, other unappropriated land could be substituted. A 
land office was opened, afterwards known as John Armstrong's 
office, for the entries under said acts, and also under the Act 
of 1783 for the redemption of specie certificates, issued for the 
expenses of the war. 

In December, 1789, North Carolina passed the Act of Ces- 
sion of the territory of Tennessee to the United States, which 
was approved by Congress April 2nd, 1790. The rights of the 
officers and soldiers were not forgotten. The Governor of 
North Carolina was to have power to perfect their titles by 
grants ; rights of occupancy and pre-emption theretofore grant- 
ed were preserved, and all entries already made, which inter- 
fered with prior entries, might be located elsewhere in the ceded 
territory. With these exceptions, the sovereignty over this 
territory passed to the United States. 

In 1796 Congress admitted Tennessee into the Union, but 



ESCHEATED LAND WARRANTS. 379 

the unappropriated lands were not ceded to the new State. 
Tennessee, however, claimed that North Carolina's rights ex- 
pired in 1792, for the reason that the time for procuring grants 
was by the act of the North Carolina Assembly limited to that 
date, that there was no reservation of the power to extend the 
time, and that all extensions of the time for soldiers to claim 
their bounties made after 1792 were null and void. 

In disregard of this claim the General Assembly of North 
Carolina granted extensions from time to time until 1801, when 
this body barred all claims not presented by 1st of June, 1803. 
By an act of 1807 that of 1801 was repealed and applications 
were directed to be made to the Legislature, and warrants to 
issue only on its resolution. In 1819 the Governor, Treasurer 
and Comptroller were made a board, vested with the authority 
reserved to the Legislature in 1807. 

Before this Board of 1819 the I niversity presented its 
claims for very many warrants. A large number was allowed, 
laid before an adjudicating board appointed by the State of 
Tennessee, allowed by them, patents issued, placed in the hands 
of locators, and subsequently grants issued. 

Although the State had published the names of the Conti- 
nental officers and soldiers and notified them of the warrants 
awaiting their application, a large number never came forward. 
Presuming that these delinquents had died without heirs, the 
General Assembly, by resolution, in 182 1 directed that a num- 
ber of undelivered and unclaimed warrants in the names of ' 
those entitled should be delivered to the University. And in 
1824, in order to stop the clamor of the people of Tennessee 
that the flow of warrants was inexhaustible, the Secretary of 
State was ordered to close the muster roll and make out war- 
rants in the name of the University for all the remaining non- 
claimants. 

Let us now see something of the course of legislation in 
Tennessee and in Congress. In 1799 Tennessee asserted her 
right as a State, sovereign except as to the powers vested in 
the L T nited States, to all ungranted lands within her limits, 
even those claimed by the United States. She asserted that 
the national title was abandoned when she was admitted into 



380 Tliiv UNIVERSITY OF North CAROLINA. 

the Union without expressly reserving" that title, but as the 
claim was not allowed, she refrained from opening a land office. 
In 1801 she confirmed all prior entries, warrants, and grants 
already made and directed that Tennessee grants be issued on 
such warrants. At the same lime she prohibited by heavy 
penalties any further action by North Carolina surveyors and 
entry takers. In 1803 Tennessee appointed Judge John Over- 
ton as agent to make a "friendly explanation and adjustment" 
of these differences with North Carolina. This resulted in the 
Act of the General Assembly of this State of December 2nd, 
1803, passed subject to ratification by Tennessee, which was 
given, and of Congress, which was not given. This Act gave 
Tennessee the function of perfecting title to claims of lands 
reserved to North Carolina in the Act of Cession, subject to 
certain restrictions, that which concerned the University being 
the exclusive right retained by North Carolina to issue military 
warrants. 

In 1806 Congress, in a spirit of liberality and compromise, 
ceded to Tennessee, subject to North Carolina's reservation 
in the Act of Cession, and also to certain Indian titles, the rights 
of the United States to about one-third of the State, approxi- 
mately from sixteen to seventeen million of acres, of which 
after satisfying all North Carolina claims to this section there 
remained in 1838 about eight million acres. The United States 
retained title to about one-third of the State. The boundary 
between the two sovereignties was called "the Congressional 
reservation line." It began where the main branch of the Elk 
River crosses the southern boundary of the State, thence due 
north to Duck River, thence northwesterly down Duck River, 
nearly to Centerville, thence due west to Tennessee River, 
thence down the Tennessee to the northern boundary of the 
State. In official reports the area west and north of this line 
was estimated as 6,840,000 acres, of which 942,375 acres were 
granted by North Carolina previous to the Act of Cession. 

As soon as the Act of Congress of 1806 was accepted by the 
Tennessee Legislature, that State opened her land offices for 
satisfying the reserved claims of North Carolina. The lands 
south of the French Broad and Holston Rivers were excepted. 



ESCHEATED LAND WARRANTS. 381 

In 181 1 North Carolina claimed the right to perfect titles to 
lands west and south of the Military Reservation line, and 
sent a surveyor. Col. Thomas Love, for the purpose. After 
he had surveyed about 50,000 acres, the Tennessee Legislature, 
as heretofore mentioned, passed a prohibitory act with heavy 
penalties on the surveyor and register, and disbarring and 
fining any lawyer who should bring suit on such claim. 

North Carolina thereupon, in 181 5, memorialized Congress, 
claiming the right, and complaining of so much of the Act of 
1806 as gave Tennessee 200,000 acres for colleges and acad- 
emies. Of course Tennessee presented a counter memorial. In 
this it was stated that the lands east and north of the Reserva- 
tion line had been exhausted without satisfying North Caro- 
lina's claims, and Congress was requested to authorize these 
claims to be located in the Military Reservation. Congress 
complied with this request and, by Act approved April 4th, 
1818, authorized Tennessee to perfect titles by grants to all 
locations prior to the Act of Cession, and "also to issue grants 
within said territory on all valid warrants of survey, interfer- 
ing entries, certificates, grants and locations, that had not been 
actually located or granted east and north of the reservation 
line, and that were removable under the North Carolina Ces- 
sion Act." In pursuance of this authority, Tennessee in 1819 
opened a land office, and the time for satisfaction of such 
claims was from time to time extended until 1839. It was 
calculated that 3,567,801 acres were adjudicated after the Act 
of 1 81 8 to meet these claims, leaving to the United States 
between 2,300,000 and 3,300,000 acres, which were ultimately, 
in 1846, donated to Tennessee. 

Another element of trouble was the claim of the Chickasaw 
Indians to lands stretching from the Ohio River south into the 
State of Mississippi, including the western part of Tennessee, 
which was recognized by the United States by the Piomingo 
Treaty of 1786. By treaties in 1805, 1816 and 1818, the Chick- 
asaws ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi River. For 
the territory north of the Tennessee River, the price paid in 
1816 was $12,000 a year for twelve years, of which $4,500 was 



382 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

paid in sixty days. For that west of that river, Governor 
Isaac Shelby being the commissioner of the United States, 
there was agreed to be paid $300,000 in fifteen annual instal- 
ments of $20,000 each, besides presents, $7,000 or $8,000 worth, 
to the chiefs. It is stated that three thousand Indians were 
present when the treaty was negotiated. The Indian title 
being thus extinguished, there was no further obstacle to the 
location and sale of soldiers' warrants within these limits. 
Now, for the first time since Governor Smith's donation of 
20,000 acres in 1792, his beneficence became available. 

Still another complication arose from the frauds by the 
Secretary of the State of North Carolina, James Glasgow, and 
the Registrars of the Land Office in Tennessee, John and 
Martin Armstrong. The latter converted to his own use large 
sums belonging to the State, for which an uncollectible judg- 
ment was obtained and given to the University by the State. 
And moreover these frauds created suspicions of false entries 
and such confusion of claims as materially increased the hostil- 
ity of Tennessee towards the just demands of the institution. 

The Trustees of our University lost no time after 1819 in 
obtaining 'their grants from the State of Tennessee. An oppo- 
sition grew up, on account of the magnitude of the University's 
demands, so fierce as to threaten the adjudication of all remain- 
ing warrants. Judge Archibald D. Murphey and Hon. Joseph 
H. Bryan, the latter an ex-Member of the United States House 
of Representatives, were appointed to secure the interests of 
the institution. Judge Murphey journeyed to Nashville, ascer- 
tained by private conferences with the members and his attor- 
neys the best possible terms, and asked for and obtained per- 
mission to address the General Assembly. He spoke during 
the working hours of two days. When he concluded, Felix 
Grundy proposed that Jenkins Whitesides and James Trimble, 
who had in full the public confidence, should be appointed com- 
missioners to investigate and adjust the claim of the University, 
with power to compromise disputes and to grant exemption 
from taxation as asked for. The leader of the opposition 
accepted the proposition, and it passed the Assembly. 



ESCHEATED LAND WARRANTS. 383 

On August 26th, 1822, these commissioners came to an 
agreement with Attorney Joseph H. Bryan, by which grants 
should issue upon the warrants owned or acquired by the Uni- 
versity, and that they should be exempt from taxation until 
January i, 1850. The University on its part agreed to transfer 
to East Tennessee College, now University of Tennessee, 
twenty thousand acres, and to Cumberland College, now Uni- 
versity of Nashville, forty thousand acres, the assignments 
being subject to contracts previously made for procuring and 
locating the same. The University further agreed to warrant 
the title to 45,000 acres at $1.50 per acre, with interest, liability 
to end unless adverse claims should be made by January 1st, 
183 1. This was duly ratified by the Trustees of the University 
and the General Assembly of Tennessee. 

After giving to the Colleges of East Tennessee and Cumber- 
land their shares of the warrants then in hand, there remained 
to the University of the 1,823 warrants only 4,476 acres. The 
application to the General Assembly for their location was 
refused, but Judge Stewart of the Circuit Court, on a suit for 
mandamus, founded on the statutes in existence, instituted by 
James Trimble for the University, ordered the Secretary of 
State to adjudicate them. It was hoped that the Secretary 
would likewise under this decision adjudicate the warrants of 
1824 and subsequently, but he declined to do so until the ques- 
tion should be passed on by the Supreme Court. Before that 
body the University was represented by James Trimble, Felix 
Grundy and Alfred Balch, who argued in vain. The applica- 
tion was rejected. Soon after this argument, ex- Judge Trim- 
ble's valuable services were lost by his death, and ex-Judge 
Win. S. Brown was employed in his place. 

A special session of the Legislature being called, Judge 
Murphey addressed a strong memorial to that body, which was 
supported by Mr. Brown, whose speech was said by the Secre- 
tary of State to have been "the most splendid effort of human 
intellect he had ever witnessed." Mr. Crabb, the counsel for 
Cumberland College, he wrote, was "as usual very respecta- 
ble." Major Abram Maury (pronounced and often written 
Murray), a representative, manifested his "usual zeal and 



384 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

honest independence" for the bill, and was ably sustained by 
Mr. Grundy, also a member. The opponents, however, pre- 
vailed by a vote of 20 to 18. 

At a subsequent session, on application of the attorneys of the 
University, a hard compromise was offered. In 1825, after 
much furious opposition, an act was passed providing for a 
commissioner to adjudicate the validity of all military war- 
rants, presented to him by the University or the East Tennessee 
or Cumberland College, not exceeding in all 105,000 acres, for 
which certificates would be issued for land west and north of 
the Congressional line, in 25-acre tracts, which should be sold, 
first to actual occupants at fifty cents per acre, next to general 
purchasers at one dollar, and after a limited period at fifty cents 
per acre, and lastly the residue at public auction ; one-third of 
the proceeds to be paid to the University, one-third to the com- 
mon schools of Tennessee, and the remaining one-third to the 
two aforementioned colleges. Under this act the University 
received in cash $15,002.68. 

I now proceed to show what was done by the Trustees in 
working this mine, so full of difficulties and disappointments. 

The management of the Western lands was left to the Com- 
mittee of Appointments, Archibald D. Murphey and Thomas 
Ruffin being added, the other members being John Haywood, 
Henry Potter and Wm. Polk, the Governor being ex-officio 
Chairman, when present.- Duncan Cameron was added in the 
following year. In December, 1825, the Trustees denominated 
the committee, so increased, as the Land Committee, and con- 
ferred on them full power "to adopt such course in respect to 
the land claims as to them shall seem most beneficial to the 
interests of the University." Besides those already named, 
from time to time until the creation of the Executive Commit- 
tee in 1835, George E. Badger, Thomas P. Devereux, James F. 
Taylor, William Robards, Charles Manly, Wm. S. Mhoon, 
James Iredell, and Romulus M. Saunders, besides Governors 
Burton, Owen, Stokes and Swain, were members. Ichabod 
Wetmore, agent in Raleigh, of the Bank of New Bern, was 
appointed Secretary at a salary of $250 per annum. 



HENDERSON AND DICKENS APPOINTED AGENTS. 385 

As Col. Wm. Polk often visited Tennessee, having large 
interests therein, he was vested by the committee with power 
to employ agents on such terms as he thought best. On Au- 
gust 5th, 1821, he made a contract with Col. Thomas Hender- 
son, Jr., late editor of the Raleigh Star, of whom Governor 
Swain said "No citizen succeeded in conciliating the warm 
regards of a greater number of personal friends than he." He 
was to procure evidence as to all persons who had served in the 
Continental line of the State who had died without heirs 
capable of inheriting land. He was then to lay the same before 
the Governor, Public Treasurer and Comptroller — the Board 
of Adjudication appointed by the General Assembly of this 
State in 1819, and if passed, then before the Board of Adjudi- 
cation in Tennessee — the Governor, Secretary of State, and 
Register of the Land Office. For compensation he was to 
receive one-half of the warrants. 

Col. Henderson proceeded to his duty with alacrity and suc- 
cess. He appointed sub-agents, agreeing to assign them part 
of the warrants, what proportion does not appear, and on Octo- 
ber 3rd was ready for a division. This was done, leaving to 
the University warrants calling for 147,853 acres. Other war- 
rants besides these were subsequently realized, as will be seen. 

As an agent residing in Tennessee was necessary for locating 
and selling the lands, Colonel Polk selected a man of ability 
and means, Samuel Dickens of the county of Madison, post- 
office, Spring Creek, a recent settler, who had been a member 
of the North Carolina Legislature from Person County and a 
Representative in Congress in 181 o- 181 7. To him in 1821 
was given power "to do all things to maintain, secure and pre- 
serve the rights and interests of the University." The appoint- 
ment was fortunate, as through a long-continuing agency he 
proved himself to be vigilant and wise. He had charge not 
only of the escheated warrants, but of those given to the Uni- 
versity bv Governor Smith and Major Gerrard. His compen- 
sation for locating the lands was that usually given, viz., 162-3 
per cent of the value of the lands surveyed, payable in land. 
For selling, collecting and paying over, his commission was 

25 



■". 



386 THE UNIVERSITY OK NORTH CAROLINA. 

six per cent at first and afterwards ten per cent. In locating, 
he had a partner, Dr. Thomas Hunt, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity in 1800, the firm under the name of Hunt & Dickens, 
having a numerous staff of young men "in the woods." In 
dividing in 1823 the lands given for locating, the decision was 
"by lottery," or as we say, by lot. For the purpose of securing 
an equitable division all the lands were grouped into two divis- 
ions, northern and southern, and each division into two classes ; 
first class being tracts worth $4 per acre, and second worth 
less than $4 per acre. On May 3rd, 1823, Dickens estimates 
the $4 lands of the northern division at $37,589 and those under 
$4 at $46,314.75. The aggregates of the southern division he 
estimates at $57,153 and $56,007 for the corresponding classes. 
Deducting 162-3 per cent from these amounts, the University 
had the prospect of realizing $164,220, less six per cent for 
selling and paying over. The net receipts of warrants subse- 
quently acquired were in addition to this. A dangerous ob- 
stacle encountered was the hunting up by speculators of heirs, 
or pretended heirs, of the soldiers whose warrants were trans- 
ferred to the University. Expensive litigation became neces- 
sary. So satisfied were the Trustees that the bulk of these 
new-found claims were fraudulent, and that they were owned 
by speculators who paid a trivial sum for them, and moreover 
that it was impossible to distinguish the false from the true, 
that they adopted a resolution to yield to no claim, no matter 
how plausible. They determined to interpose every objection, 
technical or otherwise. To this the kindhearted Treasurer 
Haywood entered his protest. 

The instructions to the agent, January 21st, 1826, drawn by 
Judge Murphey, show the precautionary measures adopted. 
The agent was ordered to place a tenant on each tract, so as 
to make the statute of limitations begin to run. If a squatter 
was already in possession he would be induced to leave, and 
adverse claims should be bought in, the seller conceding the 
fact that they were for the University. Suits should be com- 
promised, if deemed advisable. But, says the instruction, "let 
the suits remain on the dockets for several years that specula- 
tors may be kept in the dark as to the true state of things. Not 



UNIVERSITY ATTORNEYS IN TENNESSEE. 387 

many suits will probably be brought if there be no decisions. 
Speculators will anxiously wait and look out for the decision 
before they adventure far." As the University guaranteed 
the title to the warrants assigned to the Tennessee colleges 
against all claims made prior to 1831, suits should be avoided 
by all safe means until 1832. As it had been settled by the 
Tennessee courts that claimants were barred by the statute of 
limitations on the lapse of three years from the "appropriation," 
if not of the "emanation" of the warrants, the agent was in- 
structed to ascertain from the counsel of the University the 
meaning of these terms and to complete whatever was needed 
to make the statute begin to run. It was hoped that they meant 
the issuing by the Secretary of State of North Carolina. If 
so. the University was already safe. 

Three thousand dollars cash was sent Mr. Dickens to meet 
expenses of various kinds, including counsel fees. 

The counsel of the University in Tennessee at that time were 
ex-Judge James Trimble and Felix Grundy, partners, of whom 
Mr. Dickens wrote that Grundy was the greatest orator and 
Trimble, the soundest lawyer; at other times ex- judges John 
Overton and Wm. L. Brown, Jenkins \\ 'hitesides, Alfred Balch, 
Pleasant M. Miller, George S. Yerger. Besides these, there 
were local lawyers to attend particularly to suits in their respec- 
tive counties. Wm. Washington was one of them. The prin- 
cipal lawyer for the University of North Carolina was Archi- 
bald D. Murphey, general counsel in this State and special in 
the State of Tennessee. The Land Committee likewise re- 
tained Wm. Gaston and George E. Badger, as general counsel 
in all suits in which the University should be interested. After 
Gaston became Supreme Court Judge, Thomas P. Devereux 
took his place. 

The lawyers concerned with the settlement of the land dis- 
putes were men of the highest repute in the transmontane coun- 
try. John Overton, born in Virginia, younger brother of Gen- 
eral Thomas Overton, Andrew Jackson's second in his fatal 
duel with Dickinson, had been a judge of the Superior and 
Supreme Courts of Tennessee, a man of soundest judgment, 
and noted as a real estate lawyer. Jenkin Whitesides, a native ■ 
of Pennsylvania, was a specialist in land laws and had an im- 



388 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

mense practice. James Trimble was born in Virginia, lived for 
a time in Knoxville, and was a judge in the eastern circuit. He 
moved to Nashville in 181 3 and there practiced law until his 
death in 1824. Trimble was the soundest lawyer. He taught 
law to some of the most eminent men of the State, such as 
Samuel Houston, Wm. L. Brown and George S. Yerger. Fe- 
lix Grundy has a national reputation for oratory, second only 
to Clay and Webster. Born in Kentucky, he distinguished 
himself in the legislature and reached the dignity of a Judge- 
ship of its Supreme Court. He settled in Nashville in 1807 
and at once attained a large practice. He was soon elected a 
representative in Congress and was so ardent in support of 
the war of 181 2, that its opponents declared that it was brought 
on by " Madison, Grundy and the Devil." In 1829 he was 
elected to the United States Senate. He was Attorney-General 
of the United States under Van Buren and again a Senator in 
1834 and until his death in 1840. He was a wonderfully suc- 
cessful criminal lawyer. It is stated on good authority that he 
defended 165 criminals charged with capital crimes, only one 
of whom was convicted and executed. There is a legend that 
he once caused to be printed a false almanac in order to deceive 
the jury as to a date. 

Pleasant M. Miller was also a native of Virginia. He set- 
tled in Knoxville and was a Representative in Congress from 
that district. In 1824 he removed to West Tennessee, and 
after twelve years of full practice was elected Chancellor. His 
letters, notwithstanding that he wrote "I have went there" and 
spelt cession with an initial S, show that he had a vigorous and 
original mind. 

George S. Yerger's father, of Dutch descent, settled in Le- 
banon, Tennessee. The son was a bright lawyer. He was 
Reporter of the decisions of the Supreme Court of his State and 
its first Attorney-General. He removed to Mississippi and was 
eminent there. 

Wm. L. Brown and Alfred Balch are not mentioned in Cald- 
well's History of the Bench and Bar of Tennessee. Brown 
was afterwards a judsre, and a verv able one. 



SALES AND EXPENSES. 389 

At their meeting in 1823, the Board of Trustees ordered ' 
25,000 acres to be sold under direction of the Land Committee. 
The agent, Samuel Dickens, executed the trust with faithful- 
ness and sound judgment, except that, owing to good offers 
made, he sold somewhat more than the number specified. His 
action was approved. From time to time other sales were 
authorized. Previous to and during 1824, 6,873 acres realized 
on credit $21,067. ^ n l & 2 5 were bargained 7,560 acres for 
$22,802; in 1826, 11,180 acres for $32,474; in 1827, 2,001 acres 
for $5,668; in 1828-9, 4,273 acres for $13,190; in 1830-'!, 
6,260 acres for $18,383 ; and in i83l- 5 2, 6,103 acres for $17,831. 
A total of 44,207 acres for $131,415.10. The price averaged 
a trifle less than $3 per acre. The land unsold in December, 
1832, was 112,602 acres. 

The sales were generally made on credit of one, two and 
three years, with interest from date. The agent at the above 
date (1832) had collected $52,436.71, leaving a balance due on 
notes of purchasers $78,978.39. Including interest, the balance 
was $94,587.31. 

Of the cash there was paid to the University up to January 
1. 1833, $34.657-50, leaving $17,779.21 to be accounted for. 
This was expended by the agent for the following items : 

1st. Commissions for selling, collecting and transmitting. 

2d. Compensation to agent for attention to suits. 

3d. General superintendence, etc., etc. 

4th. Locative interest in certain warrants not divided until 
sale and payment. 

5th. Attorney's fees. 

6th. Taxes. 

7th. Drafts paid on order of the Committee on account of 
buildings at Chapel Hill, $1,114.24. 

These drafts, $1,114.24, should have been added to the cash 
paid the University. Doing so, we have receipts into the treas- 
ury of $35,771.74, and the expenditures for realizing this 
amount $16,664.97, *■ e -> about 32 per cent of the total. 

In January, 1832, the agent reported that there belonged to 
the University, excluding the Gerrard lands — 



39° ' rH E UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

59,264 acres unsold, valued at $1 16,397 

14,724 acres Resolution lands, valued at 2 4>°39 

20,000 acres Smith lands, valued at 20,000 

93,988 acres, valued at 160,436 

The "Resolution lands" were those ordered to be given the 
University by resolutions of the General Assembly in 1821. 

The report of 1834 shows that there had been sold by the 
agent in all 47,077 acres, for $125,150.05. There had been 
collected and accounted for $56,814.17, being $4,377.46 in addi- 
tion to what was reported in 1832. There still remained due 
the University $68,335.88, principal, and a large amount of 
interest. 

Besides the receipts from the agent, there was had from the 
State of Tennessee under the Act of 1825, as heretofore men- 
tioned, $15,154.04 1-4, making a total in cash account of Ten- 
nessee lands $50,925.78 received into the treasury. 

With regard to the title of the University to the aforesaid 
lands, the agent hoped that by the decision of the Supreme 
Court in the case of Dunlap vs. McNairy, the statute of limi- 
tations placed them beyond controversy. 

The Register of Tennessee became alarmed, on account of 
public clamor, and stopped issuing grants on some of the "Reso- 
lution warrants." It was hoped that he would resume without 
further trouble. None of the warrants for which grants were 
actually issued were included, nor was a tract of 2,551 acres 
about which was a suit with John Terrell. 

The tenants placed on the lands prior to 1826 for the purpose 
of claiming actual possession by the Trustees, generally de- 
serted in order to settle their own lands. This caused the agent 
to make some sales to people of no means, who would not 
otherwise have been accepted. 

There was pending one suit against East Tennessee College 
for 2,500 acres and one against Cumberland College for 640 
acres, both brought before the expiration of the guaranty, but it 
was confidently expected that there would be no others. There 
were some other claims, however, which might give trouble, 



UNIVERSITY ATTORNEYS. 3QI 

but it was recommended to be quiet until the seven Years limita- 
tion expired. The decision in Dunlap v. McNairy was popular 
with a large majority of the people. George S. Yerger was 
one of the few lawyers who understood the law correctly and 
was paid a fee for arguing the case. 

The foregoing statement shows the history of the escheated 
Tennessee land claims up to the end of Caldwell's administra- 
tion. The compensation to the attorneys was in land and 
money. To Joseph H. Bryan and Archibald D. Murphey 
were given $1,000 in money and warrants for 640 acres of land 
each. The Tennessee lawyers were likewise usually paid both 
in land and money, but the amounts to all do not appear. Judge 
W. L. Brown received $1,500 cash and no land. P. M. Miller 
received $1,000 in money and a 640-acre tract. The agent said 
that Miller thought his services worth much more. He ex- 
pected the Board to order Major Dickens to convey to him 
two tracts instead of one of choice land, 640 acres each, and 
$1,000 in cash. 

I note that while Major Dickens praised Brown and Miller. 
he makes no mention of the services of Balch. The Secretary 
of State, Graham, gives the credit of the passage of the compro- 
mise largely to Judge Brown, after Balch had been driven from 
the field. 

An interesting fact is that Balch counted confidently on the 
influence of Andrew Jackson and John H. Eaton, United 
States Senators, who would com-ince the members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly that Congress would never cede the public lands 
in Tennessee to the State, as long as the University claims were 
unsettled. They were expected to be in attendance on the 
General Assembly. Judge Murphey likewise regarded Jackson 
as friendly to the University. As Eaton was a University man 
and was warmly esteemed by Jackson, who made him his Sec- 
retary of War, it is probable that here we see an instance of the 
potential influence of the alumni. The Secretary of State, 
Daniel Graham was also an alumnus, having migrated to 
Tennessee from the county of Anson, and all his influence was 
exerted in favor of his Alma Mater. 



39 2 TH E UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The suit in equity of Ivey against Pinson and Hawkins, 
brought out clearly the point in the attack on some of the Uni- 
cersity titles. Ivey claimed that he was a soldier in the Conti- 
nental Line. Believing him to be dead without heirs, the Uni- 
versity obtained his warrant as an escheat, caused it to be 
located and sold the land to Pinson, who sold to Hawkins. 
Ivey then brought suit against Pinson and Hawkins, alleging 
that he was the soldier entitled to the warrant, and therefore 
to the land located under it ; moreover, that the doctrine of 
escheats was not applicable to such warrants. 

The defendants contended that the University should be a 
party to the suit, to enable it to contest the identity of Ivey; 
/^lso to set up the defence of the statute of limitations, 45 years 
Vhaving elapsed. It was also contended that, as the proper au- 
thorities had passed the warrant, and invested the land located 
under it in the University and its assignee, Pinson, it was 
prima facie the property of Pinson's vendee, and if there were 
any grounds of relief it lay in the emanation of the warrant 
under a mistake of fact, and the University should be a party 
in order to contest the alleged mistake. It was claimed that 
Ivey, if not barred by lapse of time, at all events could only 
get damages for the value of the warrant, and a suit for dam- 
ages should be in the common law court, whereas this was in 
equity. 

The Chancellor strongly inclined to the opinion that the 
University was a necessary party, but he would not order a 
dismissal of the suit at once. As to the other point he doubted, 
but rather believed the complainant could not get the land. He 
continued the case until the next term. 

Ivey had sold his claim to two speculators, who made it their 
business to hunt up old soldiers or their heirs and buy up their 
supposed rights. The agents and attorney of the University 
felt deep interest in the case, not because of the value of the 
land in controversy, but because a swarm of speculators were 
ready, if the plaintiff succeeded, to precipitate litigation which 
would have been ruinous. In the lower court the plaintiff was 
successful. The Supreme Court was divided. The Legisla- 
ture authorized the Governor to appoint a special judge to 



LITIGATION IN TENNESSEE. 393 

untie the knot. The new judge, Nicholas Smith, and Judge 
John Catron, afterwards a judge of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, divided in opinion, and then Judge Andrew 
Whyte came in and proposed to join Smith in the decision for 
the plaintiff. To this the counsel for the University strenu- 
ously objected, because Whyte had not heard the second argu- 
ment. It required a threat of impeachment to turn him from 
his purpose. The court directed a new argument, but Overton 
and Miller declined to speak again. Then Andrew L. Martin 
was employed to file a written argument, especially covering the 
evidence and facts in this particular case, rather than the gen- 
eral principles so ably discussed by the other counsel. The 
decision was against the defendants, who appealed to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. Through the agency of 
Hon. Lewis Williams, Daniel Webster was employed for the 
University, who, because the University was an institution of 
learning and of moderate means, charged a retainer of onh 
$200, to be added to in the event of victory. I have been 
unable to find this case in the Supreme Court Reports. Per- 
haps it was compromised. 

Col. Dickens wrote that he had seen enough to convince him 
beyond doubt that all the large speculators in University claims 
wholly relied on perjury, and hence the constant necessity of 
having agents to attend to getting up counter-testimony and 
attorneys to cross-examine fraudulent witnesses. One Hugh 
Moore, a preacher, was about to bring forty suits, when it was 
discovered that by forgery and perjury he had been a long time 
committing frauds on the United States Treasury. 

Nor were open enemies only to be watched and thwarted. 
One of the University counsel, a man of eminence, had, because 
of the delay in the payment of an additional $500, written him 
a disgraceful letter, threatening to retire from the service of the 
University and hinting at the extent of mischief he might do 
to her. 

And then, after sales were effected, necessarily on credit, 
payments were slowly made, and it was dangerous to attempt 
coercion by suit. Not only was hatred aroused which might 
and did find expression in hostile legislation, but "judges were 



394 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ready to grant injunctions on all imaginable allegations, even 
on plain notes of hand." This accounts for the slow collection, 
which forced the Building Committee at Chapel Hill to resort 
to the banks. 

Such public prejudice was worked up by the speculators in 
military warrants, that the Board of Trustees, in 1826, deemed 
it advisable to issue a public defence. At their request one of 
their number, George E. Badger, then thirty years old, who 
had just resigned his Superior Court judgeship, prepared an 
able argument, which was printed in pamphlet form and dis- 
tributed extensively in North Carolina and Tennessee. The 
author contended that, with but few exceptions, the adversa- 
ries of the University in these claims were not the brave men 
who fought for their country, nor the children of such, but 
greedy and cunning speculators. " From the Trustees the 
lands are sought to be wrested, in order to minister to a restless 
speculation, stimulated into action by grasping avarice, laying 
its plans of acquisition with coolness, and bringing to their 
execution all the machinery of crafty villainy." The defend- 
ants, on the other hand, are the University and the Tennessee 
Colleges. "By them the funds are destined for purposes of 
great public utility. Without knowledge, exertions can not be 
made for our country with success, either in the cabinet, the 
Senate, or the Field. Even war is a science in which mind 
vindicates its superiority over brute force, and mere courage, 
the most common of all possessions, is of little avail without 
genius to suggest and skill to execute. These colleges are 
destined to fill our land with learning and with virtue ; and 
thus to give to our republican edifice both stability and beauty. 
It is a purpose a wise man will aid and a good man approve. 
It awakens everey generous emotion in its behalf, and leaves 
us only unmixed abhorrence for those who are willing to sac- 
rifice alike the Soldier and the College ; who are eager to 
defraud both valor and learning, and are intent alone on the 
gratification of a cupidity, unjust in its origin, rapacious in its 
extent, and reckless of everything but its own aggrandizement." 

Mr. Badger, however, spends his strength chiefly in showing 
that even honest claimants — soldiers or their heirs, have no 



BADGERS ARGUMENT AGAINST CLAIMANTS. 395 

rights to which the University should yield its claims. The 
scope of his argument is : 

1st. That the Act of 1782 was not a contract for future ser- 
vice, but only a bounty, purely gratuitous. This mere dona- 
tion could be withdrawn at any time. 

2d. In 1783 a time was fixed beyond which there could not 
be acceptance of this bounty. After various extensions, the 
General Assembly, in 1801, barred claims not presented by the 
1st of January, 1803. By the Act of 1807, that of 1801 was 
repealed, and all applications were directed to be made to the 
General Assembly, and warrants to issue only on their resolu- 
tion. By the Act of 1819, the Governor, Treasurer and Comp- 
troller were made a Board, vested with the authority reserved 
to the Legislature in 1807. 

3d. These commissioners ordered the warrants to issue to 
the Trustees. The State of Tenneessee adjudicated and al- 
lowed them and patents were issued and legal titles vested in 
the Trustees. 

"The claimants, heirs, or assignees of the officers and soldiers 
ask either — 1st, the value of the warrants as personal property, 
or, 2d, that the Trustees be ordered to convey to them the 
lands on which they were located. It is clear that the 2d' can 
not be maintained. The claimant never had any right to the 
particular land covered by the patent. But in order to gain 
his case the claimant must have a superior equity. This he 
has not. The sovereign offered him a gift, fixing the time in 
which he should apply. She extended the time. Again he 
failed to apply. She for the third time extended the time. 
She called on him to exhibit his claim to the Legislature. She 
then appointed a Board to receive these claims. She had ex- 
tensively published her muster rolls' for general information. 
Thirty years elapsed, and she was justified in concluding that 
the claimant was dead without heirs or had abandoned the 
bounty offered. She recalled it and gave it to an institution 
intended to disseminate knowledge and virtue among her sons. 
and to enlighten with wisdom and arm with rational valor her 
future statesmen and defenders." For thirty years the claim- 
ant slept upon his claim, neglected every invitation, until his 



39^> THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

State bestowed the bounty on an institution willing to use it 
for public merits. Where is his equity ? Shall the fund never 
be available for the purpose of public benevolence or private 
usefulness ? 

Again, the question of right to these warrants has been de- 
termined by competent authority. North Carolina, by com- 
pact with Tennessee, reserved to herself the right to issue mili- 
tary warrants. Having the right to issue, she had the right to 
decide who was entitled. She established a Board to make 
this decision. That Board adjudged certain warrants to the 
University. This adjudication is the act of a sovereign State 

;>-and can not be attacked in the courts of another State. If 
Tennessee thinks herself aggrieved she must demand redress 
of North Carolina and if refused she can resort to the Judi- 
ciary or Legislative Department of the Union. The Courts 
of a State have no power over controversies between States. 
And so the claimant's course is to apply to North Carolina for 
redress, being restricted of course to application to her Legis- 
lature. 

Moreover, the authorities of Tennessee have settled the ques- 
tion. A board elected by her have adjudicated these warrants. 
"The two States — the sovereign parties to the compact — have 
by solemn and deliberate acts determined the right of the 
Trustees to these warrants. It can not then consist with the 
dignity and honor of either, that private individuals shall dis- 
turb what they have decided." 

This defence of the University claims, and especially the 
high ground, that they were really the claims of the State of 
North Carolina, was suggested by two of the Tennessee law- 
yers. ex-Judge Overton and Pleasant M. Miller. By making 
the question a controversy between States, it was thought that 
Congress would require its settlement before considering the 
further question of surrendering to Tennessee the residue of 
the public lands within her limits. To impress the imaginations 
of the people of Tennessee and their representatives it was 
further urged that a prominent lawyer, preferably Judge Mur- 

; phey. appointed by resolution of the Trustees, and if possible 
of the General Assemblv, should visit the General Assemblv at 



UNPOPULARITY OP UNIVERSITY CLAIMS. 397 

Nashville in the character of an envoy extraordinary and ask 
for a hearing. 

Mr. Miller fully sustained Mr. Badger as to the character 
of those interested in the claims. "Companies of speculators 
are hunting up claimants. They will swarm around the Legis- 
lature and procure some act favorable to their views. Nash- 
ville is the focus of all the mischief. They are backed by the 
mob, who sympathize with the alleged poor soldier cheated out 
of his land. He is a stern judge who can stand up against the 
clamor. One of them has given away, surrounded by men 
clamorous for bread." 

The Secretary of the State, Daniel Graham, in a letter to 
Colonel Polk in 1825, gives a vivid picture of the attitude of the 
public mind to the claims of the institution. "You, who have 
seen us here in the fullness of our democratic power and level- 
ling spirit can form some idea of the difficulties to be encount- 
ered in a conflict with occupant privileges and prejudices. There 
is in the Legislature the strongest spirit of Radicalism. Propo- 
sitions to permit further location of escheated warrants are 
treated as 'rank Toryism against our sovereign rights.' Balch, 
as counsel for the University, was driven from the field, and it 
required seven weeks negotiation, with the aid of Judge 
Brown's commanding genius, to patch up by a bare majority the 
compromise of 1825. There was a grievous pelting of illiberal 
calumny heaped upon the Old North State, its officers and 
friends, but they took it like a prudent Israelite, looking more 
to the security of his usury than to the opinion of men. The 
sounds of fraud, perjury, corruption, speculation, gentlemen's 
children grinding the face of the poor, etc.. etc., are still ting- 
ling in our ears." 

Graham advised that the Trustees should accept the terms 
proposed, as they are the best that will be offered. Even this 
measure would not have passed if the relief to the people south 
of the French Broad and Holston had not been included. "Even 
if the University could ever succeed in getting the fifty-five re- 
maining warrants adjudicated it would be impossible to locate 
them without including land already occupied, and as the Ten- 
nessee law authorized compensation for improvements, the esti- 



398 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

mation to be made by neighboring' occupants, little would be 
left for the University. Again, the Compact under the Act of 
1822 does not exempt from taxation the warrants afterward ac- 
quired, and so rabid was the hostility that some members of the 
Legislature proposed to repudiate the contract. Even if some 
relief could be ordered by a United States Court, a decision 
could not be obtained before the land would be covered by 
'squatting occupants,' who have a powerful influence on fron- 
tier legislation. There is a fixed leveling demagogical spirit 
prevailing, not only against a foreign literary institution, but 
even against Tennessee colleges. The most influential cham- 
pions of the University were Haling in the House and Hall and 
Frey in the Senate. Some of our natural allies, Carolina by 
birth, yea even alumni of the good mater, tucked down their 
tails, as a Kentuckian would say, or 'took the water,' as a 
Tennessean would say, before the dreaded influence of popular 
breath." 

Such was the popularity of their cause that the House of 
Representatives refused to hear Balch and Brown, the Uni- 

/ versity attorneys, except by memorial. Balch afterward in 
asking for large compensation is eloquent about his exertions. 
He had assisted in securing the compromise but did not feel 
at liberty to state the mode of his exertions, though consistent 
with justice and honorable deportment. When afterward the 
General Assembly prohibited further locations, he applied for 
and obtained a mandamus from the Circuit Court, for over 
three thousand acres, and on appeal argued the case in the Su- 

Vpreme Court. In 1824 he endeavored to get relief from the 
General Assembly, expending" his time and money, though with- 
out success. This year he went to Murfreesboro where the As- 
sembly met, during the first week'in the session, remained there 
thirty-six days. His language hints at countless beverages 
freely bestowed on thirsty legislators. He expended $50 to $60 
more than his tavern bills. It is certain that he "was not plead- 
ing law," for "what good would light and truth do with such 
men?" Judge Murphey, who was his co-worker, "could tell 
how much feeling is sacrificed and how much anxiety is suf- 
fered by those who are the active agents in procuring any 
capital measure adopted by a Legislature of Tennessee." 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CONSTITUTED. 399 

In addition to his work as a lawyer and lobbyist, he claimed 
that his most valued services to the Board, though unobtrusive, 
were in thwarting- the schemes of speculators, and discouraging 
innumerable applicants by stoutly maintaining the justice of the 
University claims and fighting off adverse decisions of the 
courts. Especially he had induced the Chancellor to announce 
that if the University had sold a warrant or the land without 
notice, the bona fide purchaser was protected. This had quieted 
fears on the part of purchasers. Even if the sale was with 
notice the purchaser could only be made to pay the price of the 
warrant and the fees for locating, not the value of the land. 

Balch thought that there were points of weakness in the 
claims of the University which made it advisable for them to 
accept the compromise of 1825. These were : first, the failure in 
the Act of Cession of 1789 to declare that the reservation in- 
cluded equitable, as well as legal estates ; and second, the omis- 
sion to state what ceremonies should be substituted for that of 
"office found," according to the ancient law books, in order to 
consummate the escheat of the claim of the soldier. These points 
were "anxiously considered and regarded with heavy doubts." 
"Was North Carolina able to pass any law concerning lands, or 
claims to lands in Tennessee, after she ceded that territory to 
the United States, and especially after it became a state in 
1796?" 

Balch pressed for additional compensation. As yet he had 
received only a land warrant. As we hear no more from him 
doubtless his soul was satisfied with a cash payment. 

Creation oe Executive Committee. 

On January 2, 1835, the Trustees determined to place the 
management of the University in the hands of an Executive 
Committee of seven Trustees, of whom the President of the 
Board (the Governor), should be ex officio, a member, the other 
six to be elected annually by the Board; the Secretary of the 
Board to be Secretary of the Committee. 

Their powers were : 

1. All those of the Land Committee, of the Committee of Ap- 
pointments, and the Building Committee. 



400 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

2. To sell the property and effects, real and personal, of the 
University. 

3. To change and regulate the course of studies and dis- 
cipline. 

4. To dismiss any Professor or Tutor for such cause as they 
may deem sufficient. 

5. To fill vacancies in their own body. 

6. To keep a Journal and lay their proceedings before the 
next annual meeting of the Board. 

This change, which has proved of signal benefit to the Uni- 
versity, was made at the instance of Mr. Cameron. It has 
given unity and efficiency to the management of the institution. 
The Committeemen have been chosen with reference to their 
residence in Raleigh, or easy access to it, and the understanding 
has been, and on the reorganization in 1875 was expressly en- 
acted, that they have, in the recess of the Board, all powers 
not forbidden to them. In 1874 the Executive Committee were 
authorized by Act of Assembly, and their number afterward 
was increased to nine. 

The first chosen were Duncan Cameron, George E. Badger, 
William McPheeters, Charles Manly, Frederick Nash and Wil- 
liam A. Graham. Governor David L. Swain was Chairman ens 
officio as well as a member. At their first meeting on the 10th 
of January, 1835, Cameron was elected Chairman, whenever 
the Governor should be absent. 

At a meeting held on the 5th of March, 1835, Governor 
Swain offered resolutions, prepared by Duncan Cameron, ap- 
pointing Charles Manly the agent of the University to have a 
final settlement with the Tennessee agent, Samuel Dickens, and 
I empowering and directing him and Col. Dickens to sell all the 
lands of the University in that State, at public or private sale, 
in bulk or in parcels, as they might think best. The preamble 
given as the reason for this heroic course, that the condition of 
the University is languishing and precarious for the want of 
certain and available funds, and the resources of the institution 
in Tennessee, on which it relies solely for existence, are un- 
available, complicated and far removed from the immediate sup- 
ervision and control of the Board of Trustees. Another reason 



CHARLES MANLY C0AGENT. 4OI 

might have been given that there was then a revival of specula- 
tion in Western lands. 

Provided with a full power of attorney, which enabled him 
and Colonel Dickens to do whatever the Board had power to 
do, Mr. Manly arrived at the home of his colleague in Madison 
County, in West Tennessee, about the middle of July. He made 
his final report on the 21st of November, 1835. After consulta- 
tion advertisement was made that all lands not sold privately 
would be offered on the 17th of September in the town of Jack- 
son, County of Madison, at public auction on a credit of one, 
two and three years. 

The prospects of a satisfactory sale of all lands did not seem 
bright. Colonel Dickens, since his last report, had disposed of 
many eligible tracts as were sold, a few by Mr. Manly after the 
advertisement. Those that remained were the remnants of what 
had been culled over for fifteen years. They were in the counties 
adjoining Kentucky, unsuited to cotton and near Kentucky 
lands, which could be had for twenty-five cents per acre. A 
large area owned by non-residents depressed the price, while the 
millions of fertile acres in Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, 
Arkansas and Texas at almost nominal prices had called off the 
attention of immigrants. 

On the other hand no one could predict when the tide would 
turn in favor of Tennessee, and delay would involve loss of in- 
terest and payment of taxes. It is true that some thought that 
the University lands were non-taxable under the compact of 
1822 whereby 60,000 acres were surrendered to Tennessee Col- 
leges, but it appeared that this compact had never been ratified 
by the Legislature and the new constitution of Tennessee au- 
thorized no exemption. It was concluded to go on with the 
auction sale, making vigorous efforts by special notices to in- 
vestors to procure bidders, privately or publicly. Such notices 
were also given to men of wealth in the State who might take 
an interest in the subject. 

Final Sale. 

The lands bequeathed to the University by Major Charles 
Gerrard had all been sold, but the 20,000 acres donated by Gov- 
ernor Benjamin Smith still remained. Of these 15,000 acres 
26 



402 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

were well night unsalable, almost of no value. They had been 
\ shaken up by the great earthquake, called by the settlers "the 
Shake," and were largely covered by the waters of the Obion 
river, which in places formed extensive lakes and swamps. 
Other portions were rocky and unfit for cultivation. After 
much negotiation 42,345 83-100 acres at one dollar per acre, 
and the 20,000 Smith acres at seventy cents an acre were sold 
to Messrs. Orme and Gifford, of Boston, for a Northern com- 
pany, and the $56,345.83 purchase money was paid by drafts on 
New York and Philadelphia. 

This sale included all the University land except three tracts, 
which were in litigation, and eight other parcels aggregating 
5,020 acres, which Secretary Manly expressed the desire to pur- 
chase for himself on such terms as the Executive Committee 
should deem fair. He made collections of bonds for rent of 
part of the Gerrard lands due before their sale, $543.48 and "a 
tolerable good work horse and three mule colts." "Finding 
the animals rather inconvenient baggage for a stage coach, he 
converted them into cash at the price of $204." 

The Secretary highly praised the fidelity, energy and ac- 
curacy of his associate, and gave a statement of his accounts 
from 1822 to the period of their joint action. He had sold 
59,319 acres for $160,147.05, and had paid into the University 
Treasury $69,618.94, having disbursed on warrants of the Land 
and Building Committee, fees to attorneys, taxes on lands held 
under the Resolution warrants, his own compensation and other 
contingencies, $23,613.96, showing uncollected. $81,079.71 and 
$10,309.13 interest; total uncollected $91,388.90. 

The Secretary and Treasurer then gives a condensed state- 
ment of the financial condition of the University November 
21,1835: . 

Cash in the Treasury $77> 2 35-99 

Bonds for lands sold, in the hands of Col. 

Dickens 91,388.90 

Bonds of one Kelly for land 1,500.00 

Bonds for rent of Gerrard lands before 

sale 53348 

Interest of Trustees in litigated lands 1,000.00 

Making an aggregate of $171,658.37 



FIXAL SALE. 403 

He estimates that at least $150,000 of this amount can cer- 
tainly be realized and invested, the interest on which, added to 
the tuition receipts, will exceed the annual expenses of the 
present establishment by $4,000. 

On motion of Governor Swain the Executive Committee gave 
the report their entire concurrence, and as compensation for 
the services of Air. Manly the eight tracts of land, amounting 
to 5,020 acres, mentioned in the report, were conveyed to him. 

In addition to the trials and discomforts of traveling by stage- 
coach and on horseback, amid perils of robbers and perils of 
waters, and of transacting business in a wild, sparsely settled 
country, the agent was prostrated by a long spell of fever. To 
add to his embarassment, the wife of Colonel Dickens, his as- 
sociate, lay for many weeks at the point of death, preventing 
her husband from leaving his home. Considering these things 
and the long absence from home and from his business, the 
fee does not seem excessive. 

In November, 1837, the Trustees concluded to dispose of all 
their uncollected claims for land sold, and also their interest in 
one or two small tracts, for which suits were then pending, to 
their agent Colonel Samuel Dickens for forty-five thousand 
dollars, payable in equal installments in one, "two and three 
years, to bear no interest until the end of the first year. 

Naturally there was in those troublous days difficulty in 
transmitting money. One draft for $13,000 by John Williams 
on J. M. McCulloch & Co., of Petersburg, Virginia, was pro- 
tested, but finally settled by drafts on Brander, McKinne and 
Wright. New Orleans, in five, seven, ten and fifteen months. 
These were all protested for non-payment, and the Trustees 
compromised the claim for $2,385 which was paid over to the 
Attorney of the Board in Mobile. On his failure to account 
judgment was obtained against him, from which nothing was 
ever realized. 

It is remarkable that the sudden acquisition of comparative 
wealth, after a long struggle with extreme poverty, did not un- 
settle the ideas of economy held by the Trustees. The applica- 
tion of Professors James Phillips and William Hooper for free 
tuition for their sons was refused, although both were clergy- 



404 THE UNIVERSITY OI« NORTH CAROLINA. 

men. The Board proceeded to enlarge the institution with ex- 
treme caution. 

It must not be understood that an utterly safe deliverance of 
the Tennessee lands was had. Orme and Gifford brought suit 
on account of the defective titles of some of the tracts, which 
gave trouble for several years, but the funds of the University 
were not greatly affected thereby. They also brought a suit in 
equity to set aside the sale, but failed. A few parcels were lost 
to those having superior titles and the Trustees made good their 
warranty. The attorneys of the University were Samuel Mc- 
Clenehan and Thomas Washington. As much as $1,700 in fees 
were paid the former and $800 to the latter. The Trustees, 
who had charge of the University from 1868 to 1875 were in- 
duced to prosecute a suit for the recovery of a tract, the title of 
which had been passed to Orme and Gifford, or was long ago 
lost by the Statute of Limitation. A bill of costs, including 
lawyer's fees, of over $400 was the sad result. 

The University Library. 

It seems proper to give a history of the Library up to the 
death of President Caldwell. I am aided by an eight-page 
pamphlet on the subject published by Fisk P. Brewer (A. B. 
Yale), Professor of Greek in this University, 1869-70. 

In the charter of the University the importance of a Library 
is indicated by the direction that it shall be called by the name 
of its largest donor. As no one appeared to claim the honor, 
after about fifty years, the building was called after Governor 
Benjamin Smith, on account of his gift to the infant institution. 
The first book given was a folio copy of Bishop Wilson's works, 
one of a number presented to Congress by his son and by that 
body distributed to the States. The resolution of Congress 
March 22, 1785, is recited on the fly-leaf and then the follow- 
ing: "In pursuance of the above resolution the undersigned, 
delegates from the State of North Carolina, have agreed to 
transmit the works of Dr. Thomas Wilson to Newberne, to be 
deposited there in the Library, belonging to the Public Acad- 
emy, till the time arrives, which they hope is not far distant, 
when the wisdom of the Legislature, according to the express 



DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 405 

intention of the Constitution, shall have caused a College or 

University to be erected in the State. 

HU. WILLIAMSON, 
JNO. SITGREAVES. 

The next donation was by the "Father of the University," 
Wm. Richardson Davie, thirty-nine volumes of such histories as 
those of Hume and Gibbon. Richard Bennehan gave twenty- 
eight volumes and Joseph Blount Hill an Encyclopedia of 
eighteen volumes. 

Next came Rev. James Hall, D.D., the Revolutionary captain 
of cavalry, with forty-nine volumes. Joseph Gautier of Bladen 
County, a lawyer of ability and a State Senator, bequeathed 
by will his library of about ioo volumes, mostly in the French 
language. Besides public documents, nearly one hundred others 
contributed by Judge John Williams, James Reid of Wilming- 
ton, David Ker, first presiding professor ; Abraham Hodge, the 
editor, of Halifax ; the Centre Benevolent Society of Iredell, 
through Rev. Samuel E. McCorckle, D.D. ; Francis N. W. 
Burton of Murfreesborough, Tenn. ; Wm. Henry Hill, repre- 
sentative in Congress, of Wilmington ; Edward Jones, Wil- 
mington and Chatham County, Solicitor General ; and General 
Calvin Jones of Wake and then of Tennessee. In 1812 it was 
reported that there were in the Society libraries 800 to 1,000 
volumes and in the University library 1,500. 

In 1803 it was enacted by the Board that every student 
should be considered as using the public, library and should pay 
a tax for the privilege. The fee was rift}' cents per term or one 
dollar per annum. This was doubled in 1813. We have a 
record of 174 books bought with this fund in the three years 
ending 18 16. Afterward in 1824 there is a mention of forty- 
three volumes and sixty-four numbers of journals purchased 
for $350.25. As there is no further mention of receipts from 
the source it is probable that the tax was abolished, the students 
using their funds for the building up of the Society libraries. 

Among the regulations were the following: A borrowed 
book could be kept out three weeks. Only juniors and seniors 
could take an Encyclopedia. The Faculty fixed the price of 



406 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

"hiring books," i. e., those text-books which were kept on hand 
for this purpose. Of course injuries to books must be paid for. 

The Librarian's salary was one-half the fees. His duties 
were light. The library was for some years in the President's 
house, in the room at the head of the stairs; afterward in the 
University building. 

There w r ere few works which undergraduates cared to read. 
The late Judge Battle said that it was a matter of pride to 
borrow them, and then use them as dead-falls for the swarm- 
ing mice. The tall tomes of St. Augustine were as efficacious 
in slaughtering these troublesome rodents as was their great 
author in crushing the religious heresies of his day. 

In 1822 the Faculty reported to the Trustees that the chief 
need of the institution was the procurement of books and ap- 
paratus. If five thousand or even one thousand dollars should 
be at once expended for this it would be a great relief of the 
distressing want. In 1824 President Caldwell went into the 
subject at length and earnestly. He began by testifying to the 
usefulness of the purchases made out of the library fees. He 
urged that it is perhaps hardly considered that a Professor in a 
College, who is without books in a tolerable supply, is analagous 
to the creation of nobility, which for want of estate is obliged 
to live in rags. He compared the bookless professor to a 
lawyer without copies of the statutes and reports of decisions. 
So a Professor of a College should "employ his whole time and 
utmost diligence in the extension of his knowledge by the ex- 
amination and study of the multitude of authors who have 
written upon the subjects upon which it is his business to teach 
and deliver lectures." He then gave illustrations of shoe- 
makers without awls and lasts, of carpenters without planes 
and chisels, and printers with one or two fonts of worn-out 
type. "We have, however," he said "been greatly relieved by 
the resource furnished by the library money, with which we 
have had it in our power to furnish some supplies of that 
species of food on which, as instructors, we are called upon to 
subsist and grow." 

Dr. Caldwell then asked for $6,000 for books and apparatus 
for instruction, offering to go in person to Europe at his own 



INCREASE OF LIBRARY. 407 

expense to make the purchases. As had been stated the offer 
was accepted, the money to be equally divided between addi- 
tions to the library and apparatus. The books, 979 in number, 
were placed in the library by December, 1825. Donations were 
made by a bookseller in London of Thuanus in six folio 
volumes and fifty-four volumes by the British and Foreign 
Bible Societies. 

In 1827 the Board expressed its .intention to appropriate 
$250 per annum for additions to the library, abolishing the $1 
tax on students, but owing to want of funds no purchases were 
made. Each professor sent in a list of works needed in his 
department, but there was no response. Dr. Mitchell recom- 
mended nine, including Gillie's History of the World. In 
expectation of an up-to-date collection it was enacted that a 
student should not take a book from the shelves. It must be 
delivered by the Librarian. Each Tutor in turn was to be 
Librarian. 

The Record Commission of the English Government from 
1833 to 1841 donated to the University eighty-three folios and 
twenty-four octavos, which was accompanied by twelve books 
and many pamphlets written or edited by Charles Parton 
Cooper, the Secretary of the Commission. Among the books 
presented by the Commission is a copy of the Domesday Book, 
compiled by order of William, the Conqueror. 

In 1836 Professor Mitchell journeyed to the North for the 
purpose of examining a mineralogical collection. He reported 
that the greatest need of the University was books, philo- 
sophical apparatus, cabinets of minerals, rocks and shells, for 
which eight or ten thousand dollars should be expended. "We 
have a professorship of modern languages," he said, "and with 
the exception of a broken copy of Voltaire's works and some 
old books of controversy between the Catholics and Protestants, 
presented many years ago by Gautier of Elizabeth, in Bladen, 
have hardly a French work — in Italian, Spanish and Portugese 
we have nothing. Books are continually published in the dif- 
ferent departments of science and learning, which the profes- 
sors must have, without which the library of the University 
can not be respectable." 



408 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Tutor W. H. Owen was the most active of the early librar- 
ians. In December, 1836, he reports about 1,900 books in the 
lFbrary, kept in the lecture room in the south building, the 
second story, south side, for years called Governor Swain's 
recitation, or lecture, room. He states that the munificence of 
individuals, conspicuous in the early history of the University, 
had ceased, and there had been very little since the Caldwell 
purchases. When the Trustees allowed the Faculty to choose 
from their number a receiver of dues from students, the profes- 
sors agreed to discharge the duty alternately, and to give one- 
half of the compensation allowed them for the purchase of 
books. Since the change of this plan and the appointment of 
Professor Mitchell as permanent bursar this source of en- 
largement ceased. 

The report of the librarians show that there were no addi- 
tions made by purchase, the increase coming only from public 
documents of the United States and this State, together with a 
few acts and reports of other States. Hon. B. F. Moore, 
Chairman of a Select Committee, reported that not a volume 
has been purchased by the Trustees during the last quarter of 
a century. The professors have, in some instances supplied 
the means of instruction in their own departments by most in- 
convenient draughts upon private resources. This latter state- 
ment was especially true of Professors Mitchell, DeBerniere 
Hooper and James and Charles Phillips. 

In 1850 a handsome new building, called by a belated act of 
justice, Smith Hall, was erected for accommodation of the 
library. It is modeled after a Greek temple. The hall is eighty- 
four feet long, twenty feet high and has five ample windows on 
each side. "^ An agreement was made with the students that 
the annual ball might be herein, an arrangement which would 
have marred the legitimate usefulness of the library if the 
books had been in demand. Professor Hubbard, who was its 
chief officer for several years ending 1868, wrote that "the Col- 
lege Library was never open to the students ; on two occasions 
only, as I remember, consulted by persons from abroad ; and 
almost never, except as told above (used by Governor Swain 
and the Librarian") used by members of the Facultv." 



DR. MITCHELL S LIBRARY BOUGHT. 409 

After the death of Dr. Mitchell his books, 1897 in number, 
were purchased for the Library. Many of them are still valu- 
able, but the others, owing to the rapid advance of the sciences, 
are mostly out of date. The collection includes works on history, 
theology, the classics, general literature and the sciences. In- 
cluding these and a few donations, together with constant ad- 
ditions of public documents, the library numbered about seven 
thousand volumes. During the Civil War they were kept in a 
room in the Old East building for safety, but were carried back 
to Smith Hall after the reopening in 1875. 

In 1885 the Trustees resolved that dancing should no longer 
be allowed in Smith Hall, and two years afterward the Uni- 
versity Library was consolidated with those of the two societies. 
There are now about 40,000 volumes in the total. 

Prior to 1838 the Librarian was appointed by the Faculty 
every half year. After that date the Senior Tutor was ex 
officio Librarian. This rule was broken in 1865 when Rev Dr. 
F. M. Hubbard, Professor of Latin, was chosen. We have the 
names of none of the early officers except Tutor Joseph H. 
Saunders, in 1824. Tutor Wm. H. Owen held the office from 
1836 to 1843. Then came Tutor Ashbel G. Brown for twelve 
years, succeeded by Professor Hubbard, President Swain oc- 
casionally taking joint charge, until July 1868. Then came 
Prof. Fisk P. Brewer for one year, 1869-70. The officers since 
the reopening in 1875 will be given in the second volume of this 
history. 

The Library contained some unique volumes, for example : 
The Elements of Geometrie of the most ancient Philosopher 
Elucide of Megara, Faithfully (now first) translated into the 
English toung by H. Billingsley, Citizen of London. Where- 
unto are annexed certaine Scholies, Annotations and inuentions, 
of the best Mathematiciens, both of time past and in this our 
age. With a very fruitful praeface made by M. I. Dee, speci- 
fying the Chiefe Mathematical Sciences, what they are and 
whereunto commodious ; where, also, are disclosed certaine new 
Secrets, Mathematical and Mechanical, until these our daies 
greatly missed. The fly leaf at the beginning has the name of 
Montuela, a distinguished French mathematician. The date 
of publication, 1570, is on the last page. 



4IO THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Among the donations of Dr. Hall is an interesting book- 
entitled Derodon's Logic, 1659. On the fly leaf is "E. Libris 
Dan: Hyd: e Coll: Wadh : Anno Domini 1696. This 
Professor Brewer says shows that it belonged to a member of 
Wadham College in Oxford University. Another legend of a 
latter date is "Ex libris Guli. Livingstone," probably Wm. 
Livingstone, Governor of New Jersey during the Revolution 
and afterward, and author of works, civil and military. 

Another of Dr. Hall's gifts is a Latin paraphrase of Milton's 
Poems, 1690, by Gulielmus Hogaeus. It begins, "Primaevi 
cano furta Patris, furtumque secutae." 

President Swain said that the Library contained books do- 
nated by the great Napoleon. He asserted, also, that for in- 
trinsic value it was worth more than the Society collections, an 
estimate in which few concur. 

The Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies from their begin- 
ning in 1795 accumulated libraries of their own. In the main 
the books were judiciously purchased out of a fund provided 
by annual taxation of the members. Care was taken to pro- 
vide histories and other works useful in the preparation of 
debates, as well as fiction, poetry, travels, and drama. As 
the libraries were open only two or three hours a week, the 
opportunity for research was meagre, but continuous access 
was given to the Commencement Debaters. A catalogue 
printed in 1835 by the Dialectic Society shows the following 
aggregates: Periodicals, 371 volumes; Epistolary, jj, Voy- 
age and Travels, 106; Politics and Law, 72; Poetical, 292; 
History, 356; Natural History, 37; Geographical, 2j ; 
Dramatical, 106; Theological, 196; Biography and Memoirs, 
248 ; Novels and Romances, 493 ; Miscellaneous, 583. Total 
bound volumes, 2,954; and ten maps. The Philanthropic So- 
ciety library was equal to this, so as early as 1835 there were 
about 6,000 well-selected books in the two, probably the best 
collection in the State. 

The high-water mark of numbers during Caldwell's ad- 
ministration was reached in 1823, when there were 173 matric- 
ulates. The 100 mark was crossed in 1817. From 1817 to 
1827, both inclusive, the matriculates were 108, 120, no, 127, 



UNIVERSITY DECADENCE AND DEATH OF CALDWELL. 4II 

146, 165, 173, 157, 122, 112, 76. They continued under a 
hundred for four years. From 1831 to 1836, inclusive, they 
were 107, 184, 109, 101, 104, 89. The highest number of 
graduates was thirty- four in 1824. It will be noticed that the 
falling off in numbers of the University was prior to the panic 
of 1837. What were the causes? Doubtless there were more 
than one. The panic of 1825 and the low prices of farm pro- 
ducts must have kept off students. Morever, President Cald- 
well's agonizing disease often deprived him of the power to 
attend to his duties. This, of course, partly paralized the pro- 
gressiveness of the institution. Then again, the net receipts 
from the sale of the Tennessee lands became almost nothing, 
and the payment of the interest on the $40,000 debt to the banks 
left not a sufficiency to pay the salaries of the Faculty. This 
led to resignations so that in 1829 there was one vacant profes- 
sorship and two tutorships, in 1830 one professorship, in 1831 
and 1832 two professorships, in 1833 one. A fourth trouble 
was the Nullification controversy, principally in South Caro- 
lina, but extending to the adjoining States, and at one time 
threatening Civil War. Its effect on the University is shown 
clearly by the following statistics. In 1820 there were seven- 
teen; in 1821, nineteen; in 1822, sixteen, students from South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennesee, and Kentucky, while 
for the five years ending with 1833 there was from those 
States only an average annual attendance of five. South Caro- 
lina in 1830 had no students at all, and for three years, 1829- 
1832, inclusive, did not exceed one. 

Dr. Caldwell's Death. 

On the 27th of January, 1835, the sufferings of President 
Caldwell were ended. His death brought grief to the officers 
and alumni of the University,' and to the friends of education 
and enlightened progress throughout the land. He had stood 
by the cradle of the University, had worked for it through its 
infancy up to strong manhood ; had been the most potent factor 
in placing it on the highest table-land of Southern institutions. 
He had lived to see its pupils in all positions of usefulness and 



412 the: university of north Carolina. 

honor throughout our Southland, and he had their profound 
admiration. He had won the position of educational headship 
in our State. He was the recognized authority on matters con- 
nected with mathematical and astronomical questions. 

The early history of Dr. Caldwell has been already given. 

As a preacher, although not eloquent, he was an orthodox 
and fervid expounder of Christian principles. Some of his ser- 
mons were sought for with a view to publication, and a few, 
notably that on the death of Washington and at the funeral of 
Prof. Samuel A. Holmes, were printed in pamphlet form by 
admiring hearers. His style was elevated, too diffuse for mod- 
ern taste, yet highly appreciated by his contemporaries. 

Dr. Caldwell was on several occasions driven into print on 
account of attacks on himself for alleged aristocratic views, 
and on the institution under his charge. His adversaries found 
that he wielded with potency the weapons of ridicule and of 
sarcasm. 

In his private relations he was neighborly, amiable and be- 
loved. His accomplished and able step-son, Rev. Dr. William 
Hooper, has shown how the grave, almost stern, University 
President, at home disdained not the relaxation of genial 
humor, radiated happiness around him, was affectionate and 
kindly to all from his brilliant wife to the humblest slave. 

He wrote a series of letters to the public over the nom de 
plume of Carlton, advocating, with much wealth of argument 
and information, gathered during his visit to Europe, and by 
reading, the construction of railroads. This gained for him 
the reputation of being one of the fathers of internal im- 
provements in our State. He advocated with similar intelli- 
gence and ability common school education and thus took rank 
with Judge Murphey and Bartlett Yancey as a pioneer in this 
great work. It has been mentioned that he was the State as- 
tronomer in locating part of the Southern boundary of the 
State. 

It was in recognition of his services to the State and its 
institutions that the General Assembly of 1841 conferred on a 
Piedmont county the name of Caldwell, the only county which 
honors a teacher. 

Dr. Caldwell was a man brave and strong, of tireless energy, 



RESOLUTIONS OF EULOGY. 413 

a scholar yet a man of action, stern in discipline, yet of kindly 
heart, a true Christian, firm in his Presbyterian convictions, 
but never intolerant towards others, a preacher fervent and 
forcible, a teacher patient and inspiring. 

The following resolutions of the Trustees, whom he served, 
have the merit of truth without exaggeration : 

Raleigh, 6th of February, 1835. 

On motion of Governor Swain. 

Whereas, the Executive Committee with the deepest emotions 
of sorrow have received intelligence of the death of Rev. 
Joseph Caldwell, D.D., President of the University. 

Resolved, unanimously, that by the eminent purity of his 
life, his patriotism and zeal in the cause of learning, and his 
long, faithful and disinterested public service at the head of 
the University, Doctor Caldwell has approved himself one of 
the noblest benefactors of the State and deserves the lasting 
gratitude and reverence of his countrymen. 

This eulogy was read in public at the next Commencement. 

The students of the University passed the following resolu- 
tions, Haywood W. Guion being chairman and C. C. Battle 
secretary. Accompanied by a well-written letter they were 
forwarded to Mrs. Caldwell by Wm. P. Webb of Alabama, 
Wm. B. Rodman of North Carolina, and Robert W. Henry of 
Virginia : 

Resolved, that the students of the University of North Caro- 
lina, deeply affected by the melancholy death of our much es- 
teemed President, Joseph Caldwell, do convey to his bereaved 
family a proper expression of our profound sense of his 
acknowledged worth, and our unfeigned sorrow for his irrep- 
arable loss, which they and society have thereby sustained. 

Resolved, that each of us do wear a suitable badge of mourn- 
ing in testimony of our sorrow for his death and the cherished 
recollections associated with his name. 

The reply of Mrs. Caldwell is in excellent taste : 
To the Students of the University, 

Young Gentlemen : It was with no common feeling I read 
your affectionate communication to me this morning. It is 
very gratifying to have the sympathy and condolence of so 



414 TI1 E UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

many friends. Be assured you have my gratitude and best 
wishes for your present and eternal welfare, and may the God 
he served, whose loss we all deplore, lead you to choose and 
serve your Creator, in the days of your youth. May he direct 
and support and guide you, and at last lead you to those 
heavenly mansions where all is peace and joy. 
With sentiments of respect and regard, 

I am yours, etc., 

Helen Caldwell. 

He was first buried in the middle of the village cemetery, 
which was originally designed for use of Faculty and Students 
of the University as well as the inhabitants of Chapel Hill, in a 
grave dug and walled, in pursuance of his orders. The body 
has been twice exhumed. In November after his death at the 
instance of the Philanthropic Society, it was taken up under 
the direction of Alfred S. Waugh, an artist, in order to get 
a plaster cast of his features. The bust then executed is in 
Gerrard Hall and is a faithful reproduction. The grave was 
again reopened on the 31st of October, 1846, and the remains 
were reinterred by the side of his wife on the east side of the 
old monument. 

Judge Frederick Nash and Rev. Wm. McPheeters, D.D., 
were appointed by the Trustees to erect an appropriate monu- 
ment over his grave. In the first impulse of enthusiasm a shaft 
worthy of the man and the University was contemplated. We 
find that Mr. Robert Donaldson, of New York, sent designs, 
as did the sculptor, Alfred S. Waugh. These were submitted 
by the Trustees to David Paton, a Scotchman, one of the 
architects of the Capitol, but there is no record of any report 
made by him. Eventually, in 1837, the design submitted by 
Thomas Waite, an energetic, but careless, master mechanic, 
who then had charge of carrying on the repairs of University 
buildings, was adopted. 

This monument was of sandstone from one of the quarries 
near the University, either that on the plantation of Robert W. 
Strowd, or that of Solomon Morgan, since bequeathed to the 
University by his daughter, Mrs. Mary E. Mason. The shaft 
was cut bv T- B. Turnev, a skilled mechanic. It soon began to 



THE OLD MONUMENT. 415 

crumble and grow dingy. Moreover, the plan was to insert 
on the eastern face a marble slab with appropriate inscriptions 
in Latin, written by the scholarly teacher, Dr. Wm. McPheet- 
ers. When the slab came from the workman at the North, the 
Latin was found to be, by careless workmanship, so atrociously 
bad as to be beyond amendment. The professor of that 
language in disgust seized a hammer and smashed the offend- 
ing marble into fragments. The unfortunate stone became of- 
fensive to good taste and all interest in it was lost. No in- 
scription was ever cut showing to whom the structure was 
reared. When the New West building was erected its front was 
in close proximity to the rugged and gruesome stone. The only 
recognition of it was the raising of hats by the processions as 
they marched near it at Commencements. 

The site chosen was, at the time, thought to be sufficiently 
remote from any building then standing or likely to be erected. 
Its inconvenient proximity to the New West building shows at 
once the progress of the University, and the want of foresight 
in the able Committee. To their minds six and seven score 
students were gratifying numbers and the locality selected was 
hidden away from the active life of the University. The history 
of the new monument will be told hereafter. 

At the request of the Executive Committee Prof. Walker 
Anderson, soon to leave the institution for his eminent career 
at the bar in Florida, at the ensuing Commencement, June, 
1835, delivered an eloquent and appreciative address on the 
career of the deceased President. He was peculiarly well 
fitted for the task, having been his pupil, a professor in his 
Faculty, and his assistant. He thus had a more intimate knowl- 
edge of the character of his superior officer than was vouch- 
safed to others. The address was printed and much enhanced 
the reputation of Judge Anderson as a graceful and eloquent 
orator. It was his last work for the State and the institution 
which he had served so long. 

I give some specimens of his style : "The religious character 
of Dr. Caldwell was not the formation of a day, nor the hasty 
and imperfect work of a dying bed. * * * He had made 
religion the guide of his youth ; it beautified and sanctified the 



416 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

labors of his well-spent life ; nor did it fail him in the trying 
hour, which an all-wise, but inscrutable Providence permitted 
to be to him peculiarly dark and fearful. The rich consolations 
of his faith became brighter and stronger amidst the wreck of 
the decaying of flesh ; and, if the dying testimony of a pure and 
humble spirit may be received, death had for him no sting — 
the grave achieved no triumph. * * * His hope of a 
happy immortality beyond the grave was to him a principle of 
strength that sustained him amidst the conflicts of the dark 
valley ; and to us, who witnessed the agonies of his parting 
hour, a bright radiance illumined the gloom which memory 
throws around the trying scene. On the evening of the 24th of 
January his terrible disease made its last ferocious assault. 
* * * By the exercise of prayers and other acts of the holy 
religion he professed, he strengthened himself for the last con- 
flict, and spoke words of consolation and hope to his sorrowing 
friends. But death was yet to be indulged with a brief 
triumph, and for three days his sufferings were protracted with 
such intensity that his vigorous and well-balanced mind sank 
beneath the contest. We willingly drop the veil over the bitter 
recollections of that hour, and we take refuge in those high 
and holy hopes which were the last objects of his fading con- 
sciousness, and which had lent to the long twilight of his mortal 
career some of the light of that heaven to which they had 
directed his longing gaze. 

"The labors of a useful life, to use the thought of an old 
stoick, are like things consecrated to God, over which mor- 
tality has no power. 'Haec est temporis nostri sacra ac dedi- 
cata; quam non inopia, non metus non morborum incursus ex- 
agitat.' The pure and patient spirit had escaped its narrow 
and tempest-stricken prison house, the wasted form is resting 
from its sore conflict in the blessed hope of a joyful resurrec- 
tion, but those consecrated acts of his useful life remain with 
us, to spread their beneficent influence through successive 
generations. * * * We may say, without the fear of con- 
tradiction, that the whole present generation of the citizens of 
North Carolina owe to the memory of Dr. Caldwell gratitude 
as well as admiration ; and that we are indebted to his agency, 





WM. HOOPER. 



JAMES PHILLIPS. 




ELISHA MITCHELL. 





SHEPHERD K. KOLLOC'H. 



CHARLES W. HARRIS. 

(Paid to resemble his uncle, 

Charles W. Harris.) 



CALDWELL S FACULTY. 417 

directly or indirectly, more than to any one individual, for the 
very remarkable change that has taken place in the moral and 
intellectual character of our State within the last forty years. I 
speak not only of the fruits of his labors, as a faithful in- 
structor and ripe scholar; I speak of the whole moral in- 
fluence of his life and labors — as a Christian minister, an en- 
lightened and active patriot, as one who conscientiously ful- 
filled all the duties binding him as a man and a Christian ; I 
claim to write upon his tomb the proud and safe defiance — 
'Ubi lapsus?" 

An honor appropriate to the career of the first President was 
resolved on, the erection of a building near the east of the 
South building, corresponding to Gerrard Hall, to be known as 
Caldwell Hall, and to be used as a laboratory, library and 
lecture room. Waite, the Superintendent, was instructed to 
take measures for its construction, but his management of the 
finishing of Gerrard Hall and of the repairs of other buildings 
was so extravagant and unbusinesslike that further action was 
suspended, as it proved, indefinitely. For twenty years after- 
ward the honor to Caldwell was talked of, but never executed. 
The marble shaft of 1847 was thought to be sufficient. 

Summary of Caldwell's Faculty. 

The changes in the Faculty during President Caldwell's 
second term, not already mentioned, may be seen in the follow- 
ing summary: 

The President himself in 1816 changed from Mathematics 
to Moral Philosophy. In 1834 he added Astronomy to his 
title. Elisha Mitchell was in charge of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy (Physics), from 181 7 to 1826, when he 
took the chair of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology and 
held it for the remainder of his life. 

Denison Olmsted was in 1817 Professor of Chemistry and 
Mineralogy. In 1825, in consequence doubtless of having been 
chosen Director of the State Geological Survey, he added 
Geology to his title. He resigned the same year. 

Ethan Allen Andrews was Professor of Languages from 
1822 to 1826 when his title was changed to Professor of 
27 



418 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Ancient Languages, which continued until his resignation in 
1828. 

Walker Anderson, elected Adjunct Professor in order to aid 
President Caldwell, was a native of Petersburg, Virginia, born 
July 11, 1801. His parents were Daniel Anderson, a merchant, 
and Mary R. Cameron, a sister of Judge Duncan Cameron, of 
.North Carolina. Graduating with highest honor at this Uni- 
versity in 1819 he studied law under his uncle, Judge Cameron. 
Having on his 21st birthday married Phebe R. Hawks, sister 
of Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, he was induced to become the 
principal of a boarding school for females in Hillsboro. He 
was called from this position to the University, at first as 
Professor of Rhetoric and Logic, and then as Adjunct Profes- 
sor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. 

Resigning his chair in 1836 he emigrated at once to the 
Territory of Florida and engaged in milling and mercantile 
business. Failing in these he entered on the practice of law, 
and soon won eminence therein. Florida was admitted into 
the Union as a state in 1846 and in 1851 the Legislature or- 
ganized her Supreme Court. Mr. Anderson was the first Chief 
Justice. He resigned in 1853 and died in Pensacola January, 
1857. He had fourteen children, of whom three are Hying. 

Judge Anderson was a man of loftiest and purest character, 
of most winning manners, of fine literary taste, and possessed 
of an easy, flowing style. He was a member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

William Hooper was Professor of Languages from 1817 to 
1822, when he resigned for his work as Episcopal minister. He 
returned in 1825 and was for three years in charge of Rhetoric 
and Logic. In 1828 he succeeded Andrews in Ancient 
Languages and held that place until 1837 when he left finally 
the service of the University. 

Shepard K. Kollock was the first Professor of Rhetoric and 
Logic, in 1819, and resigned in 1825. This chair was vacant, 
except for a few months in 1828, but Professor Mitchell volun- 
tarily added the duties to his own, during much of the time. 

James Phillips succeeded Mitchell as Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy in 1826 and held that chair 



PROFESSOR HENTZ. 419 

until his death. He was not elected without opposition. Mr. 
Ferdinand R. Hassler, an eminent mathematical author, seemed 
to have been the favorite of President Caldwell, but he probably 
declined to be a candidate. The claims of Matthias Evans 
Manly, a tutor, destined to a most honorable career in the 
profession of law, were pressed, the President admitted his 
ability, but while not opposing", declined to recommend him, 
probably on account of his youth, he having graduated only 
two years before. 

Nicholas Marcellus Hentz was elected Professor of Modern 
Languages in 1826 and held the place until his resignation in 
1833. This chair was established under a resolution offered 
by Mr. Badger, that a "Professor of Modern Languages, in- 
cluding French, Spanish and as far as possible other living 
languages of Europe be employed." Treasurer Haywood, 
Judge Potter and Rev. Dr. McPheeters voted aganst it, prob- 
ably on economical grounds. Although a majority of the Board 
were thus liberal at a time when they were borrowing money 
wherewith to pay the Faculty, they approved unanimously the 
report of a committee, of which Colonel Polk was Chairman, 
that it was highly objectionable to pay one Raleigh newspaper 
$6.00, $1.25, $3.50 and $4.50 for advertisements for which its 
rival charged only $2.50, 75c, $1.87 1-2 and $2.50, aggregating 
$15.25 for one and $7.62 1-2 for the other. These sums were 
the total expenses for advertising for the year. As the news- 
papers were of opposite politics it is easy to understand Colonel 
Polk's criticism. 

Mr. Hentz seemed to have had little opposition though the 
President very much distrusted the employment of foreigners. 
He urged in a general way on the Board their probably in- 
ability to enforce discipline, arising from the impossibility of 
their understanding the disposition of American youth. Weight 
of character and personal influence are as much needed as 
learning. He especially inclined to a Virginian applicant, who 
signed the pen name, Inconnue, whose real name was Gessner 
W. Harrison, afterwards a noted educator and author. It is 
probable, too, that the President distrusted the reliious principles 
of the foreign born. 



420 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mr. Hentz was born in France July 25, 1797, and emigrated 
to America in 181 6. In 1825 he married Caroline Lee, daughter 
of General John Wright, of Massachusetts. He taught Modern 
Languages at Northampton in that State, and at Chapel Hill, 
Covington, Kentucky ; Cincinnati ; Tuscaloosa, Tuskegee, Ala- 
bama; Columbus, Georgia; and Marianna, Florida. At some 
of these places he was principal of schools. He was an agree- 
able and accomplished man and a good teacher. He was dis- 
tinguished as an entomologist, wrote a monograph on the 
Arachnidae (spiders) which is of high authority. While at 
Chapel Hill he occupied two small houses on the lot of Kemp 
P. Battle. On the walls of the upper room of one of these, and 
in glass cases, were numerous insects impaled on pins, some 
dead, others lingering, the modern humane method of asphyxia- 
tion not being generally used. He is said to have imported for 
his dwelling the first lightning rod in the village, in consequence 
of some strange freaks played by the electric fluid during a 
storm. He died in Florida November 4, 1856. 

His wife, Caroline Lee Hentz, was born in Lancaster, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1800. She was beautiful, versatile and accomp- 
lished. She wrote a novel, a poem and a play before she was 
thirteen years old. Like her husband she painted elegantly in 
water colors. A tragedy by her, called "Lamona," was pub- 
lished. Her novels were much admired when published, but 
are now not read. Among them are Lovell's Folly, Rana, The 
Planter's Northern Bride, Linda. In Lovell's Folly she por- 
trayed some inhabitants of Chapel Hill, among them "Doctor 
November," then the carriage driver of the President, and 
Venus, his wife. Mrs. Hentz preceded her husband in death 
by a few months. 

While at the University this admirable couple met with a 
heart-rending tragedy. A sprightly son of three or four years 
old, with his father's name, fell from a chair and was instantly 
killed by the fracture of a bone in the neck. He was buried in 
the garden of Dr. Mitchell's residence, now Professor Gore's. 

Rev. Cornelius P. Vermuele was Professor of Ancient 
Languages for a few months in 1830 during the absence of 
Professor Hooper on account of sickness. The tutors were : 



TUTORS MITCHELL CHAIRMAN. 421 

John Motley Morehead and Priestly Hinton Mangum for 1817; 
Robert Rufus King and William Dunn Moseley for 1817-18; 
Hamilton Chamberlaine Jones and Simon Peter Jordan for 
1818-19; S. P. Jordan and R. R. Kng for 1819-20; S. P. Jordan 
and James Hervey Otey for 1820-21 ; Joseph H. Saunders and 
Anderson Mitchell for 1821-23 ; J. H. Saunders and George 
Shonnard Bettner for 1823-24; J. H. Saunders, G. S. Bettner 
and Elisha Young for 1824-25; G. S. Bettner, Matthias Evans 
Manly and Edward Dromgoole Sims for 1825-26; E. D. Sims, 
John Jenkins Wyche and Oliver Wolcott Treadwell for 1826- 
27 ; Silas Milton Andrews, J. J. Wyche and O. W. Treadwell 
for 1827-28; Lorenzo Lea and O. W. Thompson for 1828-29; 
Th ">on Birr! for 1829-30; Henry Grantham Smith and John 
Allen t)^ :>r 1830-31 ; H. G. Smith, John DeBerniere 

Hooper and jc b Thompson for 1831-32; J. DeB. Hooner, J. 
Thompson and Giles Mebane for 1832-33 ; Jas. Hogg Norwood, 
Thomas Lapsley Armstrong and Wm. Nelson Mebane for 
1833-34. Thomas Burgess Haywood held the position for 
awhile in this year. Samuel Richardson Blake, William Pugh 
Bond and Harrison Wall Covington were the Tutors for 1834- 
'35. In 1828 a Tutorship was offered to James D. Johnston, 
the able teacher of Oxford, but was declined, although a salary 
of $800 was annexed. David McAllister, Wm. Henry Owen, 
and Abraham Forrest Morehead taught in 1835. In January, 
1835, Owen tendered his resignation, and David Francis Bacon 
of Connecticut was chosen in his place. On his declination, 
Owen was induced to remain. A. Burgevin was two years 
Professor of Modern Languages. 

Mitchell Chairman ol Faculty. 
After the death of Caldwell to the arrival of President Swain, 
Dr. Elisha Mitchell continued to be the Acting President. It 
has been stated that Dr. Wm. Hooper desired the office. Of 
this there is no evidence, but the tradition that he was in favor 
of the continuance of Dr. Mitchell, is probably true. 

Graduates 1835. 
The highest honor man of the class of 1835 was Haywood 
William Guion, who spoke the Salutatory. The next to him, 
declared equal, were Augustus J. Foster and Wm. Peter Webb. 



422 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

They drew lots for the Valedictory, and Foster won it. Hon- 
orary orations were assigned to Samuel H. Ruffin, James Hill 
Hutchins, Wm. Alexander Rose, Henry Lee Graves and James 
Campbell Smith. 

Guion became a leader at the bar, an efficient President of 
the Wilmington, Charlotte and Rutherfordton, now Carolina 
Central, Railroad Company, and author of a scientific work, 
called the Comet; Foster was a farmer and a most efficient 
Justice of the Peace, unable to engage in active pursuits by 
reason of being a victim of rheumatism. Wm. P. Webb was a 
Judge in Alabama. Of those not gaining honors, C. C. Battle 
was a lawyer, Private Secretary to Governor Dudley, and a 
volunteer in the Mexican War. Richard B. Creecy is a useful 
and honored editor and lawyer and author of many monographs 
illustrative of the history of our State, now (1895) the oldest 
living graduate of this University. One matriculate. Colonel 
Clarke M. Avery, was killed in battle. 

Of those not graduates, Johnston Blakeley Jones of Chapel 
Hill and Charlotte, was a physician of skill and genius, and 
John Archibald Bingham was a preacher and teacher in the 
noted Bingham School, his brother William J. being Principal. 

The chief feature of the occasion was the eloquent eulogy, 
already mentioned, on the character of the late President Cald- 
well by Professor Walker Anderson. 

A meeting of the Institute of Education was held, but the 
proceedings were not recorded, except that Professor Mitchell 
gave a talk on Agriculture. 

Thomas S. Ashe, a recent graduate, afterwards Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State, was elected Tutor, but declined. 
It was stated that he was in all respects an excellent student. 

The Commencement of 1835 under the management of Pro- 
fessor Mitchell, Chairman, was the first after the death of Dr. 
Caldwell. The Trustees ratified all the acts of the Executive 
Committee, including the resolutions about the late venerated 
President. The students, with the happy buoyancy of youth, 
had begun to make preparations for the usual ball, but the 
Faculty thought it would be heartless and unbecoming. Both 
sides appealed to the Trustees, who sustained the Faculty. 




<Z£/ gooza/ 



ELECTION OF EX-GOVERNOR SWAIN. 423 

Messrs. Perrin Busbee and Green M. Cuthbert managed die 
case for the students, doubtless with ability, for they were men 
of superior talent. Their letter to Governor Swain, asking 
him to be an honorary Ball Manager, "in order to give dignity 
and stability to the occasion," and his letter of refusal, were 
deemed of sufficient importance to be spread on the Minutes 
of the Committee. 

The Committee, while deeming this contemplated violation 
of funeral etiquette to be under their cognizance, administered 
a mild rebuke to the Acting President Mitchell for summoning 
them to adjudicate some cases of discipline. They refused to 
consider them, alleging that they belonged to the jurisdiction 
of the Faculty. 

At the same time quite a sharp implied rebuke was adminis- 
tered to some members of the Faculty by a resolution that, 
whenever one should be absent without leave a pro rata deduc- 
tion should be made from his salary. Possibly the offender 
was Tutor Bacon, as he was shortly afterwards legislated out 
of office, $150 being paid him for compensation for the re- 
mainder of his year. 

This was a very notable meeting, because held on the 20th 
of June, 1835, when the important State Constitutional Con- 
vention of that year was sitting in the Presbyterian Church at 
Raleigh. There were twenty-nine Trustees present — very emi- 
nent men. They took steps to secure worthy candidates for 
the office of President by recommending the Executive Com- 
mittee to ''open correspondence with distinguished literary men, 
and in other ways," the election to be at the next annual meet- 
ing. The President's salary was fixed at $2,000 per annum 
and the use of a dwelling. 

Election of Swain. 

On the 5th of December, 1835, David Eowrie Swain, on the 
nomination of Duncan Cameron, was elected by ballot Presi- 
dent of the University. It is not stated that the vote was 
unanimous, but, as there was no other nominee, his majority 
must have been large, as tradition so states. He was fond of 
mentioning that, while he desired the place, he was unwilling 



424 THE UNIVERSITY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

to have it without the support of the strong men of the Board. 
He therefore consulted Judge Frederick Nash and asked him 
to confer with ex-Judge Duncan Cameron, and he would be 
guided by their opinion. The latter was enthusiastic in his 
favor, the former acquiesced, and the Trustees generally ap- 
proved. 

He was elected on account of having been by his talents and 
winning manners, a wise, energetic, successful administrator 
in the high public offices to which he had been elected. Born 
on the 4th of January, 1801, he was well taught by the skilled 
Rev. George Newton of Asheville, in the classics and mathe- 
matics. He entered Sophomore Class of the University of 
North Carolina in 1822, but, on account of the bad health of 
his father and straitened means, in a few months he left the 
institution for the study of law under Chief Justice John Louis 
Taylor at Raleigh. He began practice in 1822 at Asheville, 
with immediate success. He served in the House of Commons 
1824 to 1829, when he was chosen to be Solicitor of the Eden- 
ton Circuit, and was transferred the next year to the Superior 
Court bench. The General Assembly, on the 1st of January, 
1832, inaugurated him Governor. By successive elections he 
continued in that high office for three years. After leaving 
the executive chair, he was an active member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1835. J- n a ^ these positions he studied 
with care and decided intelligently the questions which came 
before him." In our State history he was peculiarly learned, 
and in that of the United States, well versed. 

Although Professor Wm. Hooper sneeringly said, "the peo- 
ple of North Carolina have given Governor Swain all the offices 
they have to bestow and now have sent him to the University 
to be educated," he was by no means an illiterate man. Gov- 
ernor Perry of South Carolina in his book of Reminiscences, 
states that he was the best scholar at the classical school of 
Mr. Newton, and was proficient in Homer and other ancient 
authors. He was known to quote lines from the Iliad after 
his coming to Chapel Hill. He had a tenacious memory, was 
well acquainted with the genealogies of the leading families of 
the State, and excelled as a popular speaker. His person was 



PRESIDENT SWAIN LINEAGE. 425 

very imposing - , over six feet high, but so ungainly that number- 
less witticisms were perpetrated on its deviation from the 
standards of manly beauty. An old Whig, boasting of the 
triumph of his party in a debate in the Legislature, said : "The 
Democrats were beating us until old 'Warping Bars' from 
beyond the mountains thrashed them out." But notwithstand- 
ing this defect, his genial temper, ready wit, his kindliness, his 
gift of speech, made him a favorite in all companies, while his 
industry in preparation on the questions under debate and 
skill in arranging his argument made him a formidable antag- 
onist. I add that in a long life his integrity was never im- 
peached, and that he was prudent in the management of his 
private affairs. His great popularity in the State was a mani- 
fest gain to the University. 

The new President was of a goodly lineage. His father, 
George Swain, was of sturdy New England stock. Emigrat- 
ing to Georgia, he was soon a member of the State Legislature 
and of the Constitutional Convention. For the sake of his 
health, he removed to a small farm near Asheville. Here he 
planted fruit trees, some varieties imported from New England, 
raised the crops usual in his 'region, and carried on the trade of 
a hatter. For years he was also Postmaster of Asheville. Like 
New Englanders generally, he highly valued education, and 
gave his children the best available opportunities. 

Governor Swain's mother was of a prominent North Caro- 
lina family, said to have been connected with Governor Ralph 
Lane, who led a colony to Roanoke Island. Her name was 
Caroline Lane, the widow of a good man, named Lowrie. She 
was a sister of Colonel Joel Lane, long State Senator from 
Wake, who sold the site of the seat of Government. Another 
brother was Jesse Lane, whose son, Joseph, was a General in 
the Mexican War, a Senator from Oregon, and a candidate for 
the Vice-Presidency on the Breckenridge ticket. 

It was intended by the Trustees that the new President 
should occupy the dwelling on the west side of the Campus on 
Cameron Avenue, originally built for its chief officer. But 
President Swain disliked to dispossess Professor Mitchell of 
his home, and his wife did not approve the dwelling last occu- 



426 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

pied by Dr. Caldwell, because inconvenient for young children. 
That next to the Episcopal Church on the east was preferred, 
and was the executive mansion until 1848. 

There was much speculation as to whether the high standing 
and personal popularity of President Swain would bring new 
students. In his favor was the relief of the University from 
severe financial strain; against him was the panic of 1837 and 
the depression of many following years. As late as 1845 cot- 
ton, the chief Southern money crop, brought only five cents a 
pound. Remembering this, we conclude that his administra- 
tion had a very successful beginning. There were only 89 
matriculates in 1835, entering in the fall before his election. 
In 1837 there were 142; in 1838, 164; in 1839, 160; in 1840, 
169; 1 841, 167. 

The Faculty starting with President Swain were Elisha 
Mitchell, Professor of Chemistry, Geology and Mineralogy; 
Wm. Hooper, of Ancient Languages ; James Phillips, of Math- 
ematics and Natural Philosophy ; Walker Anderson, of Rheto- 
ric and Logic ; A. Burgevin, of Modern Languages. The 
Tutors were Wm. H. Owen, of Ancient Languages, and David 
McAllister, of Mathematics. 

Some friction arose between Dr. Mitchell and the new Presi- 
dent because of a criticism by the latter as to the deficiency of 
class work done by the Department of Chemistry and Geology. 
The sensitive Doctor showed that by adding his conducting of 
prayers and preaching of sermons, and his duties as bursar, to 
his lecture work, he was not behind any other professor. The 
ruffled tempers were soon appeased, and his relations with his 
chief were henceforth harmonious. 

Class of 1836. 

The village of Chapel Hill being of sparse population, and 
circuses, theatres and such like entertainments being excluded, 
Commencements were important occasions. The number of 
equipages and visitors was surprising. The day was the first 
Thursday in June, selected so as not to conflict with the courts 
of the neighboring counties. On Monday night of 1836 there 
were declamations by members of the Freshman class, namely, 



COMMENCEMENT OF 1 836. 427 

Wm. R. Walker, Gaston H. Wilder, Win. F. Brown, Dennis 
D. Ferebee, James H. Headen, Duncan K. McRae, and Thomas 
D. Meares. 

On Tuesday night the declaimers were Augustus Benners, 
James Sidney Smith, George Davis, J. W. Evans, John O. L. 
Goggin, J. J. Jackson, and James Somerville of South Carolina. 

Of these, Brown, McRae, Smith, Benners and Goggin did 
not remain for graduation. Smith was a lawyer and Assem- 
blyman with reputation as a speaker. Two of this year's 
matriculates, Lucius J. Johnson, Major, and Oliver H. Prince, 
Captain, lost their lives in the Civil War. 

On Wednesday the orator chosen by the Philanthropic So- 
ciety, Henry L. Pinckney, a Representative in Congress from 
South Carolina, was to deliver an address, but was unable to 
be present, on account of sickness. He forwarded a copy of it 
to the Society, and at their request it was read by the President. 
The newspaper correspondent reported that he "performed this 
duty to the entire satisfaction of all and gave promise of mak- 
ing an able and popular President." 

In assigning the honors of Commencement day to the mem- 
bers of the Senior class, it was resolved, 1st, that only two 
separate distinctions be awarded to the two best scholars ; the 
remainder to be divided into two orders, to one of which hon- 
orary, called Popular, orations to be assigned, the other to be 
required to prepare "Forensics." 

To Wm. B. Rodman was assigned the Latin Salutatory, the 
highest honor. To Lawrence W. Scott, the Valedictory in 
English. To James E. Crichton, Ralph H. Graves, Wm. W. 
Hooper, Thomas Jones, Frederick N. McWilliams, and Charles 
L. Pettigrew, "Popular Orations." 

To the remainder were assigned what were called Forensics. 

Speeches at Commencement were by all the Seniors. The 
subjects are of interest as showing what young men were think- 
ing about in the closing years of Andrew Jackson's administra- 
tion. 

The Salutatory in Latin, Wm. B. Rodman. History, Ralph 
H. Graves. The Influence of Fame on Genius, Fred N. Mc- 
Williams. The Influence of Catholicism on Free Institutions, 



>S 



428 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

James E. Crichton. Shall the Indians be Trained to be Free 
Citizens or Made Slaves? debate, Thomas Gholson, Thos. S. 
Jacocks. Should Universal Education be Enforced?, James 
Saunders. Should Texas be Annexed to the United States? 
Debate, Benj. I. Howze, Wm. L. Stamps. Should the United 
States Recognize Texas? Debate, James E. Hamlet, Henry 
K. Nash. The Indians of North America, Thomas Jones. 
The Inequality of Genius, Wm. W. Hooper. Should Educa- 
tion be Compulsory?, Charles L. Pettigrew. Should England 
and France Restore Poland? Debate, Robert G. McCutchen, 
Thomas Stamps. Is the Salic Law Just and Wise? Debate, 
John A. Downey, John G. Tull. Valedictory, Lawrence W. 
Scott. 

Although there was a recess for dinner, this formidable pro- 
gramme illustrates the superior patience of our fathers and 
grandfathers. 

Of the honor men, Rodman was one of the ablest lawyers 
of the State, and reached a seat on the Supreme Court bench. 
He was also a Colonel and member of the Convention of 1868; 
Scott was a lawyer and also a physician; Crichton was a phy- 
sician, Graves a Tutor of Mathematics at the University and 
then Principal of a classical school of very high standing and 
co-Principal of the Horner School, father of the late very able 
Professor of the same name ; Hooper was a physician, who died 
early ; Jones was a minister of the Gospel ; Pettigrew, brother 
of General J. J. Pettigrew, a successful planter and of wide 
influence. Of those without honors, Henry Kollock Nash was 
a member of the Legislature, Presidential Elector for Scott 
and Graham, and of high rank as a lawyer and orator. 

Of the matriculates with the class not graduating were 
Andrew Jackson Donaldson, nephew and Private Secretary 
to President Jackson, Minister to Prussia and Germany, and 
candidate for the Vice-Presidency with Fillmore; and William 
H. Polk, brother of President Polk, Charge d' Affaires at 
Naples. 

Professor Mitchell and Rev. Dr. McPheeters were appointed 
a committee to examine the curricula of the leading colleges 
of the United States and report as to what advance should be 



CABINET OF MINERALS. 429 

made in order to assimilate the University of North Carolina 
to them. They found that there was substantially little differ- 
ence in the terms of admission, and no change was then made. 

Among other events of this year, a Civil Engineer, W. D. 
Riddick, was employed to investigate the sandstone formation 
east of the village to ascertain if a quarry of building stone 
could be secured. Material for the steps and window-sills was 
obtained at two places, as is shown by the sunken pits, but has 
not proved to be durable. The first Caldwell monument is 
from this rock. As only $13 was paid the engineer, the exami- 
nation could not have been extensive. 

Professor Mitchell, while on one of his annual visits to his 
old home, was instructed to examine the cabinet of minerals 
belonging to Dr. J. H. Griscom. The good doctor, evidently a 
Quaker, wrote from Philadelphia in December, 1835, with an 
artlessness not expected of those living north of Mason and 
Dixon's line, that his price was $1,500, but if he could not get 
that he would take $1,250, and if a sale could not be effected 
by the spring he would take even less. Professor Mitchell 
was not much impressed, stating that he believed better results 
could be obtained by purchasing of M. Moldenhauer of Heidel- 
burg, Germany. He adds: "Baron Laderer, the Austrian 
Consul, has one that he holds at $4,000. He has paid more 
for single specimens than Dr. Caldwell did for the whole cabi- 
net he purchased for the Trustees." As it is stated elsewhere 
that Caldwell paid only fifteen dollars, the Baron must not have 
had very costly stones. 

While on this journey, Professor Mitchell went out of the 
way to inspect Northern colleges, in order to inform the Trus- 
tees of our deficiences — Yale, "the Methodist College in Mid- 
dletown," now Wesleyan, Washington College at Hartford, 
Brown University at Amherst. He was furnished with letters 
of introduction at Harvard and Princeton, but "was so little 
gratified by what he had already seen that he neglected to use 
them." He advised that instruments purchased should be those 
useful for illustration before a class, and gave a gentle criticism 
of Dr. Caldwell's purchases in Europe, the Astronomical Clock, 
the Altitude and Azimuth instrument, and the Transit, "all 



430 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

good and necessary in an Observatory," but consumed a large 
part of the funds. Two thousand dollars are needed for the 
department. of Natural Philosophy. 

While the appropriations for Chemistry were once liberal, 
there was then needed $1,000 additional to meet its wants, 
including Apparatus for Electro-Magnetism and the Polariza- 
tion of Light. 

He stated that the University had a Professorship of Mod- 
ern Languages, but the only books owned were a broken copy 
of Voltaire's works and some old books illustrating the con- 
troversies between the Catholics and Protestants, the gift of 
Senator Gautier of Bladen County. We had nothing in Italian, 
Spanish or Portugese. Books are continually published in the 
different departments of science and learning which the Pro- 
fessors must have and without which the library can not be 
respectable. It is remarkable that the Professor in enumera- 
ting the modern languages in which our deficiency was appa- 
rent, omitted altogether German. He seemed to think we 
needed instruction only in Latin tongues. 

For all these needs, $8,000 or $10,000 should be expended. 
If a larger telescope should be desired, $1,200 or $1,500 must 
be added. One at $1,200 had just been received at Middletown 
from Leubours of Paris, and Princeton was expecting one more 
costly from the shop of Fraunhofer. 

The Professor then takes up the question of cheap board 
for poor students. The usual plan has been the establishment 
of Commons with dearer and cheaper tables, of which the 
boarder can take his choice. This is liable to great objections. 
We are brought into collision with the most capricious and 
unmanageable part of the student's system — his stomach. All 
of them lead an inactive life, and therefore have not the raven- 
ing appetite they have at home after a day's work or hunting. 
The Steward's Hall is a common source of vexation and dis- 
turbance at all colleges. It is suggested that students earn- 
estly desirous of an education, "willing to live on very plain 
food and make out their dinner on Greek roots and Conic sec- 
tions," shall have a house where they can manage for them- 
selves. The Professor hopes, with the approval of the Trus- 



GERRARD HAIJ. FINISHED. 431 

tees, with the funds accruing from the tuition money, to provide 
such an establishment. 

Dr. Mitchell was, when this letter was written, temporary 
President, and his recommendations were made as such. It 
does not appear that he carried into effect his plan of helping 
poor students to cheap board, but in recent years it has been 
adopted with great success. The Steward's Hall was rented 
to persons willing to charge reasonable rates to students, but 
the latter were not compelled to patronize its tables. Among 
those who entered into the obligations were John B. Tenny, 
Mrs. McCauley, widow of Wm. McCauley, Mrs. Caroline 
Scott, widow of John Scott, who removed from Hillsboro to 
Texas and died soon afterwards, and Miss Sally Mallett. In 
1847 tne wings were given to President Swain to be used in 
erecting a servants' house, and the main structure was sold. 

The building designed for public exercises, Gerrard Hall, 
was finished in 1837. As most of the exercises during the 
year were of a sacred character, it was known as the New 
Chapel. Person Hall, or the Old Chapel, was soon given up 
to lectures, divided into four rooms for this purpose. The 
chief carpenter and manager was Thomas Waitt, a man of 
force but careless in his financial dealings ; extravagant, but not 
chargeable with dishonesty. He was succeeded by Kendal 
Waitt, probably his son, who was for many years the carpenter, 
locksmith and plumber for the institution. They were from 
New England. 

In this year the vacations were enlarged to six weeks in 
summer and the same in winter. 

An entry in the Treasurer's book of 1836 brings to mind that 
the astutest of men could be caught by the fallacious hopes 
of what are now called "boom towns." Peter Brown was a 
hardheaded, closefisted lawyer, a native of Scotland, who ac- 
cumulated a fortune of $200,000. A town was laid out at the 
junction of the Cape Fear and Haw Rivers, which it was ex- 
pected to be connected with the ocean by slackwater naviga- 
tion and to become a prosperous commercial city. It was 
named after the State Treasurer, John Haywood, and aspired 
to be the capital of the State and the site of the University. 



432 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Many leading citizens hoped to share in the golden harvest by 
buying lots, among them the sagacious Peter Brown. When 
he turned his real estate into money in order that his Scottish 
nephew might obtain the fund under his will, his Haywood 
investment escaped his memory, and the University, by escheat, 
obtained $25, not for each front foot, but for the whole acre. 

One • — ■ Seabrook was appointed Tutor of Modern Lan- 
guages at $600 per year. The Faculty books show that he did 
not accept the offer, but for several months, February to May, 
1836, A. Burgevin was numbered among the Professors, his 
chair being that of Modern Languages. Of him we know 
nothing. 

After paying off pressing debts, the Trustees bought from 
the State 100 of the five per cent certificates of $1,000, each 
bearing five per cent interest, issued under an Act passed in 
1835, "to provide for paying for the Shares reserved to the 
State in the Capital Stock of the Bank of the State of North 
Carolina." In 1837 the certificates were surrendered in ex- 
change for one thousand shares of stock in the bank. As the 
bank paid an average of eight per cent dividends, the $8,000 
annually thence derived, together with the tuition money, occa- 
sional escheats and interest on money loaned, constituted the 
income of the University until the ruin of the Civil War. 

Graduates oe 1837. 

The Commencement of 1837 was held in Gerrard Hall. The 
newspaper of the day, the Raleigh Register, describes it as a 
"commodious building, with large galleries, just completed 
with becoming taste and good style." The reporter became 
enthusiastic and poetical in depicting the occasion. "It is the 
first young budding of fame to a Collegian, to see an ocean of 
bonnets and ribbons, and the banks of snow gauze waving and 
rustling at his appearance, as if the gentle south had breathed 
on a wheat field ; but it is the full bloom of popularity, if, when 
he retires, he shall see the ocean toss with emotion that rolls 
beneath its surface." 

On Monday night came the Freshmen declaimers, generally 
called Competitors, Tod R. Caldwell, John W. Cameron, Wm. 



class of 1837. 433 

H. Henderson, John A. Lillington, Duncan Sellers, Albert 
Shipp and Wra. M. Shipp. The Sophomore Competitors were 
George Davis, Joseph W. Evans, James Summerville, Wra, R. 
Walker, Dennis D. Ferebee, James H. Headen, Walter A. 
Huske. All graduated in regular course. 

The address before the Literary Societies was by Hon. Rob- 
ert Strange, a Senator of the United States, who had been a 
Judge of the Superior Courts. He was a polished speaker, a 
graduate of Hampden-Sidney College, especially successful as 
a criminal lawyer, when appearing for the defence. 

The Representatives chosen by the Dialectic Society were 
Benjamin M. Hobson, Joseph John Jackson, Thomas D. 
Meares, and by the Philanthropic, James M. Burke, Hazell W. 
Burgwyn, and William S. Pettigrew. William J. Long was 
added by the Faculty. 

In those days there was no prize to the winner and no ad- 
judication by a committee or by the audience, as to the merits 
of the speakers, but the best always learned from his friends 
the good news of his triumph. All these became graduates 
except Burke, who died three years afterwards. 

The honors in the Senior class were awarded, the highest to 
Wm. Waightstill Avery, who spoke the Valedictory, and the 
next to James G. Womack, with the Latin Salutatory. Hon- 
orary orations were next assigned to the following, whose 
rank was in the order of their names. Augustus Benners, on 
The Importance of Southern Literature. Perrin H. Busbee, 
on The Causes which have retarded Political Economy. Peter 
W. Hairston, Future Prospects of our Country. Leonard H. 
Taylor, Character of the Aborigines of America. 

Forensic orations, that is, those carrying no honor, were 
assigned to Alexander Swann, Samuel B. Massey, George Hol- 
ley, and Kemp P. Alston. Afterwards Massey, Alston and 
Holley were excused, and Swann being displeased with the re- 
port, refused to stand the examinations and speak. 

The first-honor man, Avery, attained a distinguished posi- 
tion at the bar and was a leader in the Democratic party. He 
was Speaker of the State Senate and a Senator of the Confed- 

28 



434 TH E UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

erate States. He was killed in 1864 while repelling a raid of 
bushwhackers on Morganton. Womack was a physician in 
Tennessee. Benners, the next scholar, was a lawyer and mem- 
ber of the Legislature in Alabama. Busbee was an able law- 
yer, of large practice and Reporter of the Supreme Court. He 
was cut off in middle life : Hairston was a wealthy planter of 
much influence : Taylor was a physician of great repute in 
Granville. 

Some non-graduates of this class were Wm. Barringer of 
Cabarrus, a Methodist minister, accidentally killed while super- 
intending the building of the Greensboro Female College ; 
Joseph Branch, Attorney- General of Florida : Richard S. Sims, 
a physician in Virginia. Two matriculates were killed in 
battle. General Isom Garrett of Alabama and Thomas Ruffin, 
Colonel, of Goldsboro. 

On the 19th of June of this year there appeared in the Ra- 
leigh Register, a bad-tempered attack on the University under 
the guise of a reply to a circular of the Executive Committee. 
It was asserted that the Legislature had expended on the insti- 
tution nearly half a million dollars : that it was cruel to dismiss 
a student for contracting a debt : that the terms of admission 
were far below those of Columbia. Yale, Harvard and other 
institutions ; that no certificate of character was required for 
entrance : that the situation of Chapel Hill was bad. except for 
health : that visitors had extreme difficulty in being accommo- 
dated : that the Faculty are under a moral compulsion to throw 
open their doors and virtually keep houses of entertainment 
without charge ; that clergymen were excluded from the Board 
of Trustees, that a majority of the Faculty belonged to one 
denomination ; that religion was not provided for — the South 
Carolina College in a measure failed because its head was an 
infidel ; that the University of Virginia had Religion engrafted 
into it by its friends ; that there should be a Christian chair : 
that lampooning the Faculty at Commencement should be 
stopped ; that merriment should not be excited by such express- 
ions as '"Old Charley." "Mike." etc., designed to ridicule some 
peculiarities of Professors; that ladies were the subject of 
vulgar sarcasm ; that there was want of commanding: elevation 



LIQUOR ORDINANCE. 435 

of character ; that good schools were needed in different parts 
of the State ; that the Chair of Ancient Languages should be 
divided ; that there should be a separate chair of Civil Engi- 
neering; that there were five institutions under control of only 
three denominations ; that if the University should not be im- 
proved it would be of little value; that there were only 101 
students out of 750,000 inhabitants, and only 66 were citizens 
of the State, whereas Massachusetts had three colleges and 600 
students ; that of 500 or 600 preachers in the State, only about 
20 had collegiate training. 

These criticisms are either petty or untrue. President Swain 
did not reply. 

In 1837 the ordinance in regard to intoxicating liquors was 
strengthened by making it a dismissable offence to bring them 
into the college buildings. The same penalty on one publicly 
intoxicated was enacted. A committee of the Trustees, of 
which Win. Gaston was chairman, reported in favor of making 
the resolution of the Faculty on this subject a by-law of the 
institution. Since that time drunkenness, private as well as 
public, and indeed drinking spirituous liquors of any kind, have 
been made grave offences. The use of wine was not prohibited 
under this resolution, but was left to be dealt with under the 
general laws of the institution, punishment following drinking 
to excess. 

It is evidence of the conscientious regard for duty to the 
public shown by the Trustees of this day, that in the petty 
matter of detail of covering the South Building with tin, it did 
not occur to them to charge the President solely with its execu- 
tion. One of the Executive Committee, General Samuel F. 
Patterson, was associated with President Swain in having the 
work done. 

A resolution was passed for building two new dormitories, 
but the project was abandoned. The Societies pressed this or 
some other structure, urging the necessity for greater accom- 
modation for their libraries and debating halls. An argument 
was made that rooms should be provided for "frank" students, 
often called beneficiaries. As the by-law stood, these could 
not live in the college buildings, unless there were vacant rooms 
after pay students were accommodated. 



436 the; university of north Carolina. 

In pursuit of the ignis fatuus of prohibiting merchant's 
credit to students, the President was directed to prosecute 
offenders and to dismiss the students accepting it. The law 
proved a dead letter. Merchants continued to break it and 
parents seldom failed to redeem the pledges of their sons. No 
criminal prosecution was ever instituted. 

All the officials of the University retained their faith in by- 
laws, regulating the conduct of "the establishment," to use a 
favorite term of old days. All of them from the beginning 
were referred to President Swain and Dr. Mitchell, who were 
to rewrite them and submit them to a revising committee, Pro- 
fessor Phillips, Green and Hooper. They had little influence 
for good. An able student afterwards, Colonel David M. Car- 
ter, deliberately attempted by experiment to ascertain how 
nearly he could come to breaking the law without crossing the 
line. When summoned before the Faculty, he appeared, by- 
laws in hand, and ingeniously argued that he had not trans- 
gressed them. They have been proved to be useless and have 
not been reprinted since the re-opening in 1875. So important 
did the Faculty regard these rules that Governor Morehead 
and Secretary Manly were requested to explain them to the 
students in the Chapel, which request was probably complied 
with. 

Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper. 

As Prof. William Hooper left the University finally in 1837, 
a sketch of him is here given. He was born in Hillsboro, Au- 
gust 31, 1792, the son of William Hooper, a merchant, whose 
father of the same name was a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. His mother was Helen, daughter of James 
Hogg, one of the commissioners who selected the site of the 
University. His father died when he was a boy, and his 
mother, as has been said, became the second wife of President 
Caldwell. He entered the University of North Carolina, ob- 
tained his degree of A.B. in 1809 and A.M. in 1812; was 
Tutor in the University 1810-1817, and Professor of Ancient 
Languages 1817-22. He studied at Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary 1812-13. His mother was a member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and naturally he followed her footsteps for 



DR. WM. HOOPER. 437 

a time. He was made a Deacon in 1819, and ordained Priest 
in 1822. He resigned his professorship and was Rector of 
St. John's Church, Fayetteville, 1822-24. In 1825 he rejoined 
the University, as Professor of Rhetoric and Logic, 1825-28, 
and then held his old chair of Ancient Languages until 1837. 

In 1 83 1 he became dissatisfied with the doctrines of the 
Episcopal Church on the subject of regeneration and infant 
baptism, and joined the Baptist denomination. In 1838-40 he 
was Theological Professor in Furman Institute in South Caro- 
lina ; Professor of Roman Literature in the South Carolina 
College, 1840-46, and Presi'dent pro tempore; President of 
Wake Forest College, 1846-49; teacher of a classical school for 
boys near Littleton, 1849-51 ; Pastor of the Baptist Church at 
Newbern, 1852-54; President of the Chowan Female Collegiate 
Institute, Murfreesboro, 1855-61 ; teacher in the Female Semi- 
nary, Fayetteville, 1861-65, and associate principal, with his 
son-in-law, Professor John DeBerniere Hooper, of Wilson 
Collegiate Seminary for Young Ladies, 1866-75, when he re- 
moved with his son-in-law to Chapel Hill. . He received the 
honorary degree of Master of Arts (A.M.) from the College 
of New Jersey, now Princeton University, in 1888; that of 
Doctor of Divinity from the University of North Carolina in 
1857, and that of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) elsewhere. 

Dr. Hooper married in December, 1814, Fanny P., daughter 
of Colonel Edward Jones, Solicitor-General of North Carolina. 
They had seven children ; William, a physician ; Edward, also a 
physician ; Mary, who married Professor J. DeBerniere Hooper, 
her second cousin ; Joseph Caldwell, a teacher ; Elizabeth ; 
Thomas Clark, a lawyer and teacher ; and Duponceau, who was 
mortally wounded at Fredericksburg. The descendants of Dr. 
Hooper are the only descendants of Wm. Hooper, the signer, 
his other children having left no issue. 

Dr. Hooper was distinguished for accurate and varied schol- 
arship and literary power. He wrote no book, but many of 
his sermons and addresses were printed and were widely appre- 
ciated for the soundness of their teachings, and their delight- 
fully interesting style. I have given extracts from one — "Fifty 
Years Since" — delivered at the Commencement of 1859. His 



438 the; university of north Carolina. 

addresses were usually of a religious or educational character, 
but occasionally he deviated from this rule. Once he made a 
severe attack on the code of morals of the legal profession, and 
was answered with the keenest satire by Judge Edwin G. Reade 
in what were called the Pickle Rod Papers. 

Though often brimming over with delightful humor, he 
was sometimes subject to melancholy. Some thought that his 
accidentally killing in his boyhood a young girl relative left a 
permanent impression on his mind. It is more likely that im- 
pairment of his health, which more than once caused him to 
change his residence and his pursuits, was the cause of his 
occasional gloominess of spirit. This did not prevent his be- 
ing a genial companion, or interfere with his laborious reading, 
enlightened teaching, or heart-searching sermons. 

On July 4, 1876, Dr. Hooper, by invitation, attended the cele- 
bration at Philadelphia of the Declaration of Independence. 
He died on the 19th of the next month and, at his request, was 
buried by the side of his mother at the base of the Caldwell 
monument. 

At the Commencement of 1838, Charles Manly delivered the 
address before the Alumni ; an earnest plea for pride in the 
University. The annual address was by Wm. B. Shepard, 
an accomplished lawyer and member of Congress, who ably 
proved the value of the classics as a liberal education. His 
accepting this trust shows that he had forgiven his dismissal 
for injecting politics into his Senior speech of 18 16. 

In preparing for this Commencement, the Faculty disclaimed 
all right to control the expression in the speeches of political 
opinion, not in violation of good taste. This resolution was, 
after some years, repealed, because such expressions were 
offensive to part of the audience. 

The Freshmen Declaimers were C. C. Graham, V. A. McBee, 
Wm. J. Clarke, F. M. Pearson, J. J. Norcott, A. O. Harrison, 
T. H. Scott, and Samuel Hall. 

Those from the Sophomore class were J. H. Headen, W. H. 
McLeod, W. A. Huske, J. A. Islington, F. H. Hawks, A. H. 
Caldwell, Thomas D. Meares, and Wm. Thompson. All of the 
Declaimers became graduates except Norcott and Hall. The 



COMMENCEMENT OF 1 838. 439 

latter became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia; 
and Caldwell, prominent at the bar and of weight in the Legis- 
lature. Meares a very forcible speaker in the Convention of 
1861 and in the Legislature. 

The Society representatives were Win, Marcellus McPhee- 
ters, who spoke on the Disadvantage of Early Entrance into 
Political Life. 

Isaac N. Tillett on the Pernicious Influence of Great Talents 
without Moral Integrity. 

John W. Cameron, on Party Spirit. 

Jarvis Buxton, on National Pride. 

John N. Barksdale and Dennis D. Ferebee debated the great 
question whether there should be Liberal or Strict Construction 
of the Constitution. 

Barksdale, Cameron and McPheeters were of the Dialectic 
Society, the others of the Philanthropic. 

In awarding the distinctions in the Senior class of 19 mem- 
bers, Green M. Cuthbert and George R. Davis were pronounced 
first and equal. The second rank was assigned to Joseph 
Washington Evans, James Summerville, Albert Gallatin Hub- 
bard, and William Richmond Walker ; the third to Joseph John 
Jackson. 

A special distinction was given Benjamin Mosely Hobson 
for proficiency in Composition. On drawing lots, Davis drew 
what was recently made the prize, the Valedictory, leaving the 
Latin Salutatory to Cuthbert. The others had original speeches 
in English on various subjects. The Commencement was pro- 
nounced to be brilliant. The addresses were said to show 
"manliness of thought, a propriety of diction in the composi- 
tion, indicating much strength of mind and high intellectual 
culture." 

We have the rest of the scheme of the exercises. After 
prayer and Cuthbert's Latin Salutatory, J. W. Evans spoke on 
the Importance of Exclusive Application to Collegiate Stud- 
ies ; James Summerville on the Influence of Steam Navigation 
on our Relations with Europe ; W. R. Walker on the Adap- 
tation of the United States to the Advancement of Literature; 
H. W. Burgwin, on the Pernicious Influence of Unprincipled 



440 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Politcians ; N. W. Herring on the causes of the Present Pros- 
perous Condition of our Country ; and Colin Shaw and Wilson 
W. Whitaker debated whether the Oregon Territory should be 
colonized by the United States. 

Then was the adjournment for dinner. On reassembling, 
A. G. Hubbard spoke on the Causes which have retarded Amer- 
ican Literature ; J. J. Jackson on the Influence of the American 
Congress on the Eloquence of the Country; K. H. Lewis on 
the Nature and Tendency of Executive Power ; Wm. J. Long, 
on the Propriety of Educating Soutjiern Youth at Southern 
Institutions; Benj. M. Hobson, on the Mutual Relations and 
Interests of Virginia and North Carolina ; Gaston H. Wilder 
on the Spirit of the American Government. The Valedictory 
by George Davis followed, then the Report on the public Ex- 
amination, then the Degrees were conferred, and lastly the 
Benediction. 

Of the first-honor men, one was especially distinguished in 
after life, George Davis. The middle letter of his name, R., 
inserted from boyish fancy, was dropped after he left the Uni- 
versity, this action possibly hastened by his fellow-students 
insisting that it stood for Rascal. He became eminent for 
eloquence, legal ability, and loftiness of character, reaching the 
dignity of Attorney-General of the Confederate States, and re- 
fusing a seat on the State Supreme Court bench. Cuthbert, his 
rival, was a lawyer in Newbern, of good style as a writer, much 
sought after as the orator on anniversary occasions, of fine 
promise as an adviser in law, but cut off in early manhood by 
pulmonary consumption. Many of his kin were excited by 
his example to seek higher education and in teaching and other 
vocations exerted broad influences for good. 

Of those who attained second and third honors, Hubbird (or 
Hubbard) and Jackson were prominent lawyers and Repre- 
sentatives in the Legislature. 

Of those receiving no honors, John J. Roberts became an 
Episcopal minister, Professor of French in this University, 
after qualifying himself in France, and Principal of High 
Schools for Females in New York and Massachusetts ; McCau- 
ley, a grandson of one of the donors of the University site, was 



DR. MITCHELL S REPORTS. 44 1 

a Captain in the Confederate army and Senator from Union. 
Wilder was Senator from Wake and Receiver of confiscated 
property under the Confederacy. 

Of the non-graduates, Joseph B. Cherry was a member of 
the Legislature. Four matriculates, Gen. L. O'B. Branch, 
Sergeant Thomas H. Lane, Colonel Gaston Meares and Private 
George M. Ruffin, were killed in the Civil War. 

The critical correspondent of the year before, "C," continued 
his fault-finding, though in a lesser degree. There were in- 
stances of lampooning the Faculty, he wrote, and of lugging 
in politics, which the President promised to correct. Bad taste 
was shown in lauding distinguished men in their presence — 
better wait until they are dead. The Faculty afterwards pro- 
hibited political speeches and all allusions to any officer of the 
institution. 

Dr. Mitchell's Reports. 

Professor Mitchell, who had been appointed Bursar the pre- 
ceding year, made semi-annual reports of his actings as Bursar. 
I doubt if any financial officer ever mixed as much humor with 
his dry figures. I give a specimen. On November 29th, writ- 
ing to Secretary-Treasurer Manly, then Clerk of the Senate, he 
says : "I do suppose the business connected with this same 
Bursarship is of as complicated and vexatious character as is 
done in North Carolina. There have been paid in this session 
•omething more than 1,200 dollars. This I have to pay out, 
md not a little of it in tens, fives, fours, and thus and so on 
down to a few cents, and to keep all these matters regular be- 
tween Trustees, Faculty, Parents, Students, Merchants, Board- 
ing-house Keepers, Washerwomen and niggers, and be able to 
prove that all is correct at any time, requires that a man be 
wide awake. A student changes his boarding-house or his 
washerwoman, and neither party dreams that it can be of any 
importance to note the time. So I have to investigate the 
whole matter and make all straight as best I can. I should 
do better if I had to do with men — knowing what the rules and 
proprieties of business are, but the Petticoat has the ascendancy 
at the Hill. My principal customers are women, some 15 in 



442 THE UNIVERSITY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

number — married women, widow and maid — to say nothing of 
those that are neither — and such a time as I have ! 

"Hoping that you may get plenty of wisdom and enlighten- 
ment or of folly and fun during your attendance on the Mag- 
nates of the Land (General Assembly), I remain, 

"Yours, E. Mitchell." 

Again, he describes the condition of his dwelling. "The 
fences are in ruins, the piazza in front could hardly be sup- 
ported by all the props that could be collected. The rain pours 
through the roof. We are obliged to exercise no little skill in 
the sleeping apartments to keep dry. The repairs were com- 
menced in 1833, and have been going on slowly ever since." 
The records show that this dismal condition was at once 
rectified. 

The Doctor's letters and accounts are in an excellent legible 
hand, with almost no corrections. They show that he charged 
himself with the tuition dues of every student, so that non- 
collections, unless excused by the Faculty, on the ground of 
poverty, were deducted from his commissions. 

I give another specimen of the Doctor's humorous reports. 
In November, 1841, he states that he journeyed to Hillsboro to 
receive the funds forwarded for the payment of the salaries 
of the Faculty, and "a jolly set of fellows they are. They have 
folded up their lanthorn jaws and look sleek and greasy like 
so many monks. With this excellent salve applied to their 
feelings, they will improve wonderfully and give the boys a 
mild and gentle examination." 

He had sent on to John Randolph Clay, our Charge d'Af- 
faires in Vienna, $1,200, and had received the invoice for the 
cabinet of minerals purchased by him for the University and 
had effected insurance from Trieste to Petersburg. The Cap- 
tain stopped at the Ionian Isles for a load of currants, which, 
he interjects, "are not currants but grapes," and so vitiated the 
policy. As the University had twice lost goods and their price 
by want of insurance, he had ordered a new insurance or ratifi- 
cation of the old. He goes on to state that M. Partosch, the 
Curator of the Emperor's Cabinet, certifies that the collection is 



BURSAR S REPORTS. 443 

worth more than 3,000 florins (48 1-2 cents each, or $1,455). 
"The letter of Mr. Clay has taken a load of at least a ton and 
a half from my mind." 

He informs Mr. Manly, who, by the by, was not averse to the 
pleasures of the sideboard, that there are three bottles of Tokay 
in one of the boxes, so when he comes up he shall be permitted 
to look at it through the sides of the bottle and smile at it 
through the cork — the utmost that can be allowed to one sup- 
posed to share in the late Temperance movements in Raleigh. 

In thinking of this famous wine he was reminded of the 
antiquated maiden, who, rehearsing the attractions of her youth, 
mentioned the lover who 

Stole her slipper, rilled it with Tokay, 
And drank the little bumper every day. 

When the Doctor could not recall the writer of these lines, 
it is not perhaps remarkable that his daughters promptly re- 
minded him. 

The Doctor then shows the difficulties he has in regard to 
collections of tuition money. Although he charged himself 
with every student, it was impossible to collect from all at once, 
as they must wait until funds are sent by parents. Why not let 
him render his account at the end of the term and show what 
he has collected and in what instance failed. Those being re- 
ported as deficient would be stirred to promptness. Students 
would doubtless acquiesce. The ancient Greeks and Romans 
when they captured a city first ravished the women and mar- 
ried them afterwards. This acquiescence was doubtless due to 
the fact that the practice was well understood in international 
law, as to which he refers to Dr. Swain, in charge of that de- 
partment, who discusses the matter at large with zeal, interest 
and feeling. It appears that the Trustees did not change the 
mode of keeping accounts, but after his death allowances were 
made sufficient to cover all losses. No instance is known of 
any student being excluded for not settling his bills. 

The collection of minerals, an exceedingly fine one, arrived 
in due time, and forms what is known as the Vienna Cabinet 
of Minerals. 



444 TIJ E UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Besides collecting' and paying out money, Professor Mitchell, 
whose soul thirsted for all work, as well as all knowledge, had 
charge of the grounds and repairs of the buildings. As cattle 
were allowed to run at large, it became necessary to surround 
the part of the campus on which are the buildings with a per- 
manent fence. The Professor introduced from his native State, 
Connecticut, the durable walls of stone. Beginning in the year 
1838, he exploited every stony hill on University land and 
hauled their granite treasures over improvised roads. Traces 
of these roads and broken rocks prized out of their beds, but 
found too heavy for the wagons, remain to this day. When- 
ever the University mules became jaded, the Professor substi- 
tuted his own, and when the great task was finished in 1844, 
the Trustees paid him liberally. Part of the campus, reaching 
to the Raleigh road, was designed to cover fifty acres, but 
Professor Charles Phillips some years afterwards calculated 
the area to fall half an acre short. The campus, a much larger 
area, included land, to the east and south of the walls. 

The system of rock walls, as they are called, was extended 
to most of the Professors' residences and was adopted by many 
citizens of the village. 

On December 4th of the same year President Swain reported 
disturbances Saturday and Sunday nights and that two or three 
students had been dismissed in consequence. A more serious 
offense was the burning of the old, unoccupied Observatory 
building heretofore described. The pecuniary loss was small. 
The President wrote : "This ill-starred building has from the 
period of its creation been a nuisance rather than a benefit to 
the institution. The instruments were removed and the house 
abandoned two years since and on examination, more than a 
year ago, the walls being found partly dilapidated and the wood 
work wrotten (rotten), the Faculty advised that it was not con- 
sidered worth repairing." 

This worthlessness, however, the President contended furn- 
ished no excuse to the incendiaries and he asked the instruc- 
tions of the Executive Committee as to whether the criminal 
law of the State should be resorted to in order to discover the 
offenders. He stated that the laws and usages of the Uni- 



COMMODORE ELLIOTT S GIFTS. 445 

versity afford clear evidence that the institution of a criminal 
prosecution has not been regarded within the discretion of the 
Faculty. It is remarkable that it is impossible to discover from 
the letter whether the sagacious President advises that wit- 
nesses shall go before the Grand Jury, or have the terrifying 
threat, like a dark and lightning laden cloud, to deter from 
similar offences in the future. Such displays of caution are 
not uncommon in the President's history. They are in truth 
part of his policy. He could be abundantly firm when occasion 
justified. 

There is on record the following letter of Captain Jesse D. 
Elliott, of the U. S. Ship Constitution, a native of Maryland, 
who served with distinction in the battle of Lake Erie and in 
other engagements in the War of 1812. He succeeded Com- 
modore Perry in command of the Erie fleet : 

U. S. S. Constitution, 
Norfolk, August 6th, 1838. 

To the President and Trustees of the University of North Caro- 
lina, Chapel Hill: 

Gentlemen : — During my different excursions in a recent 
and long cruise, in command of the Mediterranean Squadron, 
I collected numerous valuable fragments of ancient marble, and 
other antiquities ; among them the accompanying portion of one 
of the pillars found at Marathon, and erected in commemora- 
tion of the memorable defeat of the Persians, together with 
the top of a Sarcophagus taken from the excavation at Mem- 
phis, which I request may be presented to the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, through the hands of Sailing 
Master Wm. P. Muse, who accompanied me in most excur- 
sions. Very respy, Yr. obt. Svt., J. D. Elliott. 

On December nth, 1838, the students of the University, 
through a Committee composed of Dennis D. Ferebee, Tod R. 
Caldwell, and Calvin H. Wiley, petitioned for extension of the 
winter vacation from four to six weeks. They urged : 

1 st. That the Colleges of the United States generally have 
twelve weeks in the year. 



446 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

2nd. Students who reside at a distance must remain at 
Chapel Hill or else forego "meeting with their friends under 
the parental roof in the joyous season of Christmas, or merely 
seeing them and then returning, which is perhaps equally pain- 
ful." 

3rd. The wearied would have time to become rested and the 
debilitated to recruit strength sufficient for the summer cam- 
paign. 

4th. The Committee believed that no regulation, which may 
conduce to render College life more pleasant and useful, will 
meet with the disapprobation of the Trustees. 

The petition was granted after some delay. 

The Abortive Delphian Society. 

The unsuccessful attempt to establish the Delphian Society 
deserves special notice. 

The seceders were mainly from the Dialectic, only one mem- 
ber from the Philanthropic Society joining them. The mem- 
orial address by them to the Board of Trustees, asking for 
recognition and the counter memorial state the grounds % of the 
movement. 

The Committee, in strong language, portrayed the bitter sec- 
tional feeling between eastern and western students. The 
members of the Dialectic Society are mainly from the West, 
those of the other from the East. The moment a new student 
arrives at the Hill he is seized by the members of one of the 
two, receives every attention, has every wish gratified, taken 
to the libraries, introduced to other members, is flattered and 
cajoled. If this isn't sufficient to secure him, every little incon- 
sistency or rash act of the other society is pressed upon him. 
He then, during his University course, not only imbibes feel- 
ings of aversion to those in his own society not living in his 
section, but dislike to those of the other society, which are not 
dissipated because from the arrangement of the dormitories 
they can not be dissipated or softened by mutual intercourse. 
These positions are elaborated at length, the argument being 
directed against compulsory joining either society. Protest is 
especially made against the right to eject the Delphians from 



THE ATTEMPTED DELPHIAN SOCIETY. 447 

the College building on the grounds that the Trustees have as- 
signed the rooms to the members of the old societies. The 
Committee ask a fair division of rooms, it being gently hinted 
that otherwise the Delphians will not be present at the next 
session to make any claims. 

The ties which once bound the Delphians to the other so- 
cieties, it was alleged, are dissolved now and forever. They 
have formed a body for mutual improvement in oratory and 
science, for advantages impossible to be secured in bodies con- 
taining as many members as the Dialectic and Philanthropic 
Societies. It is believed that, "the Trustees will hardly con- 
descend to throw aside the dignity of their office for the purpose 
of taking sides in puerile associations for literary improvement. 
There are but few, if any, of the members of the old socitfes, 
who do not find, the duties arduous and fatiguing. From the 
increase of numbers these duties have become a burden rather 
than a pleasure. For advantageous improvement fifty are suffi- 
cient for any literary body." 

The Delphians seek recognition by the Trustees. They be- 
lieve they will eventually equal in usefulness to the University 
the other two societies. The ill-feeling heretofore existins?" be- 
ing divided among three bodies will be less harsh and per- 
manent. They ask for one-third of the rooms, agreeing to have 
the same responsibility for damages as had been promised by 
the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies, with the understand- 
ing that rooms not occupied by Delphians may be used by mem- 
bers of the other societies, they becoming responsible for dam- 
ages. 

The memorial is dated November 29th, 1838, and is signed 
by Thomas D. Meares of Wilmington, a fair student ; John A. 
Maultsby of Columbus, one of the best in his class ; and Wm. 
H. Dudley of Wilmington, not fond of his books, a son of Gov- 
ernor E. B. Dudley. All were influential. 

A committee of the Dialectic Society, all strong men. W. H. 
Henderson of Kentucky, Isham W. Garrott of Wake County, 
and John Worthy Cameron of Richmond Count}', wrote to 
Secretary Manly, stating that "for private reasons several in- 
dividuals had lately withdrawn and wholly separated themselves 



448 THE UNIVERSITY "OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

from the body, that by the 9th chapter of the last revised code 
of laws the rooms of College therein appropriated respectively 
to the two Societies belong exclusively to themselves." The 
Society desires to know whether this will be adhered to, and if 
not, whether its guaranty against dilapidation does not cease. 

The Society acted with singular moderation and good tem- 
per. Reciting in a preamble that false reports were in circula- 
tion that unfairness and injustice had been done the seceders, 
knowing that in differences of this nature a spirit of concilia- 
tion must first come from the majority, it was "Resolved, that 
if it meets with the wish of the dissenters, our differences be 
laid before a committee consisting of the following gentlemen : 
Governor Dudley, Governor Swain, Judge Cameron, Judge 
Ruffin, Charles Manly, Esq., and the Rev. Wm. McPheeters, 
for their examination and adjustment, and we agree to abide by 
their decision." 

A committee, namely J. N. Barksdale, J. W. Cameron and I. 
W. Garrott, notified the Executive Committee of this action. 
They stated "that the only ostensible reason for the withdraw- 
ing is the existence of certain laws, which have been adopted 
in our constitution and executed for many years, requiring a 
regular attendance at prayers and recitations, and others regu- 
lating the moral deportment of our members, which were coeval 
with the very foundation of the Society. If any other causes 
exist they were not made known at the time of the withdrawal." 
They add that the Society authorize them to promise that if 
any one wishes to return, neither his withdrawal nor his ob- 
stinacy in rejecting the measures of reconciliation, shall be an 
obstacle to his readmission. 

It appears that after this communication, a letter was received 
from Secretary Manly, kind in tone, but suggesting that some 
of the laws were too stringent, if not tyrannical. This was laid 
before the Society and an answer adopted, which was reported 
by a new committee, Wm. F. Brown, I. W. Garrott and W. H. 
Henderson. 

It is asserted that the laws requiring attention to University 
duties and regulating morals have met, so far as was known, 
with the approval of the older members, and especially of Sec- 



PROTEST OF DIALECTIC SOCIETY. 449 

retary Manly, as was expressed in his address at the preceding 
Commencement. Efforts have been yearly made to repeal these 
laws by obtaining the votes of the new members, but in vain. 

Some of the present Freshmen who voted for repeal are now 
advocates of the laws. "If the Society's retaining in its code 
laws, which tend to make its members regular in their attend- 
ance on prayers and recitations, and to suppress drunkenness 
and vice, be considered tyrannical and oppressive, then the 
members of the Dialectic Society confess themselves guilty of 
this charge, but that the majority ever exercised any tyranny 
or oppression over the minority, the committee do most posi- 
tively deny." Only about one-half of the minority seceded, 
the others are staunch members of the Society. Does not this 
show that the charge is imaginary. It is obvious that it is to 
the interest of the Society that the seceders should return, and 
the committee pledge themselves that the return of all, or any, 
"will be hailed with joy." Efforts have already been made to 
this end. The proposition of the Society to refer all the ques- 
tions at issue to arbitrators was returned without answer by the 
Delphians, because it was addressed to "The Dissenters," in- 
stead of the Delphian Society. Another objection was that one 
member had seceded from the Philanthropic Society and could 
not be called a dissenter from the Dialectic. A request that 
the ex-Dialectics should consider the proposal separately was 
refused. 

The committee profess the highest regard for Secretary 
Manly and request him to lay their letter before the Trustees. 
"Let the whole matter be probed to the bottom, and the 
escutcheon of the Dialectic Society will be found as bright and 
untarnished as when our predecessors had it in their keeping." 

In December, 1838, the letters from the Dialectic Society and 
" a committee of students styling themselves the Delphian So- 
ciety," were referred by the Board of Trustees to a committee 
consisting of Messrs. Badger, John H. Bryan, and Secretary 
Manly. In January, 1839, the committee, through Mr. Bryan, 
reported that it was inexpedient to establish a third literary 
society. The Board concurred in the report and referred the 

29 



450 THE UNIVERSITY 0E NORTH CAROLINA. 

matter to the Executive Committee. ( )n the ioth of the same 
month these met and were so much impressed with the gravity 
of the situation that they requested Governor Dudley and 
Messrs. R. M. Saunders, John H. Bryan, and Charles Manly, 
a quorum of the committee, to hold a meeting at Chapel Hill 
"to consider, hear and determine these disputes." This was 
done. The Delphians were reasonable, and after an eloquent 
appeal by Secretary Manly, the society was dissolved. 

There is an old saying in substance that the real controlling 
motive for human action is not that which is publicly given. 
This is probably true as to the reasons given for the attempted 
formation of the Delphian Society. About four years ago an 
eminent physician of St. Louis, Missouri, Dr. Wm. Marcellus 
McPheeters, son of Rev. Dr. Wm. McPheeters, revisited his 
alma mater, which he left about fifty years before. On his au- 
thority, and that of Hon. S. F. Phillips, I give the chief causes 
of the secession movement. Thomas Davis Meares of Wil- 
mington was a dominant force in the Dialectic Society. He had 
a ready, forcible and often eloquent style of speaking. He was 
a prime favorite of his set, mostly city-bred and leaders in balls 
and social entertainments. While he was of an open, manly 
nature and manners, and personally entirely free from snob- 
bishness, many of the members thought that his associates 
formed themselves into a species of caste, claiming social 
superiority. McPheeters, the son of a Presbyterian minister, 
the principal of a school for boys of wide reputation, the 
Raleigh Academy, came to the University city-bred and well 
taught. Owing to his father's scruples about dancing and 
similar amusements, he naturally did not become a follower of 
Meares and was persuaded to be his competitor for the office 
of Representative at Commencement. Much to his surprise he 
was elected. The ardent friends of his opponent attributed the 
result to hostility to him as an eastern man, the sectional feeling 
on the subject of inequality of Representation in the General 
Assembly not having died out. They concluded that if so 
popular a man as Meares is beaten they were bound to be in 
a hopeless minority. 



GREEK AND LATIN CHAIRS. 45 1 

I remember being" in the lobby of the State House of Repre- 
sentatives twenty years after this society trouble and being 
struck with the impassioned earnestness with which the same 
Thomas D. Meares, then a Representative from Brunswick, 
accused other sections of being hostile to the lower Cape Fear 
country and especially Wilmington, because they opposed aid 
to a railroad projected for its benefit. There could be no doubt 
of the sincerity of his convictions. He felt strongly and spoke 
strongly and the aid was granted. The eastern and western 
feelings which culminated in the Convention of 1835 caused 
the schism in the Dialectic Society in 1838. In this, as at other 
times, the University was a little world, containing in miniature 
the aspirations and passions of the larger community of which 
it formed a part. 

Separate Chairs of Greek and Latin. 

In August, 1838, the Professorship of Ancient Languages 
was abolished and separate chairs of Greek and Latin were 
established. The professorship of Modern Languages was 
changed into the more modest chair of the French Language. 
Manuel Fetter of New York was chosen to the chair of Greek 
and John DeBerniere Hooper to that of Latin. Charles Marey 
was appointed to teach the French Language, to hear seven 
recitations per week, in addition to giving instructions in Topo- 
graphical drawing. His salary was $750 per annum. At the 
same time the Faculty were required to introduce Civil Engi- 
neering, upon such plan as they deemed advisable and expedi- 
ent. This was not carried into effect, the Executive Committee 
reserving the right to abolish the fore